热带地理 ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (5): 1023-1033.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003388

• 行为地理 • 上一篇    

城市空间认知-偏好-行为的耦合与互馈研究

马雨竹1,3,4(), 宋伟轩1,2,3(), 李晓丽1,3,5   

  1. 1.中国科学院 南京地理与湖泊研究所,南京 210008
    2.中国科学院流域地理学重点实验室,南京 210008
    3.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    4.南通市崇川区唐闸镇街道办事处,江苏 南通 226001
    5.江苏省城乡发展研究中心,南京 210036
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-06 修回日期:2021-08-13 出版日期:2021-09-22 发布日期:2021-09-22
  • 通讯作者: 宋伟轩 E-mail:502153445@qq.com;wxsong@niglas.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:马雨竹(1995—),女,江苏南通人,硕士,研究方向为城市社会地理,(E-mail)502153445@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金面上项目(41771184)

Coupling and Mutual Feedback of Urban Spatial Cognition-Preference-Behavior Based on the Follow-up Survey of Graduate Students from the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences

Yuzhu Ma1,3,4(), Weixuan Song1,2,3(), Xiaoli Li1,3,5   

  1. 1.Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
    2.Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
    3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    4.Tangzha Town Subdistrict Office of Nantong Chongchuan District, Nantong 226001
    5.Urban & Rural Development Research Center of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210093, China
  • Received:2020-07-06 Revised:2021-08-13 Online:2021-09-22 Published:2021-09-22
  • Contact: Weixuan Song E-mail:502153445@qq.com;wxsong@niglas.ac.cn

摘要:

基于行为地理学“空间认知-空间偏好-空间行为”的经典研究范式,以中国科学院大学研究生为调查对象,采用手绘意象地图和问卷调查相结合的方式,在一年时间内分三轮开展跟踪调查,通过观察被访者在北京逗留期间的城市空间认知、偏好和行为过程与特征,分析空间认知-偏好-行为三者间的相互作用关系与影响机制。研究发现:城市空间认知、空间偏好与空间行为存在一定耦合性,亦表现出明显的差异性,三者间不是单向因果而是相互影响的互馈关系;除认知主体的社会、文化等群体属性、经验和情感等个体差异以外,与客体的接触时间、空间距离和接触频率等时空制约因素均能影响主体的城市空间认知水平与发展过程。最后,根据空间认知、偏好、行为的相互作用关系和影响制约因素,凝练出一般化的城市空间认知-偏好-行为互馈关联模型。

关键词: 意象地图, 空间认知, 空间偏好, 空间行为, 跟踪调查, 城市空间

Abstract:

Based on the classical research paradigm of "spatial cognition-spatial preference-spatial behavior" in behavioral geography, a group of postgraduate students from University of Chinese Academy of Sciences was selected as a survey object. These postgraduates had similar social attributes, life experiences, subject background, and were not very familiar with the city. In addition, they lived in the school dormitory of UCAS, which is in the rural outskirts of Beijing. This survey used a combined method of hand-painted image maps and questionnaires, which was administered three times a year. The tracking investigation was conducted to observe the processes and characteristics of urban spatial cognition, spatial preference, and spatial behavior of the interviewed group during their stay in Beijing, and to analyze the interaction and influence mechanism of this process. The study finds that there is a certain coupling among urban spatial cognition, spatial preference, and spatial behavior, showing obvious differences. The three do not reflect a one-way causality, but have a mutually influential relationship. The group attributes of cognitive subjects (such as social relationship and cultural cognition), individual differences (such as experience and emotion), and the temporal and spatial constraints (such as contact time, spatial distance, and contact frequency with the object), affect the subjects' level and development process of urban spatial cognition. In addition, in the survey of these postgraduate students, some phenomena worthy of greater attention have been identified: First, the overall cognitive level of the students is not very high, and has not significantly improved within one year. We know this because less than half of these students draw "developmental" cognitive maps in the three rounds of surveys. Second, due to the special social and cultural background of the interviewed group, the preference for cultural places is high, but the proportion of real action converted from preference is lower. Lastly, the hotspots of behavior are concentrated in the northern part of the city. The distribution of spatial agglomerations is presented, with commercial centers and transportation hubs as the core; however, the the area south of Chang'an Avenue is less involved. Accordingly, we conclude that distance limits the space perception and travel intention of postgraduates of UCAS in Beijing. It also reduces the opportunities for students to make full use of Beijing's rich public resources, such as science, education, cultural, and art venues, and to enhance their experience and ability. They even create a bad impression of the city. As an exploratory study, this paper strives to analyze the interaction process among spatial cognition, spatial preference, and spatial behavior and its influencing factors through the survey of a proper social group. In the end, a generalized feeding association model of urban spatial cognition-preference-behavior is condensed.

Key words: image maps, spatial cognition, spatial preference, spatial behavior, tracking survey, urban space

中图分类号: 

  • TU984.113