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    Spatial-Temporal Evolution Characteristics and Its Driving Mechanism of Urban-Rural Inversion of Population Aging in China
    Wei Zhang, Chunrong Pu, Fang Li, Zilin Fan
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (5): 928-942.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003379
    Abstract1530)   HTML41)    PDF (2355KB)(227)      

    The world's population is growing older, with people over the age of 65 being the fastest-growing age group. In China, population aging significantly affects the building of a moderately prosperous society, while the emergence of the urban-rural inversion phenomenon for population aging increases the difficulty of this challenge. To provide further scientific evidence for the optimal allocation of elderly care resources and the welfare improvement of the elderly population, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics and driving mechanism of the urban-rural inversion phenomenon for population aging in China at the provincial scale. To this end, it used GIS spatial clustering and multiple stepwise regression models. The results indicated that first, along with the continuous increase in population aging, the urban-rural inversion phenomenon for population aging is becoming evident in China. Before 2000, the aging rate of the urban population was higher than that of the rural population in China. In 2018, the percentages of people over the age of 65 in the total population for urban and rural areas were 10.65% and 13.84%, respectively. Hence, the urban-rural inversion phenomenon for population aging is indeed very obvious. Second, generally speaking, the spatial concentration intensity of the urban-rural inversion phenomenon for population aging presented a "low-high-low" inverted U-shaped variation tendency from 1995 to 2018. The urban-rural inversion phenomenon first appeared in the eastern coastal area. It then gradually expanded to the central and western regions, and eventually evolved into a universal phenomenon nationwide. Additionally, this phenomenon has an obvious characteristic of regional differentiation. The level of urban-rural inversion is high in the eastern coastal area, while it is relatively low in the northeast region. The eastern coastal area is the most economically developed region in China, and it can provide more jobs with higher income to laborers than other regions. Consequently, a large number of young laborers from other regions flocked to cities in the eastern coastal areas to find a better job, which greatly reduced the aging rates of these cities and triggered the urban-rural inversion phenomenon for population aging. In contrast, the economic development of Northeast China has been relatively slow since 2000. It is difficult for the cities of Northeast China to attract immigrants and retain the local young population, which leads to a continuous increase in the aging rate of its urban population. Third, there is a complex, multi-dimensional, and non-linear interaction mechanism behind the urban-rural inversion phenomenon for population aging in China. Population and economic factors are the major driving factors of this phenomenon. The imbalance of social and economic development has formed a geographical difference between regions as well as between urban and rural areas, triggered mass migration movements, affected the demographic structure of urban and rural areas, and led to the urban-rural inversion phenomenon for population aging in China. For western provinces with underdeveloped economies, severe population outflows, and higher levels of rural aging, the phenomenon of "old and poor" in rural areas has become a serious challenge for the successful implementation of rural revitalization and targeted poverty reduction strategies. Further, it has become the key step for building a society that is moderately well-off, with regard to all aspects, in China.

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    Spatial Pattern of Population Flow in China's Typical Outflow Areas: A Case Study of the Sichuan-Chongqing Area
    Cong Li, Huiming Zong, Lei Xiao
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (3): 516-527.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003354
    Abstract947)   HTML17)    PDF (4681KB)(92)      

    Population flow is an important component of regional spatial network, but there are few empirical studies on its quantity and spatial pattern in outflow areas in extant literature. The development of the population flow pattern since 2010 has important theoretical contributions to the understanding of the population flow pattern and mechanism in modern China. Based on the Migrants Dynamic Survey of China's floating population by the National Health Commission, PRC, in 2017, this study systematically analyzed the spatial pattern and mobile network of the floating population in Sichuan-Chongqing, one of the most important outflow areas in China. The study found that the scale of the interregional outflow in this area is still large in terms of floating population. However, there has been a certain degree of population backflow since 2010 and the floating population has begun to surpass interregional mobility, which shows that Sichuan-Chongqing is increasingly attracting population. In terms of the spatial distribution pattern of floating population, the outflow to other provinces is mainly from the county units in the northeastern part of Sichuan-Chongqing and the inflow is mainly from the neighboring provinces of Sichuan-Chongqing. Further, the outflow to urban agglomerations is mainly toward the eastern coastal regions and the neighboring provinces in southwest China, whereas the inflow is toward the urban areas of Chengdu and Chongqing. Overall, the population flow here is mainly toward the urban center in both Chengdu and Chongqing. The areas that attract the utmost population flow are as follows, in order: the urban area of Chongqing; the urban area of Chengdu, which is a center for Sichuan; and the urban areas of Panzhihua and Yibin. The distribution of the population flow is highly concentrated in the central region of Sichuan-Chongqing, which shows a spatial pattern of "core-periphery." Short-distance population flow dominates the mobility network in this region. Further, the core of Chongqing urban area is closely connected with not only most districts and counties in the city but also Guang'an City and Nanchong City, Sichuan Province, whereas the core of Chengdu urban area is closely connected with the Chengdu Plain Economic Zone. Cities located along the border of Sichuan and Chongqing, such as Zigong, Yibin, Ziyang, Neijiang, and Dazhou, are greatly influenced by the cores of both Chengdu and Chongqing, and the population flow network is comparatively complex. The population flow between the two cores is weak. This shows that the administrative boundary between Chongqing and Sichuan has a significant influence on the population flow in this area.

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    Theoretical Analysis of a Community with Shared Future for Mankind and Its Applications in Anti-COVID-19 Practice
    Dongping Long, Zaiqi Chen, Ming'en Xu, Danhong Liu
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (4): 694-707.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003366
    Abstract746)   HTML77)    PDF (1811KB)(200)      

    China is the advocator and builder of the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind. The international dissemination of its discourse requires more solid theoretical supporting research. Hence, the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind is China's intelligent contribution to the world and has been instrumental in solving major regional and global problems. Consequently, the Chinese academic community has the responsibility and obligation to convey the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind to the world in an understandable, objective, and authentic discourse. Further, it is responsible for continuously enhancing the scientific aspect and feasibility of the thought through academic achievements and excellence, thus establishing a leading research system. Currently, COVID-19 jeopardizes global public health security, including in political, economic, and social arenas. However, countries across the world are already in a state of close ties and destiny. Amid global public security incidents, the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind is connected by common interests, values, and responsibilities. Through the value resonance of its theoretical connotation, contacts and cooperation between countries are promptly promoted to form a close community of interests, health, destiny, and responsibilities to jointly respond to global crises and disasters. Therefore, amid the critical global fight against COVID-19, society urgently needs to forge an international consensus for fighting against this virus and maintaining global public health and safety with the thought of a community of a shared future for mankind. Accordingly, based on the perspectives of geopolitics and community, this paper first attempts to explore a theoretical analysis of the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind regarding scientific connotation, historical evolution, and contemporary values. Then, we examine specific cases to explain the practical applications of the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind in the fight against COVID-19 from the perspective of domestic practice, the Chinese program, and Western practice. Further, in doing so, we aim to demonstrate its dual value in spread and practice as well as its plight. Finally, we propose that governance and responsibility in the post-COVID-19 era, based on the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind, should be implemented by countries globally. Doing so involves playing a significant role in promoting global cooperation, maintaining world public health security, preventing a global recession, eliminating secondary disasters arising from COVID-19, transforming global governance, and reshaping international geopolitical relations. Therefore, this article may contribute to human society in fully and objectively understanding the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind, thus leading it to play a greater role in solving major global issues such as public health emergencies.

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    Spatial Distribution and Polycentric Governance of Recreational Fishery Resources in the United States: A Case Study of Florida
    Juan Wang, Kexin Wang, Chen Yang
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (4): 734-745.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003369
    Abstract638)   HTML10)    PDF (2319KB)(98)      

    Recreational fishery is one of the most popular outdoor activities in the United States. During its development, it has created huge economic and social benefits for the United States and formed a governance mechanism with polycentric participation. Based on the analysis of the current development of recreational fisheries in the United States, this study used the nearest neighbor index, buffer analysis, Tyson polygon and related dimension measurements to spatially analyze the distribution characteristics of recreational fishery resources in Florida. The results demonstrated that the recreational fisheries in the United States have formed a development pattern with fresh water as the mainstay and saltwater as the supplement. Among them, the recreational fishery resources in Florida are characterized by agglomeration and uneven distribution. More precisely, 80% of the recreational fishing sites are located within 20 km of the coastline and close to each other. In its long course of historical development, the United States has formed a flexible power operation mechanism, featuring decentralization and cooperation between the central government and local governments. Large areas scattered, small regional agglomeration spatial patterns have been used to adapt to the large area, and state governments, industry associations, and other bodies have created the main body participation of the polycentric governance mechanism to match the market characteristics of main body participation of the federal government. One of the purposes of polycentric governance is to improve management efficiency. The vast geographic area of the United States and the scattered pattern of large areas of recreational fishery resources increase the cost of management resource allocation and scheduling. Therefore, flexible, multi-level governance models are needed to improve governance effectiveness. Another goal of polycentric governance is to meet the distinctive needs of diverse audiences and provide diversified public services. The characteristics of the recreational fisheries market in the United States, where freshwater is the mainstay and saltwater is supplemented, and the distribution pattern of 'small areas gather, large areas disperse' require multiple governance entities to coordinate their overall development of recreational fisheries, while considering local development needs and characteristics. Accordingly, recreational fisheries in the region are developed to reduce the pressure on the local environment and improve the coordinated development capabilities of related industries. In view of this, this article addresses the problems of China's recreational fisheries and proposes to promote recreational fishery scientific management and high-quality development using a 'from bottom to top' polycentric governance mechanism, the establishment of a service-oriented government, the flexible empowerment of industry associations, and the integration and innovation of recreational fishery enterprises.

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    Spatial-Temporal Evolution Characteristics and its Driving Mechanism of Urban-Rural Inversion of Population Aging in China
    Wei Zhang, Chunrong Pu, Fang Li, Zilin Fan
    Tropical Geography   
    Accepted: 09 September 2021

    The Thought and Methodology of Ecological Restoration Planning of National Land Space at the Provincial Level: A Case Study of Guangdong Province
    Yuyao Ye, Hong'ou Zhang, Qingchang Ren, Qinghua Gong, Danna Lyu, Zhengqian Liu, Shengfa Li
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (4): 657-667.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003357
    Abstract508)   HTML26)    PDF (2162KB)(145)      

    Unlike previous ecological restoration programs, the main focus of ecological restoration of national land space has changed from a single element in the natural ecology to the whole social-ecological system. The approach of this ecological restoration has changed from applying the pipe-end treatment to a single process to employing system restoration of the community of life consisting of mountains, rivers, forests, fields, lakes, and seas. Additionally, the aim has evolved from improving the health and stability of the ecological system to building a complex system in which humans and nature can coexist and develop a harmonious relationship. As the research on ecological restoration of national land space is developing a systemic and comprehensive view, it urgently requires support from multidisciplinary theories and methodologies. Ecological restoration planning of national land space at the provincial level is an action guide and programmatic document for provinces to further promote the construction of ecological civilization in this new era. This is a new but arduous and complex strategic task that allows extensive discussion on its research theories and methods. Accordingly, multidisciplinary theories and methods and participation from different parties and places are required. This study begins with the analysis of the scientific connotation and theoretical basis of ecological restoration planning of national land space, uses the man-land relationship theoretical framework as the guidance, integrates landscape ecology and nature-based solutions, and considers the local practice of ecological restoration planning of national land space in Guangdong Province. This paper presents the ideas and methods of provincial-level ecological restoration planning of national land space by focusing on the key points and difficulties, such as targets, indicators, major patterns, regional layout, and engineering systems. This is summarized as follows: the overall thinking of "six steps," the target system of "four dimensions," the zoning task of "three spaces," the spatial layout of "three levels," and the engineering system of "three scales." The study enriches the research on the method of ecological restoration planning of national land space by refining thoughts and methods and providing a reference for the ongoing ecological restoration planning of provincial-level national land space in China.

