热带地理 ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (1): 124-135.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003299

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

华南近岸海域水质评价及其影响因素

黄沛桓1(), 王刚2(), 黄子茵1, 管东生1   

  1. 1.中山大学 环境科学与工程学院,广州 510006
    2.广东工业大学 管理学院,广州 510520
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-03 修回日期:2020-07-07 出版日期:2021-01-05 发布日期:2021-02-19
  • 通讯作者: 王刚 E-mail:13619848077@163.com;gdut_tony@163.com
  • 作者简介:黄沛桓(1997—),女,苗族,湖南怀化人,硕士研究生,研究方向为区域环境与生态,(E-mail)13619848077@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    广东省高校省级重大科研项目(2017KQNCX060);广东省自然科学基金项目(2018A030313891)

Evaluation of Coastal Water Quality and Influence Factors Identification in South China

Peihuan Huang1(), Gang Wang2(), Ziyin Huang1, Dongsheng Guan1   

  1. 1.School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China
    2.School of Management, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510520, China
  • Received:2020-04-03 Revised:2020-07-07 Online:2021-01-05 Published:2021-02-19
  • Contact: Gang Wang E-mail:13619848077@163.com;gdut_tony@163.com

摘要:

以华南沿海32个地市为研究对象,首先基于单一要素评价和综合水质指数法对其近岸海域的水环境质量进行分析,再采用典范对应分析和逐步线性回归探究了各类影响因素与水质指标间的相关性。结果表明:2017年华南近岸海域的主要污染要素为无机氮(N)、活性磷酸盐(P)和悬浮物(SS),严重超标现象主要出现在福建厦门、宁德、福州,广西钦州和广东珠海、深圳等地市的近岸海域;N、P和SS污染与海水养殖联系紧密,生活废水的大量排放也是N、P超标的主要原因。2017年华南近岸海域重金属和石油类污染物没有出现大范围的超标现象,但广东沿海的惠州、湛江、江门和汕头等地市近岸海域综合水质受重金属和石油类污染影响较大,这与工业废水排放量直接相关;由于除工业生产以外,近岸海域船舶频繁往来也可能影响近海的铜(Cu)污染水平,重金属Cu与影响因子之间的相关性显著强于镉(Cd)、汞(Hg)和铅(Pb)。此外,综合水质指数与地区生产总值呈正相关,在一定程度上表明经济水平较高的地市,其环境基础设施的建设相对完善,对生活、工业废水的处理效率相对较高。

关键词: 华南近岸海域, 水质评价, 重金属, 典范对应分析, 逐步线性回归

Abstract:

Evaluation of coastal water quality and identification of the main factors affecting water quality were the prerequisites for the targeted implementation of environmental protection measures, which would help to improve the coastal water quality and promote the construction of regional marine ecological civilization. This study area included 32 cities along the coastline of South China. Firstly, coastal water quality was evaluated using the single factor standard and comprehensive evaluation index. Second, canonical correspondence analysis and stepwise linear regression analysis were used to explore the correlations between the various impact factors and the quality indicators of coastal water. The results showed that the quality of coastal water of South China in 2017 was mainly influenced by inorganic nitrogen (N), active phosphate (P), and suspended solids (SS). The N and P contents significantly exceeded the Chinese national standards in Xiamen, Ningde, Fuzhou, Zhuhai, Shenzhen, and Qinzhou, which were mainly located in the coastlines of Fujian, Guangxi, and Guangdong provinces. Correlation analysis showed that N, P, and SS pollution were closely related to marine aquaculture. The high quantity of domestic wastewater discharge should also be accountable for N and P pollution. The contents of heavy metal and petroleum pollutants in the coastal waters in 2017 did not exceed the national standard along the coastline of most cities in South China. However, analysis results of the integrated water quality indices indicated that coastal water quality would be more likely affected by the heavy metals and petroleum in these cities (such as Huizhou, Zhanjiang, Jiangmen, Shantou, Zhuhai, and Yangjiang) in Guangdong province, in comparison with other cities. This can be attributed to the vigorous development of local industrial production in these cities. Industrialization is usually related to industrial wastewater discharge. As a result, industrial wastewater discharge was directly related to heavy metal and petroleum pollution. Furthermore, the correlation analysis results found that the heavy metal copper (Cu) is more likely related to the influencing factors in comparison with other heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb). In addition, frequent water traffic might also affect the pollution level of Cu. At the same time, it was also found that there was a positive correlation between the comprehensive water quality index and the regional gross domestic product. This result partially indicated that environmental infrastructure would be more improvable with economic development, and thus, the treatment efficiency of domestic and industrial wastewater was relatively higher in cities with higher economic levels. As mentioned above, to promote the construction of regional ecological civilization and improve the coastal water quality in South China, these measures can be carried out in these relevant cities and regions along the coastline of South China as follows: (1) The scale and intensity of marine aquaculture should be rationally planned and ecological aquaculture should be recommended; and (2) more attention should be paid to the interception and emission reduction of domestic and industrial wastewater. In particular, the removal efficiency of N and P could be largely improved through technical innovation for existing wastewater treatment facilities. Moreover, the construction of environmental infrastructure should be largely strengthened in these undeveloped cities; and (3) it was also noteworthy that an environmental risk assessment should be carried out before entering the sea for these ships using Cu ion antifouling paint or ships made by Cu-containing metals.

Key words: coastal waters in South China, water quality evaluation, heavy metals, canonical correspondence analysis, stepwise linear regression

中图分类号: 

  • X55