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    Analysis of the Geopolitical Relations between China, the USA, Russia, and Iran From a Geo-Potential Perspective
    Xiya Li, Debin Du, Junhua Chen, Qifan Xia
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1153-1165.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003395
    Abstract841)   HTML9)    PDF (999KB)(146)      

    Iran is an important political power and strategic hub in the Middle East, connecting Central Asia and West Asia, acting as a significant route from Asia to North Africa and Europe; it is an intersection of the "Silk Road Economic Belt" and the "21st Century Maritime Silk Road". Coupled with the enrichment of petroleum resources and the control of global oil security, Iran's geostrategic position is very important. This study constructs a geo-potential mathematical model and index system from a spatial perspective, including the geo-weight evaluation index system, weight distribution, interdependence index, and geo-distance measurements while innovatively incorporating the element of geostrategic investment willingness. Based on these factors, this study conducts a quantitative, comparative analysis of the geo-potential of China, the USA, and Russia in Iran after September 11st, 2001, from two dimensions—"strong-weak" and "positive-negative." Subsequently, the driving factors and mechanisms of geo-potential are obtained through mathematical model construction and empirical research. Finally, by placing Iran on regional and global scales and thoroughly considering both international and regional geopolitical patterns around foreign policy and strategy, we analyze geopolitical relations between China, the USA, Russia, and Iran: diplomatic, economic, and cultural factors considered from a geo-potential perspective. We hope that this study will enrich research on Iran studies and geopolitical studies, through its understanding of the power interaction mechanism and geopolitical relations between global powers and Iran, while providing a research basis to promote the high-quality development of the Belt and Road Initiative. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) The USA's geo-potential in Iran fluctuates frequently in the negative high range, and Russia's geo-potential fluctuates slightly in the positive median range. Fluctuations between these two countries thus show a "strong - strong" interaction. The change of China's geo-potential is relatively separate from that of the USA and Russia, showing an "S" shaped curve trending upward, thus gradually narrowing the gap with Russia. Russia and China have a positive influence on Iran (attraction), while the USA has a negative influence on Iran (repulsion), which is much stronger than the attraction from Russia and China. (2) Geo-diplomacy is the decisive factor guiding the trend of geo-economy and geo-culture. Geo-economy is the direct driving force of the evolution of geo-potential. Geo-culture acts as a collaborative factor; geo-economy and geo-culture both have a potential influence on geo-diplomacy. (3) Based on amicable geo-cultural relations, the strengthening of China's comprehensive national strength and the deepening of bilateral economic interdependence constantly enhances the intensity of geopolitical relations between China and Iran. The geopolitical relationship between the USA and Iran is occasionally eased but is generally poor. Volatility is largely due to changes in foreign policy triggered by the change of governments, which is the dual response of the domestic political system and the international political environment. The close geopolitical relationship between Russia and Iran is owing to the geographical proximity and the need for a geo-strategy. There is a stable but complex geopolitical relationship network between these two countries, composed of economic, political, and security factors.

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    Medium Attribute of Geographical Environment in Geostrategic Intersection Area and Its Geo-Setting EffectTaking Ukraine as an Example
    Shuai Ye, Yongning Li, Zhiding Hu, Yuejing Ge, Shufang Wang, Yuli Liu
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1121-1131.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003404
    Abstract696)   HTML13)    PDF (841KB)(148)      