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    Medium Attribute of Geographical Environment in Geostrategic Intersection Area and Its Geo-Setting EffectTaking Ukraine as an Example
    Shuai Ye, Yongning Li, Zhiding Hu, Yuejing Ge, Shufang Wang, Yuli Liu
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1121-1131.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003404
    Abstract493)   HTML11)    PDF (841KB)(104)      

    The relationship between the geographical environment and international politics is the main concern in geopolitical research. The existing publications were either inclined to environmental determinism, focused on the geographical imagination constructed by subjective discourse, or investigated the elements in the geographical environment as a whole to explore their interaction with politics. Evidently, discussion is lacking on how geo-entities use the spatial (structure) differentiation of geographical environments to act on power space and their geo-setting effects. Combining theoretical construction and case analysis, this study demonstrates the medium properties of geographical environment and its difference in efficiency of transmission power by proposing the concept of "geographical medium," and clarifies the geopolitical functions of different geographical mediums. Taking Ukraine as a case, the spatial practice of geo-entities mining is revealed herein; furthermore, the role of medium properties of the geographical environment in the enactment of power and their geo-setting effects are demonstrated. The results show that: (1) located in the geostrategic intersection zone, the geographical environment of Ukraine has a significant medium property, which provides a spatial intermediary for actors to establish power in Ukraine; (2) the geopolitical functions of various medium elements in Ukraine's geographical environment and their power transmission effectiveness to actors are significantly different. Geographical position and topography are geo-security functions. Natural resources have powerful geo-economic functions. Political parties and nationalities have strong geopolitical functions, while languages and religions have more prominent geocultural functions. The media attributes of natural resources, political parties, nationalities, and religions are strong; by contrast, the media attributes of geographical location and topography are gradually weakening; (3) different geo-entities (interest groups) compete to use the medium properties of the geographical environment to enact power, so that their geo-potential in Ukraine has alternating growth and decline, which intensifies turbulence in Ukraine's geo-setting. Finally, exploring the spatial practice and its effects of power exertion from the perspective of geographical media has enlightening significance for enhancing China's geopolitical influence abroad.

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    The Formation Investigation and Remediation of Sinkhole in the Xiamao Village, Guangzhou
    Shunmin Yi, Wei Lu, Xinjing Zhou
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (4): 801-811.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003358
    Abstract462)   HTML7)    PDF (3030KB)(63)      

    Sinkholes are common geohazards in karst areas and often cause life and economic losses. Karst collapses are random, fuzzy, sudden, and concealed owing to the randomness of karst cave and karst channel development. On December 19, 2008, five karst collapses and one land subsidence occurred in Xiamao village. The center of this karst collapse is the Northwest street of Xiamao village and Huafu street of Shayuanfang, Baiyun District, Guangzhou (23°13′40″ N, 113°14′47″ E). Karst collapses cause wall cracking, building inclination, and subsidence of ground foundation, with a depth of 2-4 m. In August 2015, a karst collapse was induced by drilling of a bored pile at a residential building construction site. Sinkhole hazards in Xiamao village have greatly affected the safety and life of residents. To prevent karst collapses, it is important to investigate the formation mechanism of the sinkholes. Based on the geological exploration of the aforementioned karst collapse in Xiamao village, Guangzhou, we discuss the local geological environment conditions and characteristics of karst development, and causes of karst collapse. The results show that the soluble rocks in and around Xiamao village are Carboniferous Hutian Formation limestone (C2ht) and Permian Qixia Formation marl and carbonaceous marl (P2q), hence the frequent karst collapses in the area. The Quaternary overburden in the area is thick and unevenly distributed, with several soil caves at the bottom, and the concealed soluble rock has high water content and is rich in karst caves, providing a good geological environment background for karst collapse. Furthermore, there is a close hydraulic connection between the pore water in the overburden soil and the water in the underlying limestone fractured caves. The change of the groundwater level in the water-bearing sand layer directly causes the water level of the underlying limestone fractured cave water to fluctuate, thus enabling the hydrodynamic factors of karst collapse. During the construction of the aforementioned bored pile, the borehole penetrated the soil cover on the top of the soil cave in the overburden, causing the fine sand and silt on the upper part of the cover to flow into the soil cave, triggering karst collapse. Therefore, establishing a long-term monitoring network of groundwater dynamics in karst distribution areas and grouting the karst-collapsed areas are effective ways for remediation of karst collapse in Xiamao village. Additionally, we can provide technical support to the local government in implementing karst collapse prevention measures in urban planning and construction.

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    Analysis of the Geopolitical Relations between China, the USA, Russia, and Iran From a Geo-Potential Perspective
    Xiya Li, Debin Du, Junhua Chen, Qifan Xia
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1153-1165.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003395
    Abstract458)   HTML3)    PDF (999KB)(90)      

    Iran is an important political power and strategic hub in the Middle East, connecting Central Asia and West Asia, acting as a significant route from Asia to North Africa and Europe; it is an intersection of the "Silk Road Economic Belt" and the "21st Century Maritime Silk Road". Coupled with the enrichment of petroleum resources and the control of global oil security, Iran's geostrategic position is very important. This study constructs a geo-potential mathematical model and index system from a spatial perspective, including the geo-weight evaluation index system, weight distribution, interdependence index, and geo-distance measurements while innovatively incorporating the element of geostrategic investment willingness. Based on these factors, this study conducts a quantitative, comparative analysis of the geo-potential of China, the USA, and Russia in Iran after September 11st, 2001, from two dimensions—"strong-weak" and "positive-negative." Subsequently, the driving factors and mechanisms of geo-potential are obtained through mathematical model construction and empirical research. Finally, by placing Iran on regional and global scales and thoroughly considering both international and regional geopolitical patterns around foreign policy and strategy, we analyze geopolitical relations between China, the USA, Russia, and Iran: diplomatic, economic, and cultural factors considered from a geo-potential perspective. We hope that this study will enrich research on Iran studies and geopolitical studies, through its understanding of the power interaction mechanism and geopolitical relations between global powers and Iran, while providing a research basis to promote the high-quality development of the Belt and Road Initiative. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) The USA's geo-potential in Iran fluctuates frequently in the negative high range, and Russia's geo-potential fluctuates slightly in the positive median range. Fluctuations between these two countries thus show a "strong - strong" interaction. The change of China's geo-potential is relatively separate from that of the USA and Russia, showing an "S" shaped curve trending upward, thus gradually narrowing the gap with Russia. Russia and China have a positive influence on Iran (attraction), while the USA has a negative influence on Iran (repulsion), which is much stronger than the attraction from Russia and China. (2) Geo-diplomacy is the decisive factor guiding the trend of geo-economy and geo-culture. Geo-economy is the direct driving force of the evolution of geo-potential. Geo-culture acts as a collaborative factor; geo-economy and geo-culture both have a potential influence on geo-diplomacy. (3) Based on amicable geo-cultural relations, the strengthening of China's comprehensive national strength and the deepening of bilateral economic interdependence constantly enhances the intensity of geopolitical relations between China and Iran. The geopolitical relationship between the USA and Iran is occasionally eased but is generally poor. Volatility is largely due to changes in foreign policy triggered by the change of governments, which is the dual response of the domestic political system and the international political environment. The close geopolitical relationship between Russia and Iran is owing to the geographical proximity and the need for a geo-strategy. There is a stable but complex geopolitical relationship network between these two countries, composed of economic, political, and security factors.

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    Spatial Differentiation of the Long-Term Residence Intention of the Urban Floating Population and Its Influencing Factors: A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration
    Yujia Zhu, Degen Wang, Peng Zeng
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (3): 528-539.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003344
    Abstract420)   HTML9)    PDF (1887KB)(127)      

    The citizenization of the floating population is a primary task of the people-centered new urbanization. Taking the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration as an example, this paper analyzes the spatial distribution and influencing factors of the long-term residence intention of the urban floating population using a multilevel logistic regression method. The findings were as follows. (1) The proportion of the floating population with long-term residence intention was 38.09% in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration. Cities with the highest and higher proportions of long-term residence intention were mainly concentrated in Anhui Province in the west of the urban agglomeration and the Shanghai-Nanjing development axis, while the floating population that migrated to Zhejiang Province generally had medium and low residence intention. The spatial difference of the long-term residence intention of the floating population was different from that of the floating population size. As for the types of floating population, for most cities in the coastal provinces, their floating populations were comprised mainly of inter-provincial migrants. Shanghai and Zhejiang Province, especially, were the main destinations of inter-provincial migrants. Anhui was a typical area of population outflow, and the floating population staying there was made up mainly of intra-provincial migrants. (2) The rent-to-income ratio had a significant negative effect on the long-term residence intention of the floating population. Among the personal and family factors, high education, social and psychological identity, and affordable housing were strong motivating factors, but working in the labor-intensive sector had a strong negative effect on long-term residence intention. Among the factors of the destination cities, megacities strongly influenced the long-term residence intention of the floating population. (3) The housing rent was positively related to the long-term residence intention in the Yangtze River Delta, while the average income of residents in the city did not promote the long-term residence intention of the floating population. Migrant age was negatively correlated with their long-term residence intention. These are new findings of the study. (4) The influencing factors of the long-term residence intention of the floating population varied according to the city size. Age and inter-provincial migration were the limiting factors for long-term residence intention in general cities, but they were not significant in megacities. The long-term residence intention in megacities was more related to high education and employment type. This indicates that megacities are more inclusive of inter-provincial migrants and friendly to various ages; migrants' residence intention in megacities depends more on personal qualities and employability. Besides, the average income level of the destination city only had a negative effect on the residence intention in general cities.

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    Time and Space Evolution and Network Relationship of Terrorism in Southeast Asia
    Pingping Hu, Youde Wu, Cansong Li, Yifan Cao, Ming Wang
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1209-1221.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003413
    Abstract393)   HTML11)    PDF (1900KB)(158)      

    Since 2000, terrorism in Southeast Asia has developed rapidly via numerous terrorist organizations. As the regional anti-terrorism situation has become increasingly severe, regional security has faced serious challenges. The research is based on the research data of the Global Terrorism Database (GTD), using geospatial statistical methods to visualize the spatial variation terrorist activities in Southeast Asia from 2000 to 2018, and to analyze the characteristics of the temporal and spatial research of terrorist activities in Southeast Asia. Social network analysis methods were used to analyze the internal and external social relations of terrorist organizations in Southeast Asia. This helped us to have a certain understanding of the development situation of terrorism in Southeast Asia and to provide a reference for Southeast Asian countries to formulate relevant counter-terrorism measures and strengthen regional counter-terrorism cooperation in the future. The study draws the following conclusions: (1) A total of 10,440 terrorist activities occurred in Southeast Asia from 2000 to 2018, showing a significant volatility growth over time, with obvious phase changes. According to the trend of terrorism in Southeast Asia and its spatial changes, this period can be divided into three stages, namely: rising volatility (2000-2010), rapid development (2011-2013), and turbulence and change stage (2014-2018). In terms of spatial distribution, Southeast Asian terrorism activities are highly concentrated, with significant agglomeration, showing a trend of diffusion and agglomeration. The agglomeration center has changed from a two-pole agglomeration center in 2000 to a three-level agglomeration center in 2018: the southern region of Thailand, the southern islands of the Philippines and the southern islands of the Philippines, and mountainous areas in western Myanmar. (2) There are many terrorist organizations in Southeast Asia, the types of which are complex. The members of the terrorist organization network are closely related. The terrorist organizations and the lone wolf type terrorism are related through intelligence, resource, and personnel exchanges. A huge cross-regional terrorist organization network has been established. In this network of terrorist organization relations, various terrorist organizations cooperate and act together, posing a serious threat to the anti-terrorism situation in Southeast Asia. In the 1990s, Southeast Asian terrorist organizations represented by JI, established the 4M activity network with a clear division of labor across many countries with the support of foreign organizations and used this activity network to raise funds, train personnel, and plan activities. (3) There are deep-seated reasons for the rapid rise of terrorism in Southeast Asia, not only the influence of social culture, political environment, and economic development within the region but also the intervention of terrorist forces outside the region.

