热带地理 ›› 2019, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (5): 732-741.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003172

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

轨道交通沿线土地溢价归公的政策与实践——以东莞市为例

林雄斌1, 余筱琪1a, 陈伟劲2   

  1. 1. 宁波大学 a. 地理与空间信息技术系;b. 东海研究院;c. 陆海国土空间利用与治理中心,浙江 宁波 315211
    2. 广东省城乡规划设计研究院,广州 510290
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-25 修回日期:2019-08-09 出版日期:2019-09-10 发布日期:2019-11-08
  • 作者简介:林雄斌(1988—),男,江西玉山人,讲师,博士,研究方向为交通规划与政策、城市与区域规划研究,(E-mail)xiongbinlin@126.com。
  • 基金资助:
    浙江省自然科学基金青年基金项目(LQ19D010003);北京大学—林肯研究院研究基金(FS01-20190901-LXB);国家级大学生创新创业训练计划项目(201911646097)

Policy and Implementation of Land Value Capture for Financing Rail Transit: A Case Study of Dongguan

Lin Xiongbin1, Yu Xiaoqi1a, Chen Weijin2   

  1. 1. a. Department of Geography and Spatial Information Technology; b. Institute of East China Sea; c. Center for Land and Marine Spatial Utilization and Governance Research, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China
    2. Guangdong Urban & Rural Planning and Design Institute, Guangzhou 510290, China
  • Received:2018-12-25 Revised:2019-08-09 Online:2019-09-10 Published:2019-11-08

摘要:

轨道交通周边土地开发和溢价归公有助于缓解城市财政压力,推动公交都市建设。结合国外实施溢价归公的政策和实践模式,以东莞市为例,在资料收集、政策分析、文本和案例解读的基础上,探讨了中国城市政府在规划和建设轨道交通中,以土地溢价归公反哺轨道交通融资的政策安排和实施效果。结果表明:1)溢价归公的本质是以特定方式实现正外部效应的内部化,由于土地制度和税收体系的差异,欧美地区溢价归公主要依赖多样化的土地税收体系,而中国城市的实践主要借鉴了“轨道+物业”的联合开发模式;2)东莞市溢价归公策略的形成是综合开发规划编制和审批、沿线土地控制和储备、土地发展权转移、土地增值分配等核心环节有效协调的结果;3)东莞轨道交通沿线土地开发能形成可观的财政收益,潜在土地收益占轨道资金总需求的比例超过20%,但在实施过程中仍面临较大困难。东莞市案例能为其他城市轨道交通融资、土地开发和溢价归公的政策体系编制和有效实施提供一定的参考。

关键词: 轨道交通融资, 土地综合开发, 溢价归公, 政策制度创新, 东莞市

Abstract:

Under China’s national transit priority development strategy, generally, local governments have a high level of incentives for developing urban rail transit systems to meet transport demands in high-population density areas. Usually, rail transit systems bring significant positive external benefits; adopting Land Value Capture (LVC) can significantly relieve financial burdens on local governments and promote the implementation of transit metropolis strategy. Developed regions such as Europe and America have actively implemented diversified land tax-oriented LVC programs to finance rail transit systems. Chinese cities mainly focus on land development-oriented LVC programs as a financing tool; however, this financing model’s implementation mechanism and effectiveness on rail transit development face a lack of systematic research. Since 2011, Dongguan, a city in China’s Pearl River Delta, has issued a series of active policies promoting land development around rail transit sites and feeding rail transit financing with land added values. However, implementation methods of the development based LVC in Dongguan and how to legitimately evaluate policy frameworks and implementation processes to reach LVC policy goals remains unclear. These issues are crucial for local governments in China to promote LVC’s potential to finance rail transit. This article attempts to explore these issues and reveal LVC policy framework and effectiveness at financing urban rail transit systems. A case study of the LVC financing tool in Dongguan, China, was conducted using policy analysis methods. This study concludes that 1) the concept of LVC internalizes positive externalities in a specific way. Compared to land-tax-based LVC programs in the United States, LVC practices in China largely follow a rail and property joint development concept. 2) LVC in Dongguan involves a series of relevant institutional arrangements, including transit-oriented development planning, land controls and reserves around transit-served areas, transfer of land development rights, and distribution of land development benefits induced by rail transit investment. 3) Land development around rail stations can generate financial gains, potentially accounting for more than 20% of the rail transit system’s funding demand in Dongguan. LVC policy and implementations still require certain policy innovations to improve economic efficiency and the fair distribution of added land values. This study can provide policy implications for other local governments planning to use LVC as an additional financial source for rail transit investment needs. A better LVC implementation not only relies on coordination between transportation and land-use planning, but also a high-level connection between spatial planning and the urban fiscal system. Establishing a new spatial planning system in China would provide a new opportunity for LVC to fund rail transit systems. In the future, LVC could also be applied to other urban and regional development fields relevant to financing issues.

Key words: rail-transit finance, land development, Land Value Capture, policy interventions, Dongguan

中图分类号: 

  • K902