    The relationship between the geographical environment and international politics is the main concern in geopolitical research. The existing publications were either inclined to environmental determinism, focused on the geographical imagination constructed by subjective discourse, or investigated the elements in the geographical environment as a whole to explore their interaction with politics. Evidently, discussion is lacking on how geo-entities use the spatial (structure) differentiation of geographical environments to act on power space and their geo-setting effects. Combining theoretical construction and case analysis, this study demonstrates the medium properties of geographical environment and its difference in efficiency of transmission power by proposing the concept of "geographical medium," and clarifies the geopolitical functions of different geographical mediums. Taking Ukraine as a case, the spatial practice of geo-entities mining is revealed herein; furthermore, the role of medium properties of the geographical environment in the enactment of power and their geo-setting effects are demonstrated. The results show that: (1) located in the geostrategic intersection zone, the geographical environment of Ukraine has a significant medium property, which provides a spatial intermediary for actors to establish power in Ukraine; (2) the geopolitical functions of various medium elements in Ukraine's geographical environment and their power transmission effectiveness to actors are significantly different. Geographical position and topography are geo-security functions. Natural resources have powerful geo-economic functions. Political parties and nationalities have strong geopolitical functions, while languages and religions have more prominent geocultural functions. The media attributes of natural resources, political parties, nationalities, and religions are strong; by contrast, the media attributes of geographical location and topography are gradually weakening; (3) different geo-entities (interest groups) compete to use the medium properties of the geographical environment to enact power, so that their geo-potential in Ukraine has alternating growth and decline, which intensifies turbulence in Ukraine's geo-setting. Finally, exploring the spatial practice and its effects of power exertion from the perspective of geographical media has enlightening significance for enhancing China's geopolitical influence abroad.

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    Time and Space Evolution and Network Relationship of Terrorism in Southeast Asia
    Pingping Hu, Youde Wu, Cansong Li, Yifan Cao, Ming Wang
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1209-1221.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003413
    Abstract597)   HTML12)    PDF (1900KB)(187)      

    Since 2000, terrorism in Southeast Asia has developed rapidly via numerous terrorist organizations. As the regional anti-terrorism situation has become increasingly severe, regional security has faced serious challenges. The research is based on the research data of the Global Terrorism Database (GTD), using geospatial statistical methods to visualize the spatial variation terrorist activities in Southeast Asia from 2000 to 2018, and to analyze the characteristics of the temporal and spatial research of terrorist activities in Southeast Asia. Social network analysis methods were used to analyze the internal and external social relations of terrorist organizations in Southeast Asia. This helped us to have a certain understanding of the development situation of terrorism in Southeast Asia and to provide a reference for Southeast Asian countries to formulate relevant counter-terrorism measures and strengthen regional counter-terrorism cooperation in the future. The study draws the following conclusions: (1) A total of 10,440 terrorist activities occurred in Southeast Asia from 2000 to 2018, showing a significant volatility growth over time, with obvious phase changes. According to the trend of terrorism in Southeast Asia and its spatial changes, this period can be divided into three stages, namely: rising volatility (2000-2010), rapid development (2011-2013), and turbulence and change stage (2014-2018). In terms of spatial distribution, Southeast Asian terrorism activities are highly concentrated, with significant agglomeration, showing a trend of diffusion and agglomeration. The agglomeration center has changed from a two-pole agglomeration center in 2000 to a three-level agglomeration center in 2018: the southern region of Thailand, the southern islands of the Philippines and the southern islands of the Philippines, and mountainous areas in western Myanmar. (2) There are many terrorist organizations in Southeast Asia, the types of which are complex. The members of the terrorist organization network are closely related. The terrorist organizations and the lone wolf type terrorism are related through intelligence, resource, and personnel exchanges. A huge cross-regional terrorist organization network has been established. In this network of terrorist organization relations, various terrorist organizations cooperate and act together, posing a serious threat to the anti-terrorism situation in Southeast Asia. In the 1990s, Southeast Asian terrorist organizations represented by JI, established the 4M activity network with a clear division of labor across many countries with the support of foreign organizations and used this activity network to raise funds, train personnel, and plan activities. (3) There are deep-seated reasons for the rapid rise of terrorism in Southeast Asia, not only the influence of social culture, political environment, and economic development within the region but also the intervention of terrorist forces outside the region.

