热带地理 ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (2): 243-255.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003331

• 城市地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市舒适物、经济机会、城市规模对中国高学历劳动力空间分布的影响

张艳茹a(), 喻忠磊a,b(), 胡志强a,b, 苗长虹a,b   

  1. a.河南大学 黄河文明与可持续发展研究中心,河南 开封 475001
    b.河南大学 黄河文明省部共建协同创新中心,河南 开封 475001
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-01 修回日期:2020-07-15 出版日期:2021-03-31 发布日期:2021-04-27
  • 通讯作者: 喻忠磊 E-mail:15518938823@163.com;yzlei87@163.com
  • 作者简介:张艳茹(1994—),女,河南洛阳人,硕士,主要研究方向为区域发展与规划,(E-mail)15518938823@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41901206);河南省哲学社会科学规划项目(2020CSH029)

The Influence of Urban Amenities, Economic Opportunities and City Size on the Spatial Distribution of Highly Educated Workers in China

Yanru Zhanga(), Zhonglei Yua,b(), Zhiqiang Hua,b, Changhong Miaoa,b   

  1. a.Key Research Institute of Yellow River Civilization and Sustainable Development, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, China
    b.Collaborative Innovation Center on Yellow River Civilization jointly Built by Henan Province and Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, China
  • Received:2020-05-01 Revised:2020-07-15 Online:2021-03-31 Published:2021-04-27
  • Contact: Zhonglei Yu E-mail:15518938823@163.com;yzlei87@163.com

摘要:

基于中国2010年人口普查资料和社会经济统计等数据,采用空间分析方法探讨中国300个城市高学历劳动力的空间分布特征,并基于负二项回归模型识别其影响因素。研究表明:1)中国城市高学历劳动力规模呈现级差化分异特征,其位序-规模分布符合幂函数特征,在空间上呈现集聚分布和东中西地带性分异的格局;东部沿海地区、辽中南半岛、哈长城市群及内陆省会城市是主要分布地。2)从高学历劳动力占总就业的比例看,北方资源型城市及东部沿海城市群高学历劳动力优势突出,中部和西南地区存在明显“凹陷”;从高学历劳动力和总就业劳动力耦合的结果看,相对占优型和绝对占优型两类城市主要分布在内蒙古和东北的工业城市、京津冀、山东半岛、长三角、珠三角城市群及内地省会城市。3)实证结果表明,高学历劳动力的空间格局受城市舒适物、经济机会及城市规模带来的集聚效应共同影响。从全国层面看,经济机会、城市规模、房价主导高学历劳动力的空间格局,凉爽的夏季气候、优质中学教育资源、游憩及交通资源对其也有重要影响作用。4)在不同规模等级的城市中,高学历劳动力的空间分布均受到经济机会和舒适物的影响,但舒适物因子在各类型城市中发挥的作用差异较大。

关键词: 城市舒适物, 经济机会, 城市规模, 高学历劳动力, 中国

Abstract:

A highly educated workforce is an important driving factor for urban innovation and development. A better understanding of spatial patterns and location determinants of highly educated workers is valuable for designing policies to attract them. The existing literature has investigated the impacts of economic variables and urban amenities on the patterns of highly educated workers. However, the relationship between urban amenities and highly educated workers needs to be investigated further. Moreover, few studies have examined the impact of urban size on the agglomeration of highly educated workers. Thus, this study employed a spatial analysis method to examine the pattern of highly educated workers across 300 cities in China, based on 2010 census data. We used a negative binomial regression model to identify the determinants of highly educated workers' locations. The results are numerous. First, the size of highly educated workers varied greatly among cities of different ranks, and its rank-size distribution was consistent with power function characteristics. It was characterized by spatial convergence and zonal differentiation from East to West. Highly educated workers were distributed mostly across the eastern coastal area, the central-southern area of Liaoning peninsula, the Harbin-Changchun urban agglomeration, and in inland provincial capitals. Second, the share of highly educated workers in total employment in the resource-dependent cities of north China and eastern coastal urban agglomeration was significantly higher, while it was obviously low in central and southwest China. Comparing the rank-size distribution characteristics of highly educated workers along with their total employment, the cities with rich attractions for highly educated workers were mainly located in Inner Mongolia, Northeast China, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area, the Shandong Peninsula, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, and inland provincial capitals. Third, the estimated results show that the spatial pattern of highly educated workers was affected by urban amenities, economic opportunities, and the agglomeration effect. At the national level, economic opportunities, city size, and housing prices dominated the spatial pattern of highly educated workers, while the cool summer climate, high quality education resources, and recreation and transportation resources also played important roles. Fourth, the distribution of highly educated labors was affected by both economic opportunities and amenities, but the role of amenities was quite different in different size-ranked cities. The main amenity factors for the disparities of highly educated workers in large cities were found to be those of temperature in January and July, high-quality early childhood education resources, recreation resources, and traffic conditions. For the medium-sized cities, the dominant amenities included high-quality primary and secondary education resources and cultural and artistic services. Regarding the disparities of highly educated workers among small cities, the main contributing amenity factors were high-quality preschool and middle-school education resources, high-quality medical resources, recreation resources, and air quality. This study supports previous opinion that the amenities contribute to attracting talent. It also reveals the role of the agglomeration effect in the spatial distribution of the highly educated labors, which enriches our understanding for the location choice of highly educated workers in economic geography. This study enlightens us in the sense that the policies to attract talent should not only take labor market into account but also work to improve the amenities that such people work in.

Key words: urban amenities, economic opportunities, city size, highly educated labor, China

中图分类号: 

  • G322.21