Tropical Geography ›› 2023, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (1): 43-58.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003617

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Mangrove Forest Change in Haikou Dongzhaigang Nature Reserve and Its Association with Surrounding Communities

Xiaohong Gu(), Penghua Qiu(), Wei Chen, Wenqian Zhou, Xiaojuan Chen, Shili Yang   

  1. College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158, China
  • Received:2022-09-29 Revised:2023-01-06 Online:2023-01-05 Published:2023-02-03
  • Contact: Penghua Qiu;


Human activities such as deforestation, farming, and uncontrolled construction have had a negative impact on mangrove areas in the Reserve. This paper explores how the mangrove area and space have changed since the establishment of the Dongzhaigang Mangrove Nature Reserve, as well as the relationship between this change and the community residents around the Reserve. Six remote sensing images, from 1976 to 2021, were used to obtain wetland data of different ages in the Dongzhaigang Mangrove Forest Nature Reserve in Haikou City. Using the transfer matrix, a questionnaire survey, and principal component analysis, we analyzed the changes in mangrove forests in protected areas and their relationship with surrounding communities over the past 45 years. The results show that: (1) From 1976 to 2021, the area of mangroves in the reserve has increased from 1,395.84 hm2 in 1976 to 1,589.28 hm2 in 2021, showing a trend of "suddenly slowing and rising" during this period, and the proportion of mangrove area has increased from 28.6% in 1976 to 32.6% in 2021, becoming the main wetland type. The largest decline (250 hm2) in the mangrove area was from 1976 to 1985. The largest growth occurred from 2005 to 2018, when the mangrove area increased by 190.08 hm2. (2) From 1976 to 2021, 91.77 hm2 of mangrove wetlands in the study area were converted into other wetlands, 10.71 hm2 were converted into non-wetlands, and 267.71 hm2 of other wetlands and 28.21 hm2 of non-wetlands were converted into mangrove wetlands. In the same period, the transfer targets of mangrove forests in the reserve were muddy beaches (34.32 hm2), rivers (25.81 hm2), marine aquaculture farms (21.06 hm2), other land (10.58 hm2) and flooded wetlands/interiors. Land flats (8.26 hm2); silt beaches (177.41 hm2), rivers (38.18 hm2), other land (28.21 hm2), deltas/sands/sand islands (22.15 hm2), flooding Wetlands/inland tidal flats (21.79 hm2), and paddy fields (6.34 hm2) are the most common areas transferred into mangroves. (3) Fishing income from surrounding community-dwelling individuals was significantly associated with farming, disfiguring forest-digging pond areas, conservation awareness, and mangrove area variation. The factor quality of fishing practices (cos2), values of fishing practices and income, months of fishing, fishing volume, and conservation attitude in the surrounding community residents accounted for more than 0.6 in the principal component analysis of area change of mangrove forests, where the factor quality of fishing practices and fishing income were more than 0.8. The decline in residential fishing frequency corresponds with the shift in household income sources, the occupational move from fishing to wage and service industries, the obvious increase in conservation awareness and the conservation attitude of residents, and the transformation of the mangrove area away from serious destruction to less fragmentation. The contributions of freshwater farms, resident population, number of secondary schools, and village to mangrove distance factors were all greater than 10 and negatively correlated with mangrove area change. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the relationship between mangroves and community residents to obtain a scientific reference for the utilization, protection, restoration, and management of mangroves in the Dongzhaigang Mangrove Nature Reserve.

Key words: mangrove nature reserve, community residents, association analysis, Dongzhai Port, Haikou

CLC Number: 

  • Q948