热带地理 ›› 2019, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (5): 749-758.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003162

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

遗产化进程中遗产认同的内涵及形成路径——以世界遗产永顺老司城为例

何银春, 梁越(), 曾斌丹   

  1. 湖南师范大学 旅游学院,长沙 410081
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-02 修回日期:2019-07-09 出版日期:2019-09-10 发布日期:2019-11-08
  • 通讯作者: 梁越 E-mail:liang_yuey@163.com
  • 作者简介:何银春(1984—),女,湖南株洲人,讲师,硕士生导师,博士,主要研究方向为文化遗产及遗产旅游,(E-mail)heyinchun2015@126.com;
  • 基金资助:
    湖南省哲学社会科学基金项目(15YBA258)

The Connotation and Formation Path of Heritage Identity in the Process of Heritagization: A Case Study of the Laosicheng World Heritage, Yongshun

He Yinchun, Liang Yue(), Zeng Bindan   

  1. Tourism College, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081
  • Received:2019-03-02 Revised:2019-07-09 Online:2019-09-10 Published:2019-11-08
  • Contact: Liang Yue E-mail:liang_yuey@163.com

摘要:

为了解析群体间认同差异以及掌握群体认同的转变特性,首先从遗产认同的概念出发,从主客体的视角提出其操作化的定义,并构建了遗产认同的形成路径。随后在此理论框架下,以世界文化遗产永顺老司城为案例地进行理论演绎研究,运用文献资料法、半结构访谈法收集资料,运用话语分析法清洗资料。研究发现:1)老司城遗产认同的客体是遗产化进程中遗产本身被生产、被界定、被再利用以及被破坏等的产物。即中央治理少数民族地区的政治场所,是被认定的各级遗产,是解决居民生计和提高生活幸福感的工具,亦是重要的文化旅游资源。2)老司城遗产认同的主体是遗产化进程中遗产附着群体对遗产的认知、情感、评价和行为等方面。即政府和管理机构工作人员眼中具有独特价值的文化遗产,是带动当地发展的旅游资源;专家学者用以研究土司文化的重要考古点;居民眼中增强族群凝聚力且带来生活改善的历史遗留;游客用以收获新知和感受民族情怀的民族文化遗产。不同群体的遗产认同表现出了非均质性。3)老司城遗产认同客体和主体都具有转变性,这是由在遗产化过程中遗产本身的功能以及遗产附着群体对遗产的不同利用所决定的。因此,根据遗产化进程制定相应的遗产发展战略,引导不同群体形成积极认同,正确展示遗产价值,对遗产保护利用、遗产地治理工作有重要意义。

关键词: 遗产认同, 遗产化, 认同转变, 老司城

Abstract:

To analyze the differences between groups and grasp the transformation characteristics of group identity, an operational definition of heritage identity from the perspective of subjectivity and objectivity, and the theoretical framework of formation path of heritage identity is constructed in this study. Thereafter taking Laoshicheng, Yongshun, a world cultural heritage, as a case study, the paper conducts theoretical deduction research under this framework. Data are collected by literature review and semi-structured interviews, and cleans data by using discourse analysis. The findings of the study are as follows: 1) The objective heritage identity of Laosicheng is the production of a heritage that has been produced, defined, reused, and destroyed during process of inheritance. In other words, Laosicheng represent a political place where the central government governed minority areas. It is a heritage site which is recognized at all levels (local, provincial, national and worldwide) and important cultural tourism resource and a tool for residents’ livehood and well-being. 2) The subjective heritage identity of Laosicheng invloves the recognition, emotion, evaluation and behavior of attachment groups in the process of inheritance. The heritage identity of different groups shows heterogeneity: staff of government and management agency regard Laosicheng as a cultural heritage with unique value and tourism resource that can drive local development; experts and scholars view Laosicheng as an important archaeological site to study the Tusi culture; in the eyes of residents Laosicheng is the historical legacy for enhancing ethnic cohesion and improving life; and tourists seek new knowledge and feelings of nationalist sentiment through visiting this heritage site. 3) The objectivity and subjectivity of Laosicheng’s heritage identity are transformative, which are determined by the function of the heritage itself and the different utilization of attached groups in the process of heritagization. Therefore, it is of great significance for heritage protection, utilization and management to formulate appropriate heritage development strategies, guide different groups to form positive identity and exhibit the value of heritage correctly.

Key words: heritage identity, heritagization, transformative, Laosicheng

中图分类号: 

  • K902