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    Location Selection and Correlation Characteristics of Chain Stores against the Background of New Retail
    Yinghao Zhang, Mingfeng Wang
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (3): 573-583.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003353
    Abstract380)   HTML12)    PDF (2974KB)(114)      

    Research on the spatial relationship of retail activities is a hot topic in urban geography. With the continuous upgrade of Internet technology, the development mode of business has evolved from the traditional retail model into the e-commerce model, and now the new retail model. While the new retail model influences the locational decision-making behavior of enterprises, it also affects the intrinsic mechanism of attraction and avoidance among retail stores, which in turn affects the spatial association relationship of commercial retail. In such a context, we take the Starbucks, COSTA, and Luckin Coffee stores in Shanghai's inner ring as our research objects, and use a variety of spatial statistical methods and field research to analyze the spatial correlation characteristics among the three. The results show that, first, the spatial distribution of coffee stores under both traditional and new retail models generally exhibit the spatially oriented characteristics of being close to the consumer market. Therefore, it can be indirectly inferred that although Luckin Coffee, which is characterized by new retail, can create "infinite space" to meet consumers' consumption needs in different spaces by virtue of its own Internet development advantage, it remains difficult to completely break away from the spatial orientation of the offline consumption market. Second, in terms of spatial agglomeration, Starbucks' high sensitivity to specific consumer groups and its sales strategy of providing a comfortable environment have led the business to open stores in dense proximity in locations with high consumption potential, thus contributing to its strongest spatial agglomeration. Luckin Coffee, by contrast, has a certain degree of flexibility in choosing store locations due to its independent instant delivery service, and in order to occupy a wider market as soon as possible, it chooses store locations in favor of uniform coverage, resulting in the weakest degree of spatial agglomeration. Third, based on multivariate spatial statistics, it can be seen that Starbucks, COSTA, and Luckin coffee stores all exhibit positive spatial relationship characteristics in the two corresponding spatial relationships. Among them, traditional coffee retailers Starbucks and COSTA show a more obvious spatial relationship of mutual attraction, indicating that both can increase their market shares by converting the fierce price competition between them into an attraction drive to increase their total profits. At the same time, the stores of traditional retailer Starbucks and new retailer Luckin Coffee also show a significant spatial relationship of mutual attraction in space, indicating that the market share effect dominates. Finally, micro-location analysis reveals that Starbucks and COSTA stores have a stronger mutual attraction relationship and often appear in pairs in the center of shopping districts or business areas, while Luckin Coffee stores are often located in "non-central" areas. As a representative of new retail, Luckin Coffee can make up for its location disadvantage to a certain extent by virtue of its mobile application online service and instant delivery service. The store can also utilize its Internet platform, big data analysis, and other technical advantages, so that it can combine its own product positioning characteristics when choosing store locations, and accurately find potential store locations and opening models. Therefore, when carrying out urban planning, especially the planning of commercial areas, attention should be paid to the impact of the new retail model on location selection, the role of the Internet, and big data in location decision making. The development possibilities of traditionally weaker locations should be explored, and the efficiency of urban land use should be improved.

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    Impact of High-Speed Rail on Tourism Development in Ethnic Regions
    Ziqiang Zhang, Ping Chen, Zhongyu Yang
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (5): 1096-1109.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003383
    Abstract375)   HTML3)    PDF (872KB)(62)      

    High-speed rail (HSR) has significantly improved the accessibility of tourist destinations, thereby promoting the increase and gathering of tourist flow. In addition to promoting the development of tourism, the HSR may exacerbate the gap in regional tourism development. Thus, the tourism economic growth effect and distribution effect of HSR opening coexist. Existing studies are controversial regarding the growth effect. Moreover, they have not considered the distribution effect. Accordingly, it is urgent to test whether the HSR can become a promotion engine for the development of regional tourism or aggravate the development gap. Using provincial panel data of 20 ethnic regions in China from 2000 to 2017, this study evaluated the applicability of the difference-in-differences (DID) method through parallel trend testing and used DID to evaluate the impact of the HSR on tourism development in ethnic regions. In addition, three factors need to be considered to ensure robust estimation results. First, a placebo test is performed. According to the counterfactual hypothesis, the opening year of the HSR is advanced by two years, and the DID is used to perform an estimation again. Second, robustness tests are conducted using semiparametric-DID to perform an estimation and DID to perform an estimation by replacing the explanatory and control variables, respectively. Finally, the endogeneity test is conducted using Two-stage least squares method. The major research conclusions are as follows: 1) Overall, HSR has promoted the development of tourism in ethnic regions, with an average increase of 16.52% in total domestic tourist arrivals and of 23.29% in total domestic tourism revenue. Thus, HSR has a growth effect on the tourism economy in ethnic areas. Furthermore, HSR does not affect the gap in total domestic tourist arrivals among ethnic regions or in total domestic tourism income among ethnic regions. Hence, HSR does not have a distribution effect on the tourism economy in ethnic regions. 2) From the perspective of robustness, after replacing the variables and estimation methods, the HSR has a significant positive impact on the total domestic tourist arrivals and domestic tourism revenue in ethnic regions. That is, while it still has the growth effect of the tourism economy, it does not have the distribution effect, indicating that the overall estimation result is relatively robust. 3) From the perspective of the impact mechanism, HSR has a significant positive impact on GDP growth and industrial structure adjustment in ethnic regions, but it has no significant impact on population at the end of the year, passenger turnover, and cargo weekly transshipment volume. That is, the HSR has diffusion and structural effects but does not have a siphon or aisle effect in ethnic areas. Thus, the tourism economic growth effect of HSR in the minority areas is mainly due to the diffusion effect of HSR. Tourist flows from central cities or regions continue to flow to relatively remote ethnic regions and, simultaneously, promote the adjustment of the industrial structure in ethnic regions. As there is no siphon or aisle effect, HSR does not aggravate the regional tourism development gap. 4) From a dynamic standpoint, the growth effect of the HSR on the tourism economy in ethnic regions still lags. As time passes since the opening of HSR, its economic effect gradually weakens. Even if the opening time of HSR is extended, the distribution effect of HSR on the tourism economy in ethnic areas is still not observed. In general, this study examines the tourism economy of HSR. It considers its growth and distribution effects. This provides a basis for accurately evaluating the economic effects of HSR and guiding the inclusive development of regional tourism.

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    The Connotation and Mechanism Changes of Coordinated Development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area in the New Period
    Yuyao Ye, Xiangyu Wang, Jili Xu, Hong'ou Zhang, Zhengqian Liu, Jiayi Sun, Qin Lu
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (2): 161-170.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003442
    Abstract361)   HTML27)    PDF (934KB)(127)      

    Regional coordinated development is a complex, systematic and scientific issue advancing with the time which has attracted much attention. The Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) aims to develop into a world-class bay area and urban agglomeration. The development of GBA depends on regional coordinated development to enhance its international competitiveness. At present, the process of globalization has experienced multiple turning points, the regional governance system has been continuously optimized, and the technological innovation has evolved rapidly. The coordinated development of the GBA is facing institutional changes. Therefore, through the systematic analysis of the connotations and mechanisms of the coordinated development of the GBA, this paper describes the three stages of regional coordinated development since 1978, including the integration of regional production factors represented by the ‘front shop, back factory’ mode (1978-1996), the regional system integration led by institutional cooperation (1997-2014), and the regional all-round integration guided by national strategy (2015- ). In the meantime, the paper analyzes the five dimensions of the coordinated development of the GBA in the new period, including industrial collaborative innovation, environmental collaborative governance, resource collaborative allocation, service collaborative sharing and institutional collaborative arrangement. These five dimensions are helpful to understand the key areas to promote the coordinated development of the GBA in the coming decades. Furthermore, this paper holds that the regional coordinated development of the GBA is undergoing mechanism changes at four levels, which are mainly reflected in the transformation of globalization, the integration of the internal and external market, the rescaling of governance, and the energization of regional in-depth development facilitated by the new infrastructure. These institutional changes have the potential to generate a new model for the coordinated development of the GBA. This paper takes into account the retrospective review and forward-looking prospect on the coordinated development of the GBA, aiming to provide an entry perspective and analysis framework for related issues.

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    Spatio-Temporal Evolution Characteristics and Driving Factors of Chinese Film Industry
    Hailong Liu, Zhitao Guan
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (5): 943-955.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003385
    Abstract350)   HTML12)    PDF (1472KB)(112)      

    The development of the film industry is among the main ways for countries to promote cultural communication, economic and social transformation, as well as upgrading. In China's film industry, the production, economic, and infrastructure construction scales are rapidly expanding, thus forming rapid growth in economic contributions. The scientific evaluation of the film industry is the basis for the objective study and judgment of its development trends and spatial layout. This paper constructs a comprehensive evaluation index system in three dimensions: the industrial environment, industrial scale, and industrial benefit, using the entropy method to comprehensively evaluate China's 2012-2018 provincial-scale film industry. Through a Geographic Information System (GIS) spatial analysis technology and geographic detector model, this paper discusses its evolution process and regional differentiation law from a spatial perspective. Further, it reveals the impact of geographic space on the film industry, which can provide a reference basis for the formulation of policies related to the spatial layout of the film industry. The results show that although the overall level of China's film industry development was poor in 2012-2018, the development pace has increased significantly. It has formed a high-level area in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei with Beijing as the core, a medium-level area in the Yangtze River Delta with Shanghai as the core and Jiangsu and Zhejiang as important components, and a rapid development area in the Pearl River Delta with Guangdong as the core. The "T" shaped space structure is gradually forming, it is obvious for the convergence feature of the development of the spatial and economic development patterns of the film industry. The development environment of the film industry is further optimized, and the overall spatial pattern presents a "concave" character that is high in the eastern and western regions and low in the central region. The scale of the film industry has risen rapidly, forming a pattern of industrial scale in the eastern developed regions higher than that in the central and western regions. The benefit of the industry has increased significantly, and it is increasingly clear that the pattern of spatial distribution is high in the southeast and low in the northwest. The discrepancy of the level of development of the film industry is large among provinces, and the trend of equilibrium evolution is becoming increasingly significant. Further, the film production release and box office revenue are the main reasons for the large difference in the provincial film industry index. The development of the film industry and spatio-temporal evolution are mainly driven by the economic aspect and degree of opening to the outside world. The factors of population, policy, culture, and so on work together. The market-oriented characteristics of the film industry are becoming increasingly prominent, and the market-oriented process is being further promoted. China's film industry needs to conduct a comprehensive construction from the industrial environment, scale, and effect subsystem to form a complete industrial system. By cultivating film and television enterprises, building film and television bases, and creating classic film and television products, we can promote the overall development of the film industry and achieve its industrial functions such as improving residents' artistic literacy and expanding employment. To this end, the support of special cash or funds such as film production and distribution and talent cultivation must be increased. For some underdeveloped areas where it is difficult to achieve the sound development of the film industry through the area's own endogenous power, it is necessary to introduce targeted special policies and financial support. The main academic contribution of this paper lies in providing a description path to explore the evolution process of the film industry from a geospatial perspective, and reveal the regional differentiation law of China's film industry. Finally, it serves to quantitatively characterize the driving factors of the evolution of the spatial pattern of China's film industry.