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    The Connotation and Mechanism Changes of Coordinated Development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area in the New Period
    Yuyao Ye, Xiangyu Wang, Jili Xu, Hong'ou Zhang, Zhengqian Liu, Jiayi Sun, Qin Lu
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (2): 161-170.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003442
    Abstract588)   HTML33)    PDF (934KB)(191)      

    Regional coordinated development is a complex, systematic and scientific issue advancing with the time which has attracted much attention. The Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) aims to develop into a world-class bay area and urban agglomeration. The development of GBA depends on regional coordinated development to enhance its international competitiveness. At present, the process of globalization has experienced multiple turning points, the regional governance system has been continuously optimized, and the technological innovation has evolved rapidly. The coordinated development of the GBA is facing institutional changes. Therefore, through the systematic analysis of the connotations and mechanisms of the coordinated development of the GBA, this paper describes the three stages of regional coordinated development since 1978, including the integration of regional production factors represented by the ‘front shop, back factory’ mode (1978-1996), the regional system integration led by institutional cooperation (1997-2014), and the regional all-round integration guided by national strategy (2015- ). In the meantime, the paper analyzes the five dimensions of the coordinated development of the GBA in the new period, including industrial collaborative innovation, environmental collaborative governance, resource collaborative allocation, service collaborative sharing and institutional collaborative arrangement. These five dimensions are helpful to understand the key areas to promote the coordinated development of the GBA in the coming decades. Furthermore, this paper holds that the regional coordinated development of the GBA is undergoing mechanism changes at four levels, which are mainly reflected in the transformation of globalization, the integration of the internal and external market, the rescaling of governance, and the energization of regional in-depth development facilitated by the new infrastructure. These institutional changes have the potential to generate a new model for the coordinated development of the GBA. This paper takes into account the retrospective review and forward-looking prospect on the coordinated development of the GBA, aiming to provide an entry perspective and analysis framework for related issues.

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    The Characteristics of Rural Homestead Housing in Guangdong Province Under the Background of Rural Revitalization
    Tao Xu, Ziyang Zhu, Huaxiang Ding, Jianneng Xiao, Yaolong Zhao
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (1): 148-159.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003426
    Abstract564)   HTML17)    PDF (2181KB)(201)      

    Since the reform and opening up, China has achieved great progress in industrialization and urbanization. However, due to the long-term implementation of the economic development model of "emphasizing cities over township" and the urban-rural dual system, the gap between urban and rural development is constantly increasing, and the problems of land resource allocation and contradiction between man and land in rural areas have gradually emerged. Rural homestead is the main place where farmers live, with unique land use characteristics. The information such as the structure and utilization status of houses on it can clearly reflect the local rural economic situation and homestead problems. Therefore, understanding the characteristics and differences of rural homestead housing is of great significance to understand and grasp the situation and problems of rural development and promote the implementation of rural revitalization strategy. Based on the rural cadastral survey data of Guangdong Province and combined with GIS spatial analysis method, this paper analyzes the characteristics of rural homestead housing. The results show that: (1) The rural housing in the study area is relatively low, mainly with one floor, supplemented by two and three floors, mainly brick and mixed structure, supplemented by concrete structure, and there is a certain correlation between the number of floors and the spatial distribution of the structure. Among them, the proportions of one storey house, brick structure and mixed structure house are 59.42%, 37.71% and 42.60% respectively. (2) There are obvious regional differences in the number of floors and structural spatial distribution of rural homestead housing in the study area. Low-rise, brick and mixed structure houses are mainly distributed in remote areas such as northern and western Guangdong, and high-rise and concrete structure houses are mostly concentrated in the Pearl River Delta. (3) The vacancy and idleness of rural homestead housing in the study area are common. The average vacancy rate and idle rate are 6.75% and 5.66% respectively, and the rate of one househould with multiple houses reaches 23.88%. The phenomenon of rural hollowing is obvious, and 50.87% of the villages in districts and counties are above the moderate hollowing, mainly distributed in the fringe area of the Pearl River Delta and Meizhou in northern Guangdong. At the same time, there is a certain phenomenon that the average household homestead area exceeds the standard. (4) The characteristics of rural housing utilization in Guangdong Province are affected by factors such as policies, economy, transportation, physical geographical condition and local customs. And the influencing factors in different regions are different, such as the special folk customs have a greater impact on rural housing in eastern Guangdong, and the economic situations and urban siphon have a greater impact on the characteristics of rural housing in the edge of the Pearl River Delta. There are obvious spatial differences in the utilization of rural homestead housing in Guangdong Province, and there are many idle homestead resources. There is great potential for the optimization and adjustment of rural construction land for rural revitalization.

