热带地理

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中国流动人口多阶段流动的空间格局及变动特征

林洁1,2,3(), 柯文前1,2,4(), 林李月1,2,4, 朱宇1,2,4, 肖宝玉1,2   

  1. 1.福建师范大学 地理研究所, 福州 350007
    2.湿润亚热带生态地理过程教育部重点实验室(福建师范大学), 福州 350007
    3.福建师范大学 地理科学学院, 福州 350007
    4.上海大学亚洲人口研究中心, 上海 200444
  • 收稿日期:2021-04-23 修回日期:2021-10-20 出版日期:2022-03-24
  • 通讯作者: 柯文前 E-mail:jielin97@126.com;wqke2005@163.com
  • 作者简介:林洁(1997―),女,福建三明人,硕士研究生,研究方向为人口与城乡发展,(E-mail)jielin97@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41971180);福建省科技厅省属公益类科研专项(2019R1002-1)

Spatial Pattern and Evolution of Multi-Stage Migration in China:A Comparative Study Based on the First-Time and Current-Time Migration

Jie Lin1,2,3(), Wenqian Ke1,2,4(), Liyue Lin1,2,4, Yu Zhu1,2,4, Baoyu Xiao1,2   

  1. 1.Institute of Geography, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, China
    2.Key Laboratory for Humid Subtropical Eco-geographical Processes of the Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, China
    3.Institute of Geography, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, China
    4.Asian Demographic Research Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
  • Received:2021-04-23 Revised:2021-10-20 Online:2022-03-24
  • Contact: Wenqian Ke E-mail:jielin97@126.com;wqke2005@163.com

摘要:

基于2017年全国流动人口动态监测数据,运用描述统计和社区发现等方法,研究流动人口在初次流动和当前流动的空间格局及其变动特征。结果发现:1)从区域差异看,流动人口初次流动和当前流动的流出地格局保持相对稳定,流入地格局的变化主要体现在:在当前流动阶段,流入中部地区的比例下降而西部地区比例上升;流入特大城市的比例明显下降而I型大城市、中等城市和I型小城市的比例上升;流向直辖市和计划单列市的比例上升而流向副省级和省会城市的比例下降。2)从行政地级市间净迁移格局看,流动人口初次和当前流动的净迁移格局稳定性强,净迁入地区以“块状”分布于东部沿海省份的发达地市和“点状”分布于中西部省会及部分资源型和口岸型地市,净迁出地区连片分布在中西部地区的大多数地市与沿海省份的内陆地市。3)流动人口初次和当前流动以就近迁移与远程迁移交织的流迁模式为主,且由此刻画的行政地级市间迁移网络格局呈现以“胡焕庸线”为界的“东密西疏”现象;但也出现在当前流动阶段迁往京津冀的迁移流规模降低,长三角取代珠三角成为流入地首选区域的特征。4)流动人口生计策略的稳定性与人口迁移流动的空间惯性,是流动人口初次和当前流动空间格局表现出相似性的主要原因,而产业结构转型升级及在不同地市间的梯度转移是促使流动人口在流入地选择上发生变化的重要力量。

关键词: 多阶段流动, 初次流动, 当前流动, 流动人口, 空间格局, 生计策略, 中国

Abstract:

Extant studies examining the process of population migration in China are mostly based on the two front and back nodes of first-time migration and the final settlement (or return). However, less attention has been paid to the subsequent flow of the population and the overall flow process of multi-stage migration, which has caused problems. There are significant gaps in the understanding of the multi-stage process of population migration and flow in China, which also affect the expansion and deepening of the spatial pattern and law of population migration. Considering the above, this article is supported by the 2017 China Mobile Population Dynamic Monitoring Survey data; it used descriptive statistics and community discovery methods comprehensively to analyze the first-time migration of the floating population and the current-time migration between cities of different regions and scales and levels, as well as spaces between different cities. Thus, a comparative study on the spatial differentiation characteristics revealed the inherent laws of similarities and differences. The results show that (1) regarding regional differences, the pattern of outflows remains relatively stable in the two phases of mobility, while the changes in the pattern of inflows are mainly reflected in the decrease in the proportion of inflows to the central region and the increase in the proportion of inflows to the western region in the current-time migration. The proportion of inflows to megacities decreases significantly, while the proportion of inflows to Type I megacities, medium-sized cities, and Type I small cities increases; furthermore, the proportion of inflows to municipalities directly under the central government and municipalities with separate plans increases, and the proportion of people moving to sub-provincial and provincial capitals decreases. (2) The net migration pattern between cities and municipalities is stable, with net in-migration distributed in "blocks" in developed cities in the eastern coastal provinces and in "dots" in central and western provincial capitals and some resource-based and port cities, while net out-migration is distributed in blocks. Net in-migration is distributed in blocks in most cities in the central and western regions and inland cities in the coastal provinces, whereas net out-migration is distributed in blocks in most cities in the central and western regions. (3) The two stages of migration are dominated by the intertwined patterns of migration in the vicinity and long-distance migration, and the pattern of migration networks between cities and regions is thus characterized by the phenomenon of "dense east and sparse west," with the Hu Line being the boundary. However, there is also a decrease in the size of migration to Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei at the current-time migration stage of mobility, with the Yangtze River Delta replacing the Pearl River Delta as the preferred inflow region. (4) The livelihood strategies and spatial inertia of the mobile population are the main reasons for their similar spatial patterns in the first-time and current-time migration stages of mobility. The transformation and upgrading of the industrial structure and the gradient transfer between regions are important forces that lead to changes in the destination choices of the floating population. The main contribution of this study is an innovative comparative analysis and a description of the spatial pattern of the first-time and current-time migration of the floating population. Furthermore, it provides a feasible observation perspective for the cognition of the spatial characteristics and evolution rules of the multi-stage flows of the floating population.

Key words: multi-stage migration, first-time migration, current-time migration, floating population, spatial pattern, livelihood strategy, China

中图分类号: 

  • C922