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    Geo-Setting in the Arctic and Countermeasures of China: A Case Study of the "Polar Silk Road"
    Teng Ma, Yongning Li, Yijie Li, Yinhe Li, Debin Du, Zhiding Hu
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1142-1152.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003403
    Abstract345)   HTML2)    PDF (1069KB)(66)      

    The Arctic has an important strategic position owing to its rich resources. The world's major nations want to enter the Arctic to participate in Arctic affairs and establish influence in the Arctic; it has become one of the current international hot spots. The current research on geo-setting has turned to the perspective of the national state, but there is little research on this region. Under the background of global warming, China proposed the Arctic policy to build the "Polar Silk Road" with all parties as responsible nations. Based on the framework of geo-setting, this study analyzes the geo-setting of the Arctic and the influence of the "Polar Silk Road" on the geo-setting of the Arctic. First, the geo-setting of the Arctic is complex because it is located at the northernmost end of the earth. It contains rich resources and possesses high strategic value, which has led to competition among major nations in the world. As such, the geo-relations in the Arctic involve many subjects and issues. The subject relations include three aspects: the relation among Arctic nations, the relation between the Near-Arctic nations and the Arctic nations, and the relationship between Arctic aborigines and Arctic nations. These issues focus on territory, economy, energy, and the benefits of Arctic aborigines. The geo-structure of the Arctic has experienced three stages of evolution, and now presents a complex structure with the characteristics of "Central-Subcenter-Periphery." Second, the "Polar Silk Road" will influence the geo-settings in the Arctic in two aspects: on the one hand, although some nations disagree with the "Polar Silk Road," it will improve the tense geo-relations in the Arctic, promote the sub-regional cooperation, enable the participation of the Near-Arctic nations in Arctic affairs, and protect the Arctic indigenous people in general. On the other hand, it will make the core of the geo-structure more stable, the tightness among geo-entities closer, and further extend the geo-relations network.

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    Review of Chinese Intangible Cultural Heritage Research since the 21 st Century: With the Possible Contribution of Geography
    Wei Tao, Haohui Cai
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (1): 16-28.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003428
    Abstract341)   HTML7)    PDF (878KB)(159)      

    It is an era of "heritage" that we live in. After nearly two decades of practice and exploration, the social and academic circles have accumulated rich experience in the protection of intangible cultural heritage, especially the scholars of ethnology and art, who have made outstanding contributions to the development of intangible cultural heritage (ICH) protection system with local characteristics. However, comprehensive and critical geographical studies have paid less attention to this topic with less contribution. Firstly, this paper reviews the practice of intangible cultural heritage protection since 2003, starting from the birth of the concept of "intangible cultural heritage" and the revival of Chinese traditional folklore culture. The research progress of China's intangible cultural heritage is analyzed through the database of CNKI. And it is found that the intangible cultural heritage research has experienced two periods-rapid prosperity and steady growth, but relatively few papers have been published in high-quality and geographical journals. Due to the large number of related papers, it is impossible or unnecessary to exhaust all research topics. Therefore, based on the research and practical experience, three key topics in the academic research of intangible cultural heritage are summarized: "characteristics and the construction of meaning", "transmission and the reflection on systems", and "development and community initiative". And Section 3.1 focuses on the basic characteristics of intangible cultural heritage, the importance of intangible cultural heritage as social construction, and the significance of "making" intangible cultural heritage. The current basic laws and regulations for the protection and transmission of China's intangible cultural heritage-representative projects and representative transmitters of intangible cultural heritage are re-examined. It is called for respect for the views and opinions of community group when turning to the "community" in intangible cultural heritage. And it is believed that Chinese scholars have formed a new method and new theoretical system of intangible cultural heritage research with local Chinese characteristics, by actively learning from the academic achievements of western critical heritage research. Secondly, intangible cultural heritage has been incorporated into the national political system as an important cultural resource to promote the implementation of major national strategies. Rethinking the significance and role of intangible cultural heritage under the three geographical national strategies of rural revitalization, urban development and cultural nation, it is found that as a unique cultural resource, intangible cultural heritage plays an important role in promoting the implementation of major national strategies and urban and rural development. And it is believed that the social significance and academic value of intangible cultural heritage should be further explored continuously. Finally, five possible topics for geographers to study intangible cultural heritage are proposed in this paper-transmitters' daily life, social justice, mobility, natural and cultural interaction and international communication, so as to encourage and inspire the geographical research of intangible cultural heritage in the future.

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    The Effects of Urbanization on Older Adults' Health: Evidence from 2,805 Counties in China
    Baishi Huang, Ye Liu, Zehan Pan
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (5): 906-917.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003387
    Abstract337)   HTML13)    PDF (1227KB)(147)      

    China's rapid urbanization has contributed to an epidemiological transition from infectious diseases to chronic diseases over the last four decades. The aging of the population has also raised considerable challenges for the sustainable development of China's economy and society. Determining the effects of urbanization on older adults' general health in China is helpful for a more comprehensive assessment of current development in urbanization and to find active interventions to achieve healthy aging. Based on a micro-data sample from the 2010 China population census, nighttime light data, and other statistical data, this study employed two-level logistic regression models to estimate the relationships of the level and rate of urbanization with self-rated health among older Chinese adults on the county-level geographic scale and explore the differences in the health effects of urbanization in different groups of older people. We applied propensity score matching to control for self-selection bias. This study found that (1) the level and rate of China's urbanization have a significant positive correlation with older adults' self-reported health, such that older people living in areas with moderate urbanization and experiencing rapid urbanization are more likely to report good health; (2) those with junior high school education or below and those with local hukou benefit more from urbanization development; (3) after controlling for self-selection bias, the level and rate of urbanization are still positively associated with the self-reported health of older adults. In summary, this study used nationally representative census data covering 2805 counties across 31 provinces to provide a more comprehensive picture of urbanization-health relationships across the country. Longitudinal studies are warranted to determine causality, which may help policymakers and practitioners develop effective interventions to promote older adults' health and healthy aging.

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    Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Influencing Factors for Homestay Inns in Southern Jiangsu and Northern Zhejiang
    Shikun Shen, Chunyun Shi
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (1): 123-135.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003417
    Abstract331)   HTML5)    PDF (1806KB)(79)      

    With the acceleration of urbanization and industrialization, the migration of rural labor force has led to the decline of rural industries and communities. As one important way to adjust the rural industrial structure and revitalize rural culture, rural tourism has developed through the rural revitalization strategy and the leisure tourism transformation. In this context, with the use of idle housing resources, homestay inns are meeting consumers' increasing demand for leisure, while also improving facility capability regarding rural tourism, maintaining local landscape, and becoming an important industry for rural tourism. Thus, we took southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang, which have strong economic power and close regional cooperation, as examples, and used the location retrieval service in the Baidu Map API to obtain information on homestay inns. Then, we analyzed the spatial distribution characteristics of homestay inns with the help of ArcGIS, and Geodetector was used to further analyze the influencing factors leading to the spatial differentiation of homestay inns. The main conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) Homestay inns in southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang are both clustered in terms of spatial distribution, and tend to be distributed in areas with low terrain and water systems around tourism resources and traffic roads. (2) Homestay inns in southern Jiangsu have differences in the degree of agglomeration among cities, showing "a lumpy distribution of four core and secondary centers," while the spatial agglomeration of homestay inns in northern Zhejiang is balanced and has a wide range of contiguous areas, with a gradient distribution in the west, east, and middle. (3) Consumption level, market conditions, and traffic capacity are important common factors affecting the distribution of homestay inns. Interactions between any two factors enhances the explanatory power of the spatial differentiation, which proves that the unique distribution phenomenon of homestay inns is formed under the interaction of multiple influencing factors. (4) Homestay inns in northern Zhejiang are weakly affected by objective factors. In addition, the spatial distribution of homestay inns along a lake or river is a distinguishing characteristic between southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang. Homestay inns in southern Jiangsu are usually close to scenic spots, while homestay inns in northern Zhejiang are less dependent on tourism resources. Overall, the study aims to provide a reference for factors suitable for homestay inn operation and those to be improved, and to promote the transformation and rational layout of the homestay industry. The study is of practical significance to the distribution planning of homestay inns in areas with higher economic development, and it also summarizes the distribution characteristics of typical clusters of homestay inns.

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    Urban Vulnerability Pattern and Influencing Factors under Extreme Heat Stress in China
    Yuhui Guo, Xiaojun Huang, Dianyuan Zheng, Yanyu Li
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (3): 596-608.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003341
    Abstract327)   HTML3)    PDF (6900KB)(39)      

    With the ongoing global climate change, extreme heat events have a profound negative impact on the socio-economic development of cities. In this study, through a portrayal of the urban vulnerability pattern of cities under extreme heat stress in China, as well as an in-depth analysis of its influencing factors, a foundation was laid targeting reduction in the risk of extreme heat event occurrence in these cities and building a healthy urban environment. Herein, the municipal districts of 280 cities in China were considered as the research targets. On the basis of meteorological observation data, census data, and socio-economic statistics, the urban vulnerability assessment index system for extreme heat was constructed from the standpoint of three dimensions: Exposure, sensitivity, and adaptability. The set pair analysis method and the vulnerability index model method were used to comprehensively calculate the indices of urban exposure, sensitivity, adaptability, and vulnerability to extreme heat. Thereby, the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of urban exposure, sensitivity, adaptability, and vulnerability to extreme heat in the main cities in China for 1990, 2000, and 2010 were revealed, following which the factors affecting the urban vulnerability to extreme heat were discussed. The following conclusions from three standpoints were ultimately drawn. First, from 1990 to 2010, the urban exposure index to extreme heat in China gradually increased, the urban sensitivity index first rose and then declined, and the adaptability index demonstrated a slow decline. The overall spatial distribution of urban exposure to extreme heat is high in the south and low in the north, while the urban sensitivity and adaptability to extreme heat are widely distributed and scattered throughout the country. Second, from 1990 to 2010, the number of cities with a high vulnerability to extreme heat showed an overall trend of increase, accounting for 24%, 28%, and finally 62% of highly vulnerable cities, which implies that the vulnerability to extreme heat in China gradually increased. From 1990 to 2000, the pattern of urban vulnerability to extreme heat in China changed slightly. In 2010, the number of cities with high vulnerability increased sharply, and the distribution range expanded from the south to the north of China. Further, the overall distribution of urban vulnerability to extreme heat was high in the south and low in the north. Third, urban vulnerability to extreme heat is mainly affected by the regional climate conditions, natural environment, and differences in urban development levels. The average monthly temperature in summer and heat island intensity both have a significant positive impact on the urban vulnerability to extreme heat. On the contrary, the per capita local fiscal revenue, average precipitation in summer, output value of the secondary industry as a percentage of GDP, elevation, maximum wind speed, and per capita investment in fixed assets all have a significant negative impact on the urban vulnerability to extreme heat. However, the positive impact of the average monthly temperature in summer on urban vulnerability to extreme heat is far greater than the negative impact of social and economic conditions. Therefore, it can be inferred that urban vulnerability to extreme heat is mainly affected by the regional temperature environment.