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    Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Influencing Factors for Homestay Inns in Southern Jiangsu and Northern Zhejiang
    Shikun Shen, Chunyun Shi
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (1): 123-135.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003417
    Abstract525)   HTML7)    PDF (1806KB)(156)      

    With the acceleration of urbanization and industrialization, the migration of rural labor force has led to the decline of rural industries and communities. As one important way to adjust the rural industrial structure and revitalize rural culture, rural tourism has developed through the rural revitalization strategy and the leisure tourism transformation. In this context, with the use of idle housing resources, homestay inns are meeting consumers' increasing demand for leisure, while also improving facility capability regarding rural tourism, maintaining local landscape, and becoming an important industry for rural tourism. Thus, we took southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang, which have strong economic power and close regional cooperation, as examples, and used the location retrieval service in the Baidu Map API to obtain information on homestay inns. Then, we analyzed the spatial distribution characteristics of homestay inns with the help of ArcGIS, and Geodetector was used to further analyze the influencing factors leading to the spatial differentiation of homestay inns. The main conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) Homestay inns in southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang are both clustered in terms of spatial distribution, and tend to be distributed in areas with low terrain and water systems around tourism resources and traffic roads. (2) Homestay inns in southern Jiangsu have differences in the degree of agglomeration among cities, showing "a lumpy distribution of four core and secondary centers," while the spatial agglomeration of homestay inns in northern Zhejiang is balanced and has a wide range of contiguous areas, with a gradient distribution in the west, east, and middle. (3) Consumption level, market conditions, and traffic capacity are important common factors affecting the distribution of homestay inns. Interactions between any two factors enhances the explanatory power of the spatial differentiation, which proves that the unique distribution phenomenon of homestay inns is formed under the interaction of multiple influencing factors. (4) Homestay inns in northern Zhejiang are weakly affected by objective factors. In addition, the spatial distribution of homestay inns along a lake or river is a distinguishing characteristic between southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang. Homestay inns in southern Jiangsu are usually close to scenic spots, while homestay inns in northern Zhejiang are less dependent on tourism resources. Overall, the study aims to provide a reference for factors suitable for homestay inn operation and those to be improved, and to promote the transformation and rational layout of the homestay industry. The study is of practical significance to the distribution planning of homestay inns in areas with higher economic development, and it also summarizes the distribution characteristics of typical clusters of homestay inns.

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    Geo-Setting in the Arctic and Countermeasures of China: A Case Study of the "Polar Silk Road"
    Teng Ma, Yongning Li, Yijie Li, Yinhe Li, Debin Du, Zhiding Hu
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1142-1152.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003403
    Abstract525)   HTML3)    PDF (1069KB)(115)      

    The Arctic has an important strategic position owing to its rich resources. The world's major nations want to enter the Arctic to participate in Arctic affairs and establish influence in the Arctic; it has become one of the current international hot spots. The current research on geo-setting has turned to the perspective of the national state, but there is little research on this region. Under the background of global warming, China proposed the Arctic policy to build the "Polar Silk Road" with all parties as responsible nations. Based on the framework of geo-setting, this study analyzes the geo-setting of the Arctic and the influence of the "Polar Silk Road" on the geo-setting of the Arctic. First, the geo-setting of the Arctic is complex because it is located at the northernmost end of the earth. It contains rich resources and possesses high strategic value, which has led to competition among major nations in the world. As such, the geo-relations in the Arctic involve many subjects and issues. The subject relations include three aspects: the relation among Arctic nations, the relation between the Near-Arctic nations and the Arctic nations, and the relationship between Arctic aborigines and Arctic nations. These issues focus on territory, economy, energy, and the benefits of Arctic aborigines. The geo-structure of the Arctic has experienced three stages of evolution, and now presents a complex structure with the characteristics of "Central-Subcenter-Periphery." Second, the "Polar Silk Road" will influence the geo-settings in the Arctic in two aspects: on the one hand, although some nations disagree with the "Polar Silk Road," it will improve the tense geo-relations in the Arctic, promote the sub-regional cooperation, enable the participation of the Near-Arctic nations in Arctic affairs, and protect the Arctic indigenous people in general. On the other hand, it will make the core of the geo-structure more stable, the tightness among geo-entities closer, and further extend the geo-relations network.

