热带地理 ›› 2019, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (1): 69-80.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003108

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

子女随迁的乡—城流动人口家庭社会融入 ——以浙江金华市区为例

张园林,刘玉亭,陈妙蓉   

  1. (华南理工大学 建筑学院 亚热带建筑科学国家重点实验室,广州 510641)
  • 收稿日期:2018-09-19 修回日期:2018-12-14 出版日期:2019-01-05 发布日期:2019-01-05
  • 通讯作者: 刘玉亭(1975—),男,安徽来安县人,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要从事城乡发展研究与规划方法、城市更新与城市社会空间分异、住房建设与社区发展规划等方面的研究,(E-mail)ytliu@scut.edu.cn。
  • 作者简介:张园林(1991—),女,陕西佳县人,博士研究生,主要从事乡村地理学以及乡村建设与规划方面的研究,(E-mail)zhangyuanlin1959@163.com;
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41771175);亚热带建筑科学国家重点实验室自主研究课题(2017KA02)

Social Integration of Rural-Urban Migrant Families with Migrant Children: A Case Study of Jinhua City, Zhejiang Province

Zhang Yuanlin, Liu Yuting and Chen Miaorong   

  1. (School of Architecture, State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China)
  • Received:2018-09-19 Revised:2018-12-14 Online:2019-01-05 Published:2019-01-05

摘要:

以子女随迁的乡—城流动人口家庭为对象,基于2016年金华市区问卷调研数据,采用主成分分析和多元线性回归分析方法,辅以访谈数据,探讨其社会融入水平及其影响因素。研究发现:此类流动人口家庭的社会融入主要涉及子女教育、经济适应和心理融入3个维度,社会融入度总体处于中等水平,子女教育融入度最高,其次是经济适应,而心理融入度最低,且各维度内部差异较大。子女教育融入度虽高,但也存在难以进入公办学校的困境,缺乏自主选择学校的权利。政策层面虽降低了对流动人口的准入门槛,但在执行中由于资源有限、供需不匹配和宣传不到位等原因,福利制度仍以本地居民为主,流动家庭难以平等享受福利保障,造成严重的本外差异,心理融入度低。个人层面的性别和受教育程度,经济层面的职业和收入,教育层面的学校类型和教育支出等对社会融入均有显著影响。综合来看,与个体流动相比,子女随迁的家庭化迁移对流入地的需求更加多样化和复杂化,能否较好地提升子女受教育水平是其融入城市的首要考量,其次是经济和心理层面因素。

关键词: 随迁子女, 乡—城流动人口家庭, 社会融入, 新型城镇化, 浙江金华

Abstract:

Along with the rapid development of urbanization, the migration mode of floating populations has gradually shifted from “individual migration” to “family migration.” In 2014, the National New-type Urbanization Plan put forward the strategic goal of “promoting people-oriented urbanization” and encouraging the orderly citizenization of rural migrant workers. In this context, the family migration of rural-urban migrants and their social integration after entering a city have attracted considerable attention. Thus, based on data from the floating population survey conducted in Jinhua City in 2016, this paper refers to rural-urban migrant families with migrant children as the research subject and explores their social integration level and influencing factors quantitatively through principal component and multiple linear regression models. First, social integration of rural-urban migrant families with migrant children has three dimensions: children’s education, economic adaptation, and psychological integration. For these families, whether their children can obtain a solid education is the primary consideration for their integration into a city, followed by their economic conditions and psychological levels. Family-based floating population groups have more diversified needs for social integration into inflow cities than populaces characterized by individual mobility. Second, the degree of social integration of families is only at the medium level; thus, the quality of integration needs to be improved. The integration degree in terms of children’s education is the highest, followed by economic adaptation; further, the degree of psychological integration is the lowest, and there are pronounced differences among the dimensions. Jinhua City focuses especially on the education of migrant families’ children. Relevant policies ensure that these children are educated, so their education integration level is relatively high. However, migrant families face difficulties in accessing public schools, as they are not able to choose schools. In terms of the social welfare system-although policy-making has lowered the threshold of access for the floating population-limited resources, a mismatch between supply and demand, inadequate publicity, and other reasons may mean that the welfare system still gives priority to local residents in terms of implementation. It is difficult for migrant families to enjoy equal welfare protection, resulting in serious differences between local and non-local people and a low degree of psychological integration. Third, in terms of influencing factors, female gender and high education levels as personal characteristics, professional skills, personal services, and higher income factors (economic level) have a positive and significant impact on the degree of social integration, reflecting the role of human capital therein. Types of schools and educational expenditures (educational level) also have a significant impact on social integration. Housing conditions and length of residence are not the main factors affecting the social integration of such families. Findings indicate that families still give primary consideration to children’s education, and housing conditions is less important than children’s educational needs.

Key words: migrant children, rural-urban migrant families, social integration, new-type urbanization, Jinhua City, Zhejiang Province