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    Progress of Western Scale Research: Conceptualization Framework, Practice Approach and Enlightenment
    Xuefeng Hou, Wei Tao
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (5): 881-891.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003389
    Abstract324)   HTML18)    PDF (739KB)(169)      

    Scale is an important concept in geography. The evolution of scale connotation is closely related to the spatial organizational change in Western capitalist economic activities. With the scale shift of Western human geography, it has changed from being static and bounded by spatial entities to one characterized by process, evolution, dynamic social practices, and discourse representation. The Western scale has led to rapid developments in theory and practical applications. The conclusion of the Western scale is conducive to the dialog with Western scale research and is also of certain significance to formulating Chinese scale research . Taking Web of Science core data sets and Google academic literature as data sources, we retrieve keywords such as "scale" and "politics of scale," download relevant literature, and analyze and summarize it to obtain the background, focus, evolution process, and development direction of Western scale research. By clarifying the connotation and main content of Western scale research, it is found that 1) scale includes three main elements: theorizing scale, rhetoric of scale, and scales of praxis. The ontology of scale holds that it is a static hierarchical structure. The metaphor of scale is embodied in the fact that it can be deconstructed and expressed in a variety of ways through discourse. "Scales of praxis" means that scale is constructed in society through the interaction between different actors to re-create it. 2) There is unity and opposition between the three elements of the measure. In terms of unity, the theorizing scale creates the premise for the rhetoric of scale and the scales of praxis, and the rhetoric of scale and the scales of praxis develop the theorizing scale. In terms of opposites, the theorizing scale is the realist standpoint, while the rhetoric of scale and the scales of praxis are the products of constructivism. 3) The core of scale practice is scale politics, which focuses on the political game between different individuals or groups and emphasizes interests and efficiency, and easily causes negative social externalities and imbalances in resource allocation. It is necessary to introduce a third party to intervene, or regulate politics of scale, to realize the political economy of scale. Western scale research has experienced two typical stages, which have been fiercely debated: A. To materialize the scale into a fixed spatial entity; B. Different actors use scale to carry out social practice or discourse expression. In essence, the two stages are not completely separated in terms of time and main viewpoints. They mainly concentrate on the difference in focus, and there is a relationship between inheritance and complementarity. This indicates that the scale research of Sinicization needs to combine the two—to not only recognize the role of material space entities, but also accept the initiative of actors—and to regard scale as the relationship network of human and material interaction. In the specific application of scale, we should first divide the material spatial entity and scale it, subsequently analyzing the social facts shaped by it; then, one needs to analyze how the actors use discourse expression or political strategies to deconstruct and construct the scale, fully considering the possibility that individual interests infringe on social interests in the scale practice, and introduce the intermediary mechanism to intervene therein. This paper presents the conceptual framework of scale and realizes the induction of the application path of scale, which is embodied in three aspects: scale, scale deconstruction, and scale politics. At the same time, it proposes incorporating the effect of resource allocation into the analysis of scales of praxis to realize the political economy of scale, which not only expands the theoretical connotation of scale, but also increases the practical applicability and scope of scale.

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    The Characteristics of Rural Homestead Housing in Guangdong Province Under the Background of Rural Revitalization
    Tao Xu, Ziyang Zhu, Huaxiang Ding, Jianneng Xiao, Yaolong Zhao
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (1): 148-159.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003426
    Abstract320)   HTML9)    PDF (2181KB)(124)      

    Since the reform and opening up, China has achieved great progress in industrialization and urbanization. However, due to the long-term implementation of the economic development model of "emphasizing cities over township" and the urban-rural dual system, the gap between urban and rural development is constantly increasing, and the problems of land resource allocation and contradiction between man and land in rural areas have gradually emerged. Rural homestead is the main place where farmers live, with unique land use characteristics. The information such as the structure and utilization status of houses on it can clearly reflect the local rural economic situation and homestead problems. Therefore, understanding the characteristics and differences of rural homestead housing is of great significance to understand and grasp the situation and problems of rural development and promote the implementation of rural revitalization strategy. Based on the rural cadastral survey data of Guangdong Province and combined with GIS spatial analysis method, this paper analyzes the characteristics of rural homestead housing. The results show that: (1) The rural housing in the study area is relatively low, mainly with one floor, supplemented by two and three floors, mainly brick and mixed structure, supplemented by concrete structure, and there is a certain correlation between the number of floors and the spatial distribution of the structure. Among them, the proportions of one storey house, brick structure and mixed structure house are 59.42%, 37.71% and 42.60% respectively. (2) There are obvious regional differences in the number of floors and structural spatial distribution of rural homestead housing in the study area. Low-rise, brick and mixed structure houses are mainly distributed in remote areas such as northern and western Guangdong, and high-rise and concrete structure houses are mostly concentrated in the Pearl River Delta. (3) The vacancy and idleness of rural homestead housing in the study area are common. The average vacancy rate and idle rate are 6.75% and 5.66% respectively, and the rate of one househould with multiple houses reaches 23.88%. The phenomenon of rural hollowing is obvious, and 50.87% of the villages in districts and counties are above the moderate hollowing, mainly distributed in the fringe area of the Pearl River Delta and Meizhou in northern Guangdong. At the same time, there is a certain phenomenon that the average household homestead area exceeds the standard. (4) The characteristics of rural housing utilization in Guangdong Province are affected by factors such as policies, economy, transportation, physical geographical condition and local customs. And the influencing factors in different regions are different, such as the special folk customs have a greater impact on rural housing in eastern Guangdong, and the economic situations and urban siphon have a greater impact on the characteristics of rural housing in the edge of the Pearl River Delta. There are obvious spatial differences in the utilization of rural homestead housing in Guangdong Province, and there are many idle homestead resources. There is great potential for the optimization and adjustment of rural construction land for rural revitalization.

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    The Superposition of Place Meaning and Place Identity of Qiaoxiang in the Context of Tourism Development: A Case Study of Wulin, Jinjiang, Quanzhou
    Yong Yang, Yongguang Zou, Qi Sun
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (1): 29-42.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003422
    Abstract298)   HTML9)    PDF (1136KB)(89)      

    Using qualitative research methods and taking Wulin in Jinjiang, Quanzhou City as an example, this study investigated the construction characteristics of Qiaoxiang's place meaning superposition from three aspects: entity dimension, social relations and local values, and revealed the superposition process of the place meaning of Qiaoxiang under the background of tourism development and the resulting place identity problems of different subjects including overseas Chinese. The study found that: (1) The superposition of place meaning under the dislocation of man and land is mainly completed through transmission mechanisms such as imagination and tourism system, which makes the overseas Chinese "absent in form" but "present everywhere in content" in Qiaoxiang, and promotes the transformation of Wulin into a place pattern mixed with tradition and modernity. (2) The superposition of place meaning has the attribute of relationship, and multivariate interactions are the remarkable features during its formation. The place meaning is essentially a manifestation of the man-land relationship. When the man-land relationship is no longer determined by the traditional geographic relationship or kinship, the weak bond relationship between man and land cannot be consolidated by the place meaning, which is manifested as the alienation of the relationship of "overseas Chinese-family members-hometown". (3) In terms of local values, the place meaning of Qiaoxiang has experienced a meaning superposition from the home scale to the national and ethnic scales, highlighting the selective representation of power on the place meaning in the context of tourism, and dynamically displaying the controversy on the orientation of spatial values of different subjects and the guidance of the national mainstream cultural values to the local. (4) In the context of tourism development, the superposition of the place meaning of Qiaoxiang has triggered the instrumental and selective "shopping cart" identity of overseas Chinese and the differentiated identity of local residents, and the identity structure of different subjects is full of tension, differentiation and even conflict.

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    Process, Characteristics and Mechanism of Spatial Transformation in Traditional Villages from the Perspective of Spatial Production: A Case Study of Maihuayucun Village in Huangshan City
    Xiaohua Chen, Yongyan Huang, Xiuxian Wang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (1): 78-86.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003425
    Abstract298)   HTML10)    PDF (1649KB)(177)      

    Traditional villages are the best witness of the process of agriculture civilization, with rich material and intangible culture heritage. However, under the influence of rapid urbanization, industrialization and globalization, the development of traditional villages is faced with dilemmas such as the decline of material space, the inactivation of cultural space and the hollowing of social space. Scientifically guiding the function renewal and spatial adaptive transformation of traditional villages is not only the practical needs of their protection and development, but also an important topic of rural development and planning research in China. Taking the national traditional village Maihuayucun Village in Huangshan City as an example, on the basis of field investigation, combined with the relevant literature review, and based on the perspective of "ternary dialectics" of space production, this paper analyzes the spatial transformation process, characteristics and driving mechanism of traditional villages from the three dimensions of material space, social space and institutional space. The results show that: (1) Since the reform and opening up, Maihuayucun Village has gradually evolved from a traditional agricultural village to an industrial village characterized with bonsai industry, which has experienced three stages: endogenous slow transformation and development, exogenous space rapid expansion and orderly space quality improvement. (2) The spatial transformation of traditional villages is characterized by the functional differentiation and remodeling of material space, the disintegration and reconstruction of social space, and the gradual improvement of institutional space. The space function has gradually changed from the traditional production and living function to multiple composite functions such as ecological leisure, characteristic bonsai planting, commercial operation and service, and cultural inheritance and display. The livelihood of villagers has been diversified, from the traditional single agricultural planting industry to the diversified livelihood methods such as bonsai management, farmhouse entertainment, and tourism services, and the social relations have changed from closed tradition to open and modern. And the subject of institutional space has changed from the dual subject of village committee and villagers to the multiple subject of government, village committee, villagers, capital and tourists. (3) The changes of social relations, capital investment and power intervention are the main driving forces for the spatial production of Maihuayucun Village. The three forces interact and promote the interactive evolution of social space, material space and institutional space, and jointly promote the spatial transformation. With the disintegration of traditional agricultural economy and the growth of bonsai industry, the growing demand for production and residence of villagers has promoted the continuous expansion and transformation of village material space. Driven by bonsai industry and rural tourism, the exogenous construction of villages has developed rapidly, and the support of a large amount of external capital has provided a strong driving force for the spatial transformation of villages. A series of rural development policies and measures issued by the state, especially the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy, provide strategic guidance and policy guarantee for the protection, development and spatial transformation of traditional villages. In the context of rural revitalization and integrated rural and urban development in the new era, and the increasingly complex relationship between man and land in rural areas, it is particularly important to explore the differentiated and distinctive path of China's rural transformation and development. And the research on the temporal and spatial characteristics and mechanism of rural spatial transformation of different types and different spatial scales needs to be further broken through. This paper can provide reference for relevant researches in terms of research perspective, research ideas and research spatial scale, and provide guidance for the protection, development and planning of traditional villages

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    Spatial Distribution and Polycentric Governance of Recreational Fishery Resources in the United States: A Case Study of Florida
    Juan Wang, Kexin Wang, Chen Yang
    Tropical Geography   
    Accepted: 09 August 2021

    Measurement and Evaluation of the Coordinated Development in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    Changjian Wang, Yuyao Ye, Fei Wang, Zhengdong Huang, Qijun Li, Yu Chen, Haoxi Lin, Kangmin Wu, Xiaojie Lin, Hong'ou Zhang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (2): 206-219.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003434
    Abstract284)   HTML8)    PDF (1668KB)(82)      

    On the basis of fully understanding the scientific connotation of coordinated development of urban agglomeration in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, the evaluation index system of coordinated development is constructed from four dimensions: industrial coordinative innovation, environmental coordinative governance, service coordinative sharing and institutional coordinative arrangement. The theory and method of space of flows, big data, network analysis and interlocking network model are comprehensively used to quantitatively analyze the interurban relationship, liquidity, connectivity and boundary effect. The research shows that: 1) Interurban capital flow is concentrated between Guangzhou and Shenzhen, and interurban knowledge flow is concentrated among Hong Kong, Guangzhou and Shenzhen. Macao, Zhuhai, Zhongshan and Jiangmen have higher level of collaborative environmental governance, while Shenzhen-Dongguan-Huizhou and Guangzhou-Foshan have lower level of collaborative environmental governance. The interurban service coordination sharing level of infrastructure such as transportation, communications, logistics and banking is higher among cities of Guangzhou-Shenzhen, Guangzhou-Foshan and Shenzhen-Dongguan. And Hong Kong and Macao have institutional advantages in cross-border regional coordination. 2) Guangzhou and Shenzhen, Guangzhou and Foshan, Shenzhen and Dongguan, and Hong Kong and Shenzhen have the best level of coordinated development in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. At the same time, Guangzhou and Dongguan, Shenzhen and Foshan show a linkage trend. Although the de-boundary trend is obvious and the interurban liquidity is enhanced, the coordinated development level of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area is generally not high. 3) The collaborative capacity of Guangzhou and Shenzhen is the strongest, and there is still much room for improvement in the collaborative capacity of the two international cities, Hong Kong and Macao. It is of great practical value to deeply understand the typical characteristics and potential trends of the coordinated development of urban agglomeration in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area for the construction of international first-class bay area and world-class urban agglomeration.