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    Review of Chinese Intangible Cultural Heritage Research since the 21 st Century: With the Possible Contribution of Geography
    Wei Tao, Haohui Cai
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (1): 16-28.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003428
    Abstract519)   HTML8)    PDF (878KB)(297)      

    It is an era of "heritage" that we live in. After nearly two decades of practice and exploration, the social and academic circles have accumulated rich experience in the protection of intangible cultural heritage, especially the scholars of ethnology and art, who have made outstanding contributions to the development of intangible cultural heritage (ICH) protection system with local characteristics. However, comprehensive and critical geographical studies have paid less attention to this topic with less contribution. Firstly, this paper reviews the practice of intangible cultural heritage protection since 2003, starting from the birth of the concept of "intangible cultural heritage" and the revival of Chinese traditional folklore culture. The research progress of China's intangible cultural heritage is analyzed through the database of CNKI. And it is found that the intangible cultural heritage research has experienced two periods-rapid prosperity and steady growth, but relatively few papers have been published in high-quality and geographical journals. Due to the large number of related papers, it is impossible or unnecessary to exhaust all research topics. Therefore, based on the research and practical experience, three key topics in the academic research of intangible cultural heritage are summarized: "characteristics and the construction of meaning", "transmission and the reflection on systems", and "development and community initiative". And Section 3.1 focuses on the basic characteristics of intangible cultural heritage, the importance of intangible cultural heritage as social construction, and the significance of "making" intangible cultural heritage. The current basic laws and regulations for the protection and transmission of China's intangible cultural heritage-representative projects and representative transmitters of intangible cultural heritage are re-examined. It is called for respect for the views and opinions of community group when turning to the "community" in intangible cultural heritage. And it is believed that Chinese scholars have formed a new method and new theoretical system of intangible cultural heritage research with local Chinese characteristics, by actively learning from the academic achievements of western critical heritage research. Secondly, intangible cultural heritage has been incorporated into the national political system as an important cultural resource to promote the implementation of major national strategies. Rethinking the significance and role of intangible cultural heritage under the three geographical national strategies of rural revitalization, urban development and cultural nation, it is found that as a unique cultural resource, intangible cultural heritage plays an important role in promoting the implementation of major national strategies and urban and rural development. And it is believed that the social significance and academic value of intangible cultural heritage should be further explored continuously. Finally, five possible topics for geographers to study intangible cultural heritage are proposed in this paper-transmitters' daily life, social justice, mobility, natural and cultural interaction and international communication, so as to encourage and inspire the geographical research of intangible cultural heritage in the future.

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    Evolution of the Landscape and Spatial Distribution of Citrus Orchards in Jeju Island, Korea (1526-2019)
    Boki Hwang, Junfan Wu
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (5): 834-842.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003476
    Abstract515)   HTML9)    PDF (1278KB)(82)      

