热带地理 ›› 2019, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (1): 37-49.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003100

• 专题:国内外城镇的增长与收缩 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市收缩时代的适应战略和空间重构 ——基于日本网络型紧凑城市规划

栾志理1,栾志贤2   

  1. (1. 聊城大学 环境与规划学院,山东 聊城 252000;2. 国立木浦大学 社会科学学院,韩国 木浦 58554)
  • 收稿日期:2018-09-04 修回日期:2018-10-29 出版日期:2019-01-05 发布日期:2019-01-05
  • 作者简介:栾志理(1979—),男,山东招远人,博士研究生,讲师,主要研究方向为城乡空间结构和发展政策,(E-mail)luanzhili@lcu.edu.cn。
  • 基金资助:

    山东省高等学校人文社会科学计划项目——我国城市大气污染时空分布规律及其成因(J18RA196);山东省高校人文社科研究计划——《山东省城镇化、工业化、信息化与农业现代化时空协调发展研究》(J13WF73);聊城大学博士科研启动基金资助项目——聊城通过共公共交通廊道开发概念构建低碳生态城市的可行性方案及分析(318051320)

Adaptation Strategies and Spatial Reorganizations of City Shrinkage Era: Focus on Compact and Network City Planning in Japan

Luan Zhili1 and Luan Zhixian2   

  1. (1. School of Environment and planning, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252000, China; 2. Urban and Regional development, College of Social Science, Mokpo National University, Mokpo 58554, Korea)
  • Received:2018-09-04 Revised:2018-10-29 Online:2019-01-05 Published:2019-01-05

摘要:

通过对日本网络型紧凑城市规划的发展机制、发展政策和代表性案例——富山市和宇都宫市的探讨,归纳总结了日本中央和地方城市政府的收缩城市规划战略政策和空间重构规划方案,借此为陷入收缩境况的中国城市在战略取向和空间重构方面提出有益启示:1)勇于接纳和面对人口减少和城市收缩这一客观事实,积极采取激活城市收缩所带来的机遇的适应性战略,而不是采取促使人口再度增加的应对性战略;2)充分考虑人口减少和老龄化社会并存的城市收缩时代特征,通过城市功能集聚的“据点化”战略和公共交通系统主导的“网络化”战略,构建多中心连接的网络型紧凑城市空间结构;3)根据人口数量变化预测结果,动态地推动城市规模的精明收缩,开展匹配存量规划或减量规划的规模适当化规划。

关键词: 收缩城市, 日本, 网络型紧凑城市, 适应性战略, 空间重构

Abstract:

In the era of population reduction and an ultra-aging society, a country spatial structure transition strategy called “Compact and Network” is presented to cope with the shrinkage of local cities and to build future spatial structures in Japan. Urban shrinkage is a development path that is spreading widely through the world. Recently, this shrinkage phenomenon has also emerged in some cities and regions of China, and will become one of major challenges that China may confront in this new type of urbanization. This indicates many potential problems and deep contradictions resulting from the growth-first mode after the adoption of the reform and open-up policy, and will probably exacerbate the urban shrinkage crisis. This paper therefore analyzes the formation mechanism, development policies, and typical cases of a compact and network city in Japan, and then sums up the planning strategies and compact and network city shaping schemes for shrinking cities in Japan. Based on this, some guiding strategies for China’s shrinking cities are offered in terms of planning strategy orientation, multi-center compact and network city construction, and right-sizing planning. 1) We should accept and face the fact of population decline and urban shrinkage and realize that the appropriate coping strategy for shrinking cities is not to attempt to increase the population again but an adaptation strategy that focuses on activating these opportunities that shrinking cities provide. Shrinking cities should promote urban spatial reorganizations according to the accurate results of demographic analysis and change prediction. Meanwhile, it is necessary to not only promote comprehensive plans of urban policies and facilities construction projects, but also to emphasize mutual collaboration and consideration between cities. 2) In the era of shrinking cities, including issues of population decline and aging, urban development policies should consist of facility location plans aimed at service objects. With full consideration of these features of shrinking cities, a variety of urban functions should be realized in the 5 minute walking zone of urban centers at all levels, railway stations, bus stations, and major road intersections, which are linked by transit networks. Then, shrinking cities can build multi-center ‘“compact and network” city spatial structures successfully through the compact village strategy and transit-oriented network strategy. 3) According to the accurate results of demographic analysis and change prediction, shrinking cities should promote smart shrinkage strategy of urban space and right-sizing planning suitable for inventory planning and reduction planning dynamically. Also, many problems remaining from the period of urban expansion can be solved by the opportunity of ‘urban double repair’ policy, while removing vacant properties to improve the urban space and community life quality through greening strategies.

Key words: shrinking cities, Japan, compact and network cities, adaptation strategies, spatial reorganizations