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    Spatial Differentiation Pattern and Driving Factors of Geo-Risk in Latin America Based on the "Belt and Road" Initiative
    Yukun Shen, Huasong Luo, Juhua Hong, Maolin Liang, Shuai Ye
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1222-1235.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003399
    Abstract283)   HTML3)    PDF (1825KB)(43)      

    The inherent geo-strategic attributes of the "Belt and Road" initiative are inevitably impacted by geo-risks. Latin America is a critical practice space for the "Belt and Road" initiative. As a natural extension of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, it plays a pivotal role in the "Belt and Road" initiative. However, there is a lack of systematic research on the geo-risks faced by the "Belt and Road" initiative in Latin America. The study aims to measure the geo-risk index faced by the 33 sovereign countries of the "Belt and Road" initiative in Latin America and its spatial differentiation pattern; further, it aims to analyze the driving factors in the spatial differentiation pattern of geo-risk. It seeks to provide support for deepening the cooperation between Chinese domestic enterprises and organizations and Latin American countries, within the framework of the "Belt and Road" initiative. Starting with the international, regional, and domestic scales, a Latin American geo-risk evaluation index system based on the "Belt and Road" was constructed. This study uses the entropy-expert scoring method to determine the weight of each index, evaluates the geo-risks of 33 sovereign countries in Latin America, and uses geographic detectors to accurately identify the driving factor groups in the spatial differentiation pattern of geo-risks in the three major geographical regions of Latin America. The research indicates the following: (1) The geo-risk spatial heterogeneity of Latin America based on the "Belt and Road" is obvious. The geo-risk index, international geo-risk index, regional geo-risk index, political risk, and ecological environmental risk under domestic geo-risks are the highest in South America, followed by Mexico and Central America, and the lowest in the Caribbean; the domestic geo-risk is the highest in Mexico and Central America, followed by South America, and the lowest in the Caribbean; the economic risk is the highest in South America, followed by the Caribbean, while it is the lowest in Mexico and Central America; the highest social risk is in the Caribbean, followed by South America, while it is the lowest in the Caribbean; the risk of bilateral relations is the highest in Mexico and Central America, the second highest in the Caribbean, and the lowest in South America. (2) The influence of each factor group on the geo-risk spatial differentiation pattern in the three major geographical regions is different. The factor groups with a relatively large impact on South America are mainly political risk, international geo-risk, and social risk, while those with a relatively large impact on Mexico and Central America are mainly economic risks, bilateral relationship risks, international geo-risks, political risks, and other factor groups. The factor groups with a relatively large impact on the Caribbean are mainly social risks, international geo-risks, political risks, and bilateral relationship risks. To some extent, the study enriches the geo-risk evaluation system and provides a reference for conducting geo-risk evaluations. Meanwhile, it may also serve as a reference for domestic enterprises and organizations to avoid risks in their cooperation with Latin American countries within the framework of the "Belt and Road" initiative.

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    Assessment of the Implementation Path of Urban Renewal from the Perspective of Interest Coordination: A Case Study on Guangzhou Urban Village Redevelopment
    Maoying Deng, Cefang Deng
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (4): 760-768.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003355
    Abstract272)   HTML12)    PDF (1812KB)(144)      

    During the processes of stock land redevelopment, appropriate profit allocation is key to promoting the implementation of urban renewal. Meanwhile, its intricate, multi-participant interest games tends to obstruct the progress of urban renewal programs. Many scholars have studied the various types of interest conflicts among different stakeholders, their game models, and cooperation patterns of urban renewal. However, studies on how to effectively coordinate the diverse demands of multiple stakeholders and solve the problems of profit allocation management derived from the land value increments in different urban renewal stages are insufficient. By reviewing the development of Guangzhou urban renewal policies and their impact on the profit allocation pattern in practices during the past decades, this study clarifies the intrinsic interrelationships among the interests of local governments, investors, and original owners in urban renewal, as they struggle to maximize their benefit. Using Guangzhou urban village redevelopment as an example, this study summarizes the interest concerns and difficulties in urban renewal implementation in terms of value orientation, identification of rights and interests, and management system. Simultaneously, it proposes an innovated urban renewal implementation path of interest coordination based on public priority, profit sharing, co-planning, and co-management. In the coming reserve planning era, to progress urban renewal programs, not only the financial balance but also other comprehensive impact factors should be well-considered. Further studies on multi-dimension and whole-process implementation path of urban renewal in the field of interest coordination could make the planning decisions and working scheme more feasible, which promote urban regeneration.

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    Differences of Strategic Coupling Modes and Regional Collaboration in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    Jiehan Ji, Yi Liu, Murong Mei, Xiaoling Zhu
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (2): 171-182.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003436
    Abstract271)   HTML17)    PDF (1253KB)(84)      

    The current research on regional collaboration lacks the research perspective of global production network, which makes it difficult for the research on the collaboration of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area to recognize the differences in the development of strategic coupling modes of various cities in the Greater Bay Area, and to clarify the differences in the status and division of labor of these cities in the global production network. These differences are the key to the coordinated development of the Greater Bay Area. Therefore, based on the theoretical framework of the global production network, this study uses the variable of strategic coupling to analyze the development of the strategic coupling mode of the cities in the Greater Bay Area and the differences in their status and division of labor in the global production network, so as to further understand the coordinated development of the Greater Bay Area. There are three main findings in this study. First, the strategic coupling mode and evolution process of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao are essentially different, belonging to different global production networks. Hong Kong has experienced two processes of dependency coupling to decoupling in the development of local manufacturing and the later "having stores in front and factories behind" mode, forming a mutually beneficial coupling mode in the financial industry. Macao has experienced two processes from dependency coupling to decoupling in the manufacturing industry, forming an absorption coupling mode in the gambling industry. Second, there are also significant differences in the strategic coupling modes of cities in the Pearl River Delta. Each city is embedded into different global production networks through different leading industries. Third, under the influence of the strategic coupling differences of the above two scales, the regional economy of the Greater Bay Area does not gradually move toward coordinated development, but presents the characteristics of less connection-collaboration-collaborative difficulties. The core argument of this paper is that the differences of strategic coupling mode lead to the embedding of cities into global production networks with significant differences in economic cycles, production systems and technological structures, making it difficult to achieve the overall regional collaboration. And the contribution of this study is that with the help of the global production network theory, it provides a new interpretation perspective for regional collaboration research, reveals the difficulties of regional collaboration in the Greater Bay Area, enriches the study of the long-term dynamic evolution of relational economic geography, and provides some suggestions for the formulation of collaborative policy.

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    Verification and Expansion of the Theoretical Model about Trans-Local Food Brand Rebranding: A Case Study of Starbucks
    Xinwen Liang, Guojun Zeng
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1236-1245.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003405
    Abstract270)   HTML8)    PDF (829KB)(111)      

    The globalization of capital is the product of the social division of labor and the development of social productive forces. It is also the worldwide expansion of the capitalist mode, and its relations, of production. Trans-local catering brand management is a process of brand remodeling; its general strategy is to re-establish its brand identity, which is unique and different from its competitors', such that the production capital can help establish a new brand image in other countries. Simultaneously, the catering needs of Chinese residents are now different and complex, which meets the self-appreciation needs of foreign capital to a certain extent. Western chain enterprises have become the forerunners of global cultural input, having achieved different degrees of brand remodeling in China in the process of globalization and local cooperation. Although studies have preliminarily explored the phenomenon of trans-local food brand remodeling, it is worth verifying and discussing whether the existing theoretical models are universal and have sufficient explanatory power in the context of the ever-changing international situation and domestic consumption environment. Moreover, few studies discuss brand remodeling from the perspective of the simultaneous effects of two cultures, such as the cultural factors of the home country and the trans-local and post-local cultural factors. Therefore, based on the background of the "spatial turn" and the "cultural turn" this study reflects on the reality of contemporary consumption, empirically analyzes the theoretical path of trans-local catering brand remodeling, and establishes a structural equation model with the culture of brand origin and local consumption culture as the pre-factors of brand equity, to verify the influencing factors and mechanism of trans-local catering brand remodeling. The study finds that the continuous improvement in brand equity contributes to the process of trans-local brand remodeling. The image of origin has a direct and significant positive impact on brand awareness, brand loyalty, and perceived quality. Local consumption culture only affects brand awareness, but has no direct influence on perceived quality or brand loyalty. However, local consumption culture can affect perceived quality and brand loyalty through brand awareness, which then influence purchase intention. Local consumption culture provides the necessary cultural, historical, and political basis for understanding brand meaning in various situations. However, with the development of the economy and the establishment of cultural self-confidence, Chinese people's consumption concept is more rational and pragmatic. Thus, brand reconstruction must be based on the promotion of brand equity. It is not sufficient to have the advantage of brand awareness. Perceived quality is an important intermediary to brand loyalty, which is the only way to develop purchase intention. Although the "halo" effect of the image of origin still exists, good brand quality perception is another important factor influencing customers' brand loyalty and purchase intention. Food quality is the primary factor in the survival of the catering industry, and trans-local catering brands should focus more on the customer recognition of the products themselves. The extent to which the current food experience can directly meet customers' expectations will determine whether customers are willing to pay for the brand continuously. In summary, this study discusses two kinds of cultural and geographical factors, namely the origin effect and local consumption culture, verifies and expands the existing trans-local restaurant brand remodeling model, and verifies the new path hypothesis. It enriches the case study objects and explores the contextualized differences of the theory, thus providing a new case practice for contemporary catering geographical and cultural consumption.

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    An XGBoost-Merging Method for High-Resolution Daily Precipitation Estimation for a Regional Rainstorm Event
    Junmin Zhang, Huihua Ruan, Jianhui Xu, Xiao'ai Dai, Yanping Zheng, Jinbiao Zhang
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (4): 845-856.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003372
    Abstract267)   HTML2)    PDF (3097KB)(71)      

    Precipitation is a vital physical parameter of the earth surface system, and accurate estimation of spatiotemporal patterns of precipitation is essential for flood disaster monitoring, drought monitoring, and water management. However, regional precipitation, which is derived solely from rain gauges, remote sensing, and weather radar, is subject to large uncertainties, especially for topographically complex mountain areas. Multi-source precipitation data fusion is a practical method for achieving high-accuracy and high-resolution precipitation information. This study proposes an XGBoost-based geostatistical fusion method (XGBoost) for combining information from ground-based measurements, radar precipitation, and other auxiliary parameters, to improve the accuracy of the spatiotemporal distribution of precipitation in geographically complex mountain areas. In the XGBoost-based geostatistical fusion model, radar precipitation and terrestrial parameters, which include longitude, latitude, digital elevation model data, aspect, slope, enhanced vegetation index, and distance from the coastline, are considered as the independent variables. The XGBoost-based geostatistical fusion model was applied to a regional rainstorm event that lasted from August 26th to 30th, 2018, in northern Guangdong using daily measurements from 206 rain gauges and 51 stations for model training and validation. The fused results were further compared with the results obtained from the multiple linear regression kriging method (LM). Validation using ground-based precipitation measurements was applied for different data fusion methods based on the coefficient of determination (R2), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), and Root-Mean-Square Error (RMSE). The experimental results indicated that: (1) The ground-based precipitation data were positively associated with radar precipitation, and the correlation coefficient between the ground-based precipitation data and the terrestrial parameters varied significantly with measurement time over the regional rainstorm event. (2) The XGBoost produced 1 km precipitation prediction with higher accuracy than the LM before residual correction. (3) The accuracy of fused precipitation with the XGBoost-based geostatistical method was reduced after residual correction, but the accuracy of the LM was increased. The XGBoost-based geostatistical method produced 1-km precipitation with lower accuracy than the TsHARP utility on August 27th and 29th; however, in general, the XGBoost-based geostatistical method outperformed the LM because the nonlinear relationships between the ground-based precipitation data and the independent variables were considered in XGBoost. (4) The XGBoost-based geostatistical method captured the differences in precipitation for different land cover patterns and produced the spatial details of fused precipitation over the complex mountain areas.