    The citrus orchard landscape in Jeju Island, South Korea has important cultural heritage value. It is a unique agricultural landscape shaped by local people, using the special climate, hydrology, and vegetation environment of Jeju Island. The Joseon Dynasty in the 16th century established a tribute system for citrus. The Jeju government also set up a citrus garden. Since then, the regional distribution and geographic landscape of citrus groves on Jeju Island have experienced great changes. This paper combines natural factors, such as climate and water resources, with human factors, such as Korean citrus industry policies, the market, social changes, and technological progress to study the changes in the landscape and spatial distribution of citrus orchards in Jeju Island since the 15th century, and analyzes the driving forces behind the spatial changes in citrus production on Jeju Island. The results show the following. From the 16th century to 2019, citrus production on Jeju Island experienced development-historically significant ups and downs of decline and strong revival. A large migration of production space from north to south was found. The space for citrus production has expanded gradually, and the production of citrus orchards on Jeju Island has undergone a transformation from government orchards in the Joseon period to a modern experiential farm for tourism. The driving forces for citrus production space changes and geographic landscape changes are complex. Water resources were the main natural factor affecting the distribution of citrus groves during the Joseon Dynasty. The social system, transportation, and market were the main factors influencing the expansion of citrus orchard production space from the 16th century to modern times. During the development of and changes in citrus production space over the past five hundred years, human factors have continuously strengthened and influenced the optimization and adjustment of citrus space and the geographical landscape. Since the 1970s, advances in water resource development technology have changed the spatial distribution pattern of modern citrus orchards. Research on the long-term production space and geographic landscape changes in Jeju Island, and their mechanism of citrus orchards, can create a cultural landscape of citrus orchards with local characteristics for traditional citrus cultivation areas in China. It can also provides references for folk customs, cultural products, and the upgrading and development of China's citrus industry.

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    Process, Characteristics and Mechanism of Spatial Transformation in Traditional Villages from the Perspective of Spatial Production: A Case Study of Maihuayucun Village in Huangshan City
    Xiaohua Chen, Yongyan Huang, Xiuxian Wang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (1): 78-86.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003425
    Abstract502)   HTML14)    PDF (1649KB)(212)      

    Traditional villages are the best witness of the process of agriculture civilization, with rich material and intangible culture heritage. However, under the influence of rapid urbanization, industrialization and globalization, the development of traditional villages is faced with dilemmas such as the decline of material space, the inactivation of cultural space and the hollowing of social space. Scientifically guiding the function renewal and spatial adaptive transformation of traditional villages is not only the practical needs of their protection and development, but also an important topic of rural development and planning research in China. Taking the national traditional village Maihuayucun Village in Huangshan City as an example, on the basis of field investigation, combined with the relevant literature review, and based on the perspective of "ternary dialectics" of space production, this paper analyzes the spatial transformation process, characteristics and driving mechanism of traditional villages from the three dimensions of material space, social space and institutional space. The results show that: (1) Since the reform and opening up, Maihuayucun Village has gradually evolved from a traditional agricultural village to an industrial village characterized with bonsai industry, which has experienced three stages: endogenous slow transformation and development, exogenous space rapid expansion and orderly space quality improvement. (2) The spatial transformation of traditional villages is characterized by the functional differentiation and remodeling of material space, the disintegration and reconstruction of social space, and the gradual improvement of institutional space. The space function has gradually changed from the traditional production and living function to multiple composite functions such as ecological leisure, characteristic bonsai planting, commercial operation and service, and cultural inheritance and display. The livelihood of villagers has been diversified, from the traditional single agricultural planting industry to the diversified livelihood methods such as bonsai management, farmhouse entertainment, and tourism services, and the social relations have changed from closed tradition to open and modern. And the subject of institutional space has changed from the dual subject of village committee and villagers to the multiple subject of government, village committee, villagers, capital and tourists. (3) The changes of social relations, capital investment and power intervention are the main driving forces for the spatial production of Maihuayucun Village. The three forces interact and promote the interactive evolution of social space, material space and institutional space, and jointly promote the spatial transformation. With the disintegration of traditional agricultural economy and the growth of bonsai industry, the growing demand for production and residence of villagers has promoted the continuous expansion and transformation of village material space. Driven by bonsai industry and rural tourism, the exogenous construction of villages has developed rapidly, and the support of a large amount of external capital has provided a strong driving force for the spatial transformation of villages. A series of rural development policies and measures issued by the state, especially the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy, provide strategic guidance and policy guarantee for the protection, development and spatial transformation of traditional villages. In the context of rural revitalization and integrated rural and urban development in the new era, and the increasingly complex relationship between man and land in rural areas, it is particularly important to explore the differentiated and distinctive path of China's rural transformation and development. And the research on the temporal and spatial characteristics and mechanism of rural spatial transformation of different types and different spatial scales needs to be further broken through. This paper can provide reference for relevant researches in terms of research perspective, research ideas and research spatial scale, and provide guidance for the protection, development and planning of traditional villages

