热带地理 ›› 2016, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (2): 166-173.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002814

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

孔子故里文化景观发展的历史层累及其机制效应

唐顺英1a,周尚意2,刘丰祥1b   

  1. (1.青岛大学 a.旅游学院;b.马克思主义学院,山东 青岛 266071;2.北京师范大学 地理学与遥感科学学院,北京 100875)
  • 出版日期:2016-03-31 发布日期:2016-03-31
  • 作者简介:唐顺英(1977―),女,山东潍坊人,副教授,博士,研究方向为文化地理,(E-mail)tangshunying2010@126.com。
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41301135、41271152)

Historical Stratum Accumulation and Mechanism of Cultural Landscapes in Confucius’ Hometown

TANG Shunying1a,ZHOU Shangyi2,LIU Fengxiang1b   

  1. (1.a.School of Tourism;b.School of Marxism,Qingdao University,Qingdao 266071,China; 2.School of Geography,Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875,China)
  • Online:2016-03-31 Published:2016-03-31

摘要: 曲阜是中国历史文化名城,拥有“孔子故里”“东方圣城”“儒家文化发源地”等多个文化符号。然而,曲阜今日的景观格局是在历史发展过程中逐渐形成的。在这一过程中,为什么有些景观保留了下来,且影响日益扩大,而有的却湮没无闻?其背后的运行机制是什么?这些便是文章要探索的问题。已有关于文化景观的研究对景观的层累特性以及形成原因多有涉及,但较少分析层累过程中景观的筛选问题以及具体的机制效应。采用文献分析法,利用历史文物、历史文献和规划资料,以曲阜为例分析了城市文化景观的历史层累过程及其机制。结论如下:1)国家文化认同需要是造就曲阜文化景观历史层累及演变的主要原因。历史上,国家对儒学正统的不断强化,使曲阜与孔子和儒学有关的景观地位被不断抬高,而其他人文景观则被有意无意地忽略,导致最终消失。2)经济动机是当代曲阜文化景观维护与建设的重要标准。在当代,曲阜人文景观建设以服务旅游经济为目的,儒家文化的物质表征成为招揽游客的招牌和被消费的对象。3)鉴于曲阜在中国传统社会中的特殊地位,其人文景观被贴上了孔子与儒学的标签;但从另一方面看,这也限制了其城市景观多元化发展的可能性。

关键词: 文化景观, 历史层累, 机制, 孔子, 曲阜

Abstract: Qufu is a famous historic city in China, which is known as “Hometown of Confucius”, “Eastern Holy City”, and “Birthplace of Confucian Culture”. The landscape pattern of Qufu is the result of history. Why have some landscapes been reserved and left increasingly significant impact while some others have fallen into oblivion? What is the operating mechanism behind such a phenomenon? This paper will explore answers to these questions on the basis of historical relics, historical documents, and planning information. The following conclusions will be drawn. First, identity to Confucianism by officials was the main cause of stratum accumulation construction of Qufu’s cultural landscapes. In the history, as rulers utilized Confucianism as a governance instrument, the government would create the peak of landscapes construction in Qufu through investment, thus making the landscapes serve the political culture of the country. Therefore, landscapes related Confucius have been constantly strengthened while other cultural landscapes have been ignored intentionally or unintentionally and even disappeared. Second, at present, the government invests in the Qufu’s landscapes for the purpose of showcasing Chinese culture to the outside world and developing tourism. The landscapes of Qufu were labelled as Confucius and Confucianism, which constrain the possibility of other type of landscapes.

Key words: cultural landscapes, historical stratum accumulation, mechanism, Confucius, Qufu