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    Spatial Features of Urban Vitality and the Impact of Built Environment on Them Based on Multi-Source Data: A Case Study of Shenzhen
    Na Wang, Jiansheng Wu, Sheng Li, Hongliang Wang, Zifeng Peng
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1280-1291.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003406
    Abstract266)   HTML5)    PDF (1692KB)(86)      

    As a key index to evaluate whether a city is attractive or has a healthy, comprehensive, and sustainable development potential, urban vitality is critical to the future development and construction of a city. Exploring the mechanism of how the built environment influences urban vitality from the perspective of urban morphology can be conducive to future urban space planning and design and can provide city planners with quantitative and scientific decision-making support. This study uses urban POI, cellular signaling, and nighttime light remote sensing data from Shenzhen to measure its cultural, social, and economic vitality, which constitutes a comprehensive vitality assessment of the city. Spatial features of these urban vitalities were then analyzed to further illustrate their distribution patterns. Using Bivariate Moran's I method, the spatial autocorrelations between economic, social, and cultural vitality were calculated. From the five dimensions of Density, Design, Diversity, Distance to Transit, and Destination Accessibility, the 5D detection index system was constructed to measure the urban built environment. This study also used GeoDetector to detect and analyze the spatial differentiation between various built environmental factors and comprehensive, economic, social, and cultural vitality and to explore the mechanism of the influence of the built environment on urban vitality. The results show that: 1) The spatial distribution of comprehensive vitality is extremely uneven in Shenzhen, with a higher vitality in the southern and western regions of Shenzhen city and a lower vitality in the northern and eastern regions. Areas with higher comprehensive vitality usually developed along the main roads and metro lines and are distributed in strips along the coastline of central-southern and western Shenzhen. The high-value areas of the urban comprehensive vitality center are primarily concentrated in city- or district-level commercial centers, and employment centers. Comprehensive vitality in Shenzhen reflects social vitality. 2) Urban comprehensive, economic, social, and cultural vitality are significantly affected by the built environment, as indicated by the 5D system. High POI and building density, average building floors, and land use entropy, have significant positive impacts on urban vitality. However, residential population density did not have a significant impact on each aspect of urban vitality. 3) Some interactions between built environment factors had a greater impact on urban comprehensive vitality, such as residential population density, road network density, land use entropy, and road network density. Overall, the interaction between building density, average building floors, land use entropy, and other factors, have a more positive impact on each aspect of urban vitality. 4) The presentation of urban comprehensive vitality is the result of multiple dimensions and factors. In the influencing mechanism of urban comprehensive vitality, building density and average building floors were the fundamental factors. POI density and land use entropy were the direct driving factors. Residential population density was an inducing factor. Distance from the administrative center, intersection density, road network density, metro station density, and bus station density were adjustive factors. The research results therefore provide valuable suggestions for the optimal allocation of resources and the rational layout of urban functional facilities in Shenzhen.

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    Progress and Prospects of Western Geopolitical Research in the Arctic Region
    Zhiding Hu, Feifei Gu, Yidan Huang, Debin Du
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1175-1187.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003402
    Abstract260)   HTML1)    PDF (873KB)(72)      

    As the melting of Arctic Sea ice because of global warming creates new shipping routes and energy resources, the post-Cold War peace and stability of the Arctic has been shattered. It has once again become a strategic location for multinational rivalries, attracting widespread attention in international geopolitical circles. Compared to other regions of the world, studying the Arctic region from a Western geopolitical perspective is at the forefront of international research. Although China, as a near-Arctic country, has developed geopolitical research on the Arctic in response to its practical needs, domestic research in this field started late, with room for improvement in its breadth and depth. Therefore, 98 papers in the Web of Science core database that are highly relevant to Arctic geopolitics are selected as the object of the study. Through a literature review, we summarize the development of Arctic research from a Western geopolitical perspective, and the shift in perspective and hot topics; we adopt a forward-looking perspective of future research development trends to provide reference for innovative research in this field in China. The results reveal the following: (1) Research on the geopolitics of the Arctic has been conducted in a wide range of fields and topics in Western academia, with some correlation among the topics, although the links among the studies are not strong, and the research scale generally shows a fluctuating growth trend. (2) The research content, composed of six major fields (boundary and territorial politics, Arctic shipping routes, Arctic resource development, Arctic geo-strategy, Arctic security and governance, and indigenous population issues), focus on politics and economics but is lack of cultural research. (3) Under the influence of aesthetic humanism and the "cultural and institutional turn," the trend in the cross-fertilization of geopolitical, geo-economic, and geo-cultural perspectives has increasingly become more obvious. (4) Research on the Arctic from a geopolitical perspective has been relatively fruitful, although there remain shortcomings in the depth of theoretical research, breadth of research scale, diversity of research methods, and geo-economic and geo-cultural research paradigms, which require further development. Future research will generate new ideas and directions in immaterial areas such as theoretical framework studies, interdisciplinary studies, and emotional culture, and will focus more on the role of multiple actors, such as indigenous peoples and NGOs, in geopolitical knowledge production and power competition.

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    Cross-Border Governance Mechanism in the City Integration Areas of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area from the Perspective of Rescaling: A Case Study of Guangzhou-Foshan City Integration Area
    Jun Wu, Ying Ye, Jiaping Chen
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (4): 723-733.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003374
    Abstract260)   HTML10)    PDF (1780KB)(60)      

    Under global economic competition, rescaling has become an important cross-border governance means to control the development of domestic space to attract capital flows and foster regional economic development momentum. City integration is a kind of urban regional scale, and its mechanism of cross-border governance has gradually become an important regional integration issue. At present, research on cross-border governance from the perspective of rescaling focuses on urban areas represented by urban agglomerations and metropolitan areas and new functional areas represented by state-level new areas, with limited research on the scale of city integration at the meso level. The discussion on the role and status of corresponding governance subjects, construction mechanisms, and incentive mechanisms needs to be enriched. In this paper, the evolution of cross-border governance is discussed from the perspective of rescaling, taking Guangfo city integration, which is relatively mature in the process of domestic city integration, as an example. The study finds that, taking the introduction of the outline of the reform and development plan for the Pearl River Delta region in 2008 and the outline of the development plan for the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area in 2019 as the target, the city integration process of Guangfo has experienced two stages of rescaling: from the governance scale of an "administrative area" to that of a "functional area" represented by the pilot zone for the high-quality development integration of Guangfo. By comparing and analyzing the cross-border governance mechanisms of city integration across different scales, this study finds that the city integration governance stage of the "functional area" scale, first, enriches the participation of multiple governance subjects, extending from "city-district-town" multi-level government to the functional platform management committee and platform joint venture company. Second, on the basis of the project implementation mechanism led by municipal departments, the construction mechanism strengthens the planning, construction, and operation mechanisms guided by functional areas and, taking the whole cycle as the concept, increases emphasis on integrated planning, construction, and operation. Third, the incentive mechanism has shifted from the driving of political instructions and economic benefits to the striving for policy and the sharing of institutional dividend. Both "administrative area" and "functional area" are the positive scales restructuring strategy of Guangfo to deal with the global competitive environment and respond to the requirements of national strategy. The two-stage cross-border governance mechanism is neither beneficial nor harmful, but is a choice to adapt to the different development stages of city integration. The governance mechanism of the "functional area" scale can be regarded as the experience retention and gradual reform of Guangfo's original governance mechanism, to improve the governance efficiency of the city integration and competitiveness. Guangfo's practice of using rescaling to promote cross-border governance reform and deepening in the last ten years can provide a certain reference for cross-border governance in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area and other metropolitan areas in China. However, it should be pointed out that at present, the rescaling of the pilot area is more reflected in spatial planning and cooperation agreements, and has failed to produce a spatial governance subject that is fully integrated with the new scale. In addition, the deeper benefit sharing and risk responsibility sharing mechanism still needs to be strengthened.

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    The Construction of Virtual Clusters of Stadium Industry: From the Perspective of Geographical Space
    Jianming Zeng, Mingliang Kuang, Ke Xu, Hui Liu, Biyun Liu
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (4): 822-833.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003360
    Abstract254)   HTML0)    PDF (1436KB)(67)      

    In recent years,as an important means for the development of the stadium industry supported by Internet technology, building complex commercial complexes with the help of virtual network platforms around the stadium service as the core industry has become a popular trend in some cities in Chine.The academic circle has paid little attention to research on the abovementioned field, but exploring the integration of the online and offline chains of industrial clusters from the perspective of geographical space can be very fruitful, providing a theoretical reference for discussing the construction of virtual clusters of stadiums.The starting point of this research is based on the development status of the comprehensive penetration of Internet technology into the industrial field. Some scholars hypothesize that"cyberspace proximity will replace geospatial proximity,"while others insist that network information technology and platform are the"catalysts"for the transformation and upgradation of offline industries;at the same time, it focuses on the geographical factors affecting the offline entity industry itself and its related industries, which is of great significance to the construction and development of the online virtual platform.Accordingly, this article explains the construction of virtual clusters of stadiums from the perspective of geographic space.It then analyzes the reasons why the geographical clustering effect of stadiums cannot be formed.By summarizing the role of industrial virtual clusters in promoting industrial aggregation, strengthening scale economy effect, improving relationship between division of labor and cooperation, driving cooperation and competition atmosphere, forming flexible innovation mode,etc. it is proposed that the construction of virtual clusters is one of the most important forms of sports stadium industry development in the future.At present, the virtual cluster of sports stadium industry in China is the value chain of cooperation and competition among members in the horizontal direction, and the value chain of production and sales at both ends of supply and demand in the vertical direction, which together constitute the basic structural system of the cluster;according to the main industry scale, geographical location, property right attribute, network degree,etc., virtual stadium industry cluster can be divided into haplotype, chain type, and alliance type, and according to its structural system and functional characteristics, its development process needs to go through three upgrading stages:technology integration, product transformation, and structure optimization.Finally, it is recommended to gain an understanding of the geographical significance of the virtual cluster construction of stadiums, continue to improve the core competitiveness of offline stadium services, fully utilize the government's policy support and lead the role of alliances, establish a supervision mechanism of virtual industry cluster member access, etc., for the innovation and development of virtual industry cluster theory and the practice guidance.

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    Influence of Population Mobility and Migration on the Original Economic Gap and Spatial Spillover Effect in the Yangtze River Economic Belt
    Yongming Zeng, Zepingand Wang Yaoyao Luo
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1258-1269.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003400
    Abstract253)   HTML5)    PDF (1487KB)(56)      

    The difference in endowment and the implementation of the gradient development strategy have promoted the large-scale cross-regional migration of China's population and have led to a close relationship between population mobility and migration and the spatial pattern of regional development. There has always been a debate about whether population mobility and migration have an expanding or narrowing effect on the regional economic gap. Therefore, the study revisits the topic and uses panel data on 104 cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2001 to 2017, fully considering spatial dependence based on spatial econometrics models. The main findings are as follows: First, for the global regional economic gap, there is an inverted "U"-shaped nonlinear relationship between population mobility, population migration, and the economic gap, with an expansion effect in the early stage and a convergence effect in the later stage. This is in line with China's gradient development strategy, and is consistent with the phased development concept of "the first rich lead the second rich, ultimately achieving common prosperity." Second, regarding the provincial regional economic gap, population mobility manifests itself as an expansion effect initially and a convergence effect afterward, while population migration only manifests as an expansion effect without a convergence effect. The difference in the effects of population mobility and population migration may be due to the spatial transformation of the economic behavior and resource allocation owing to the latter's household registration (hukou) change, as population migration is a direct output of the economic behavior of the emigration area. Services will be reduced, and the agglomeration effect in moving-in areas will further widen the regional economic gap with moving-out areas. Third, having considered the spatial effect, judging the endogenous relationship between population mobility and migration and the regional economic gap has become relatively complex but more comprehensive and objective; the decomposition of the spatial effect shows that population mobility and population migration are ultimately conducive to the balanced development of the region, in which the spillover effect plays an important role. The study's marginal contribution is breaking the simplified study of the linear relationship between population mobility, migration, and the regional economic gap. The inclusion of spatial effects confirms the non-linear relationship between them. The conclusion is consistent with the reality of the regional development process in China. This study shows that population mobility and migration are not only conducive to regional economic growth but are also conducive to regional economic equilibrium. Therefore, it is beneficial to rationally guide and promote the population flow among regions, and to further reform the household registration system. In future, it will be necessary to deepen the study of the geographical process of population flow and of the law of temporal and spatial evolution and its effect on regional development, paying special attention to the protection of the welfare rights of the floating population.

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    Traffic Flow of Metro Stations and Population Travel Differentiation in Guangzhou
    Changdong Ye, Biying Feng, Huasong Yao, Dandan Dai
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (5): 918-927.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003386
    Abstract252)   HTML11)    PDF (2168KB)(101)      

    Metro railway is emerging as the optimal choice for residents' daily travel in many metropolitan areas in China, which profoundly affects the spatial-temporal characteristics of the travel mode of residents. Studying the spatio-temporal characteristics of metro traffic flow is of great practical significance for optimizing metro traffic layout and relieving urban traffic pressure. Reported studies have afforded significant achievements in the spatial-temporal characteristics of metro traffic flow; however, there are very few studies on the overall perspective of the station network, and most of them fail to further analyze population differences in using metro systems. In view of these gaps in the existing research, this study has two main objectives: 1) to describe the characteristics of metro traffic from the overall perspective of metro station network, with parameters of traffic flows within the station network, average travel distance (time), and their aggregation features; and 2) to analyze the differentiation of population groups near metro stations for understanding population differences in metro traffic flow. The Origin-Destination (OD) analysis method was used to calculate traffic flow characteristics between different metro stations, including the average travel cost (distance/time) and travel aggregation distance interval. Our results lead to the following inferences. 1) The cumulative proportion of passengers in metro stations along with travel distance show an "S" curve function feature, the average travel cost of metro stations in Guangzhou is approximately 14.04 km (20.48 min), and increase by ~4 km (~5 min) and ~13 km (~10 min) from the central area to the inner and outer suburbs. The average weekend travel costs are slightly higher than that of weekdays: the average travel cost on weekend ranged from 0.03 km (0.06 min) less in the central area to 0.32 km (0.49 min) and 0.64 km (0.77 min) more in the inner and outer suburbs, respectively. Three types of metro stations—those serving external transportation, business offices, and public units—have higher average travel costs. 2) The distance interval of passenger flow concentration in metro stations tends smoothly from the center to the periphery. The travel aggregation distance interval in the entire city is 8.55-26.61 km, with 71.88% passengers aggregated within this travel distance range. The travel aggregation distance interval in the central area and the inner and outer suburbs are 2.74-19.23, 7.49-25.23, and 24.3-46.73 km, respectively, with 78.87%, 71.81%, and 56.55% passengers, respectively. The spatial distributions on weekend and weekdays are almost the same, only with a narrow range of travel aggregation distance interval and smaller proportion of passengers on weekends than weekdays. The station types of external transportation, leisure tourism, and residential areas have higher travel aggregation distance interval and passenger proportion. 3) Population groups like women, elderly, people with college-level education or above, office staff, business people, and service personnel are the main components of metro passengers. The average metro travel distance of different population groups is differentiated, as groups with small travel demand and weak travel ability have short average travel distance, while groups with large travel demand generally have a long average travel distance. Our research contributes to the existing literature mainly in two aspects. 1) Average travel cost, knee point analysis, and travel aggregation distance interval were used to depict the spatial-temporal characteristics of metro traffic flow from the overall perspective of metro station network; this is a supplement and expansion of existing literature mainly based on stations or lines. 2) The differentiation of different population groups helped further optimize the planning, design, and line arrangement of metro systems.

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    Staggered Time: Social Adaptation Strategies of Africans in Guangzhou
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (4): 857-869.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003364
    Abstract248)   HTML3)    PDF (1685KB)(68)      

    With the emergence of new economic centers around the world, the practice of immigration has gradually moved beyond the traditional dualistic model of "Destination to departure" and been replaced by temporary, short-term settlement. In order to explore the social adaptation strategies of "migratory migrants," this paper expounds the influencing factors of migrants' social integration in a micro-social context. This paper focuses on the phenomenon of "staggered time" among African Americans in Dengfeng village, which was found in the process of investigation. From February to April in 2019, the authors conducted a questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews regarding the phenomenon. Using the measurement sentence system, this study measured and analyzed the phenomenon from the three aspects of cognition, emotion, and behavior, focusing on identity and social integration. After the preliminary conclusion that "staggered time is actually a kind of social division," the score of the measurement sentence system was taken to measure the "degree of division" of African individuals and as the independent variable; the social characteristics of population, social status, duration in Guangzhou, and attitude toward the community were taken as dependent variables. The results of correlation regression analysis show that this kind of social adaptation strategy is closely related to a group's social status, duration in Guangzhou, and attitude toward the community. The essence of this strategy is the specific means of the "shallow integration, deep differentiation" social adaptation strategy, as well as the interactive result of the response of other community groups. Through the strategy of "staggered time," Africans selectively yield part of the demand to occupy, use, and transform the community and realize active separation; in this regard, other groups in Dengfeng Village adjust their own behavior patterns according to the needs of interactions with Africans so as to achieve two-way adaptation among different groups. This paper tentatively puts forth a partition strategy of Africans based on the time dimension, which has a certain reference significance for the future development of urban management and resource allocation in time-related policies.

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    Geographical Analysis of the COVID-19 Epidemic in Hunan Province, China in 2020
    Shengsheng Gong, Hui Mo
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (4): 708-722.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003367
    Abstract248)   HTML11)    PDF (4296KB)(87)      

    The COVID-19 epidemic spread globally at the start of 2020, resulting in a wide range of diffusion of infectious diseases. At present, SARS-CoV-2 is still prevalent worldwide, and it is of great practical significance to strengthen the study on the COVID-19 epidemic. Based on the COVID-19 confirmed cases and incidence, this article explored both the temporal and spatial distribution pattern of COVID-19 in Hunan Province and its influencing variables between January 21 and February 28, 2020 by using ArcGIS 10.3 and GeoDetector. The results show that: 1) The epidemic evolved with temporal phasing. The epidemic in Hunan Province can be divided into four basic stages: the diffusion period, peak period, decay period, and the stagnant period.The first COVID-19 confirmed case of 84.47% affected counties was imported from Wuhan;2) The epidemic spread as a result of transportation convenience. The confirmed COVID-19 cases were concentrated near major railway lines, which were also high-incidence areas. The epidemic occurred "early in prefecture-level cities and frequently in urban areas"; 3) the extent of the epidemic has distance attenuation. The COVID-19 cases and high-incidence areas were mainly distributed in the middle, north, and northeast of Hunan, in regions in proximity to Wuhan; 4) the epidemic was distributed with spatial aggregation. The agglomeration level of cases and incidences increased first and then remained high. The hot spots identified are in Changzhutan and Yueyang City, while the cold spots are in Xiangxi Prefecture; 5) the epidemic prevalence was of variable interaction. Wind-free, cold and dry weather was more conducive to the spread of the epidemic; population density, road network density and GDP were the main factors affecting the epidemic spatial differentiation; and the strongest variable interaction happened between natural and social factors. 6) the influencing variables of the COVID-19 epidemic have spatial heterogeneity. The impacts of spatial distance and population density have spatial heterogeneity on both the reported cases the total infections rates of COVID-19, spatial distance has the greatest impact in northeast Hunan, and population density has the greatest impact in northwest and northern Hunan; but the mobility of population and the number of health technicians only have spatial heterogeneity of impacts on the reported cases of COVID-19, the impact of population mobility is diminishing from north to south in Hunan, and the influence of the number of health technicians decreases gradually with the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan city agglomeration as the core to the outer circle.The paper's conclusions are consistent with other scholars' studies in other regions, confirming that the epidemic not only spreads significantly in neighboring areas, but there are also "jump spreads" to distant cities that rely on the transportation network in Hunan. It is evident that restricting the entry of residents of affected areas plays a key role in COVID-19 prevention and control, and moreover, allocating plentiful health technicians, executing rigorous transport quarantine, and adopting compatible preventing measures with local and temporal conditions, are the top priorities in effectively responding to the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic.

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    Food Symbol Economy in Tourist Destination: The Making of Local Symbol and Path Dependence
    Yuting Wang, Honggang Xu, Lifen Lao
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1246-1257.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003410
    Abstract246)   HTML15)    PDF (1227KB)(112)      

    Food symbols with local characteristics are part of the image of a tourist destination, and tourism catering based on local food is one of the important economic activities of such destinations. This study analyzed the formation of the food symbol economy in tourism destinations through the story of Yangshuo beer fish. As a food product with a short history in Yangshuo, beer fish has grown out of nothing and from less to more, and it has gradually evolved into a food symbol of Yangshuo. This study used in-depth interviews, observation, and second-hand data methods to collect data, and analyzed the data through thematic analysis, process analysis, and feedback analysis methods to explore the formation mechanism of Yangshuo's beer fish food symbol economy. It finds that the reason for the food symbol economy is not only the marketing of local characteristics but also the path dependence of product agglomeration. From the perspective of product characteristics, the image of the beer fish aligns with Yangshuo's location on the banks of the Li Jiang River; further, fish is a food that suits local conditions. Additionally, Yangshuo West Street's pub culture is famous, in line with the image of Yangshuo. From the perspective of food production, local materials, high profits, and simple cooking procedures, beer fish cuisine can be produced on a large scale and at a low cost. The barriers to entry for the beer fish catering market are low with strong profit drivers; consequently, new catering companies choose beer fish as the main product. From the perspective of food consumption, the taste of beer fish has local characteristics and is accepted by the public, thus meeting the symbolic and supportive dietary needs of tourists. The recommendations of the government, residents, and other stakeholders further strengthen the image of beer fish. The agglomeration of the services industry can result in the consumption of such products among tourists and generate cumulative appeal, thereby reducing the marketing costs of enterprises. Lower cost and higher sales make the production of beer fish a positive feedback mechanism and lock-in. However, the popular trend of consuming beer fish in the Yangshuo tourist catering market results in an extrusion effect on other catering products. The entry of new products requires high promotion costs, which makes it difficult for other catering products to replace beer fish. This study contributes to the literature in the following ways: 1) combining the path dependence theory to abstract the formation mechanism of tourism destination food symbol economy, it indicates the product characteristics as a tourism destination food symbol based on the market characteristics of tourism catering and the psychological characteristics of consumers. It is an in-depth exploration based on the literature on the production and consumption of tourist food, which has guiding significance for the practice and sustainable development of food in tourist destinations. 2) Since food is a daily necessity, not only the symbolic attributes but also the satisfaction of the consumer's supportive experience should be considered. This research shows the characteristics of tourism catering as a special symbol economy, which is a supplement and specific exploration of the research of symbol and space economies.

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