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    The Superposition of Place Meaning and Place Identity of Qiaoxiang in the Context of Tourism Development: A Case Study of Wulin, Jinjiang, Quanzhou
    Yong Yang, Yongguang Zou, Qi Sun
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (1): 29-42.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003422
    Abstract496)   HTML10)    PDF (1136KB)(120)      

    Using qualitative research methods and taking Wulin in Jinjiang, Quanzhou City as an example, this study investigated the construction characteristics of Qiaoxiang's place meaning superposition from three aspects: entity dimension, social relations and local values, and revealed the superposition process of the place meaning of Qiaoxiang under the background of tourism development and the resulting place identity problems of different subjects including overseas Chinese. The study found that: (1) The superposition of place meaning under the dislocation of man and land is mainly completed through transmission mechanisms such as imagination and tourism system, which makes the overseas Chinese "absent in form" but "present everywhere in content" in Qiaoxiang, and promotes the transformation of Wulin into a place pattern mixed with tradition and modernity. (2) The superposition of place meaning has the attribute of relationship, and multivariate interactions are the remarkable features during its formation. The place meaning is essentially a manifestation of the man-land relationship. When the man-land relationship is no longer determined by the traditional geographic relationship or kinship, the weak bond relationship between man and land cannot be consolidated by the place meaning, which is manifested as the alienation of the relationship of "overseas Chinese-family members-hometown". (3) In terms of local values, the place meaning of Qiaoxiang has experienced a meaning superposition from the home scale to the national and ethnic scales, highlighting the selective representation of power on the place meaning in the context of tourism, and dynamically displaying the controversy on the orientation of spatial values of different subjects and the guidance of the national mainstream cultural values to the local. (4) In the context of tourism development, the superposition of the place meaning of Qiaoxiang has triggered the instrumental and selective "shopping cart" identity of overseas Chinese and the differentiated identity of local residents, and the identity structure of different subjects is full of tension, differentiation and even conflict.

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    Differences of Strategic Coupling Modes and Regional Collaboration in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    Jiehan Ji, Yi Liu, Murong Mei, Xiaoling Zhu
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (2): 171-182.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003436
    Abstract480)   HTML17)    PDF (1253KB)(132)      

    The current research on regional collaboration lacks the research perspective of global production network, which makes it difficult for the research on the collaboration of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area to recognize the differences in the development of strategic coupling modes of various cities in the Greater Bay Area, and to clarify the differences in the status and division of labor of these cities in the global production network. These differences are the key to the coordinated development of the Greater Bay Area. Therefore, based on the theoretical framework of the global production network, this study uses the variable of strategic coupling to analyze the development of the strategic coupling mode of the cities in the Greater Bay Area and the differences in their status and division of labor in the global production network, so as to further understand the coordinated development of the Greater Bay Area. There are three main findings in this study. First, the strategic coupling mode and evolution process of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao are essentially different, belonging to different global production networks. Hong Kong has experienced two processes of dependency coupling to decoupling in the development of local manufacturing and the later "having stores in front and factories behind" mode, forming a mutually beneficial coupling mode in the financial industry. Macao has experienced two processes from dependency coupling to decoupling in the manufacturing industry, forming an absorption coupling mode in the gambling industry. Second, there are also significant differences in the strategic coupling modes of cities in the Pearl River Delta. Each city is embedded into different global production networks through different leading industries. Third, under the influence of the strategic coupling differences of the above two scales, the regional economy of the Greater Bay Area does not gradually move toward coordinated development, but presents the characteristics of less connection-collaboration-collaborative difficulties. The core argument of this paper is that the differences of strategic coupling mode lead to the embedding of cities into global production networks with significant differences in economic cycles, production systems and technological structures, making it difficult to achieve the overall regional collaboration. And the contribution of this study is that with the help of the global production network theory, it provides a new interpretation perspective for regional collaboration research, reveals the difficulties of regional collaboration in the Greater Bay Area, enriches the study of the long-term dynamic evolution of relational economic geography, and provides some suggestions for the formulation of collaborative policy.

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    Spatial Differentiation Pattern and Driving Factors of Geo-Risk in Latin America Based on the "Belt and Road" Initiative
    Yukun Shen, Huasong Luo, Juhua Hong, Maolin Liang, Shuai Ye
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1222-1235.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003399
    Abstract462)   HTML5)    PDF (1825KB)(62)      

    The inherent geo-strategic attributes of the "Belt and Road" initiative are inevitably impacted by geo-risks. Latin America is a critical practice space for the "Belt and Road" initiative. As a natural extension of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, it plays a pivotal role in the "Belt and Road" initiative. However, there is a lack of systematic research on the geo-risks faced by the "Belt and Road" initiative in Latin America. The study aims to measure the geo-risk index faced by the 33 sovereign countries of the "Belt and Road" initiative in Latin America and its spatial differentiation pattern; further, it aims to analyze the driving factors in the spatial differentiation pattern of geo-risk. It seeks to provide support for deepening the cooperation between Chinese domestic enterprises and organizations and Latin American countries, within the framework of the "Belt and Road" initiative. Starting with the international, regional, and domestic scales, a Latin American geo-risk evaluation index system based on the "Belt and Road" was constructed. This study uses the entropy-expert scoring method to determine the weight of each index, evaluates the geo-risks of 33 sovereign countries in Latin America, and uses geographic detectors to accurately identify the driving factor groups in the spatial differentiation pattern of geo-risks in the three major geographical regions of Latin America. The research indicates the following: (1) The geo-risk spatial heterogeneity of Latin America based on the "Belt and Road" is obvious. The geo-risk index, international geo-risk index, regional geo-risk index, political risk, and ecological environmental risk under domestic geo-risks are the highest in South America, followed by Mexico and Central America, and the lowest in the Caribbean; the domestic geo-risk is the highest in Mexico and Central America, followed by South America, and the lowest in the Caribbean; the economic risk is the highest in South America, followed by the Caribbean, while it is the lowest in Mexico and Central America; the highest social risk is in the Caribbean, followed by South America, while it is the lowest in the Caribbean; the risk of bilateral relations is the highest in Mexico and Central America, the second highest in the Caribbean, and the lowest in South America. (2) The influence of each factor group on the geo-risk spatial differentiation pattern in the three major geographical regions is different. The factor groups with a relatively large impact on South America are mainly political risk, international geo-risk, and social risk, while those with a relatively large impact on Mexico and Central America are mainly economic risks, bilateral relationship risks, international geo-risks, political risks, and other factor groups. The factor groups with a relatively large impact on the Caribbean are mainly social risks, international geo-risks, political risks, and bilateral relationship risks. To some extent, the study enriches the geo-risk evaluation system and provides a reference for conducting geo-risk evaluations. Meanwhile, it may also serve as a reference for domestic enterprises and organizations to avoid risks in their cooperation with Latin American countries within the framework of the "Belt and Road" initiative.

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    Measurement and Evaluation of the Coordinated Development in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    Changjian Wang, Yuyao Ye, Fei Wang, Zhengdong Huang, Qijun Li, Yu Chen, Haoxi Lin, Kangmin Wu, Xiaojie Lin, Hong'ou Zhang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (2): 206-219.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003434
    Abstract460)   HTML13)    PDF (1668KB)(115)      

    On the basis of fully understanding the scientific connotