热带地理 ›› 2020, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (5): 821-831.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003265

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

珠三角流动人口的代际就业结构分异及影响因素——基于六城市的调查分析

张晓菲1(), 张国俊2, 周春山1()   

  1. 1.中山大学 地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275
    2.广东财经大学 公共管理学院,广州 510320
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-28 修回日期:2020-05-13 出版日期:2020-09-28 发布日期:2020-10-10
  • 通讯作者: 周春山 E-mail:zhangxf73@mail2.sysu.edu.cn;zhoucs@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:张晓菲(1996―),女,湖北恩施人,硕士研究生,主要研究方向为城市地理学,(E-mail)zhangxf73@mail2.sysu.edu.cn;
  • 基金资助:
    中国高校产学研创新基金“新一代信息技术创新项目”(2018A02044);国家社会科学基金项目(17BRK010)

Generational Differences in Employment Structure and Its Determinants of the Floating Population of the Pearl River Delta: Based on a Survey of Six Cities

Xiaofei Zhang1(), Guojun Zhang2, Chunshan Zhou1()   

  1. 1.School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2.School of Public Administration, Guangdong University of Finance and Economics, Guangzhou 510320, China
  • Received:2019-12-28 Revised:2020-05-13 Online:2020-09-28 Published:2020-10-10
  • Contact: Chunshan Zhou E-mail:zhangxf73@mail2.sysu.edu.cn;zhoucs@mail.sysu.edu.cn

摘要:

基于珠三角六城市流动人口的问卷调查数据,划分流动人口就业类型,从职业布局和多样化指数的角度比较了新生代、中生代和老一代三代流动人口职业结构差异,利用无序多分类Logistic模型对影响因素进行探究。研究发现:1)珠三角流动人口整体就业水平不高,就业结构在代际间分异明显。新生代在技术型就业和公司文员型就业上表现出优势,中生代在各行业就业相对均衡,老一代多被束缚在以体力劳动为主的基础型部门;就业多样化水平随代际的升高而下降。2)代际就业结构的影响因素及影响方式存在共性和差异,共性因子为受教育程度、月薪水平和性别;外出务工时间正向影响新生代服务型和管理型就业,工作环境稳定的职业对已婚新生代更具吸引力,中生代对户籍和工作保障因子更为敏感。政府可从代际就业特征出发,为流动人口制定有针对性的就业政策;针对就业市场中女性和农村户籍人口的弱势地位,为其提供就业引导,创造健康的就业环境,提高流动人口整体就业水平。

关键词: 职业结构, 流动人口, 代际, 珠三角

Abstract:

Based on a questionnaire survey data of the floating population in six cities in the Pearl River Delta, this paper dynamically divides the generations of the floating population according to the socio-economic background of the birth and growth. The new generation, born after 1988, grew up in the process of following their parents out to work away from their hometown, and was significantly affected by the digital information age. The middle generation, born from 1978 to 1988, is the older group of the new generation, and its demographic characteristics and growth era have transitional properties. The older generation was born before 1978, in consistent with the range of the first generation of migrants. The three generations are compared from the perspective of occupational structure and diversity. The disorderly multi-class Logistic model is used to explore the influencing factors of the occupational system. Based on the results, we establish the following: 1) The overall employment level of the floating population in the Pearl River Delta is not high. Here, as the generation shifts downward, employment becomes more diversified. 2) There are significant differences in the characteristics of the three generations of the floating population. From the old generation to the new generation, the sex ratio tends to be balanced, and the proportion of single floating population increases, in addition, working experience is reduced while education level is improved. The degree of job security and monthly salary show an "inverted U-shaped" intergenerational distribution. 3) The overall floating population is concentrated in services and manufacturing, and low-end service, production, construction employment are the most common employment options. The new generation has advantages in technical jobs and corporate clerical profession. The middle generation employment in different industries is relatively balanced, and managerial employment is relatively high. The older generation is mostly confined to the basic sector dominated by manual labor. 4) There are similarities and differences in the influencing factors of the intergenerational occupational structure. The common factors are education, monthly salary, and gender. The time spent working away from hometown has a positive impact on the service-oriented and management-oriented employment of the new generation. Occupations with a stable working environment are more attractive to the married new generation, and the middle generation is more sensitive to household registration and job security factors. 5) To improve the employment status of the floating population, this paper discusses the population employment policy: On one hand, facing different intergenerational employment characteristics, the new, middle, and old generations are supplemented with guiding, encouraging, and supportive employment policies. On the other hand, focusing on influencing factors, the government should continue to promote the reform of the household registration system, support the development of education, and guide women's employment and self-employment. 6) The article made a new attempt to classify the original intergenerational classification, which improved the timeliness of the intergenerational division of the floating population. But the study is limited to a specific time section. In the future, previous employment experience and future employment desire of the floating population can be taken into consideration to enhance the continuity and pertinence of intergenerational employment research.

Key words: occupational structure, floating population, intergenerational, the Pearl River Delta

中图分类号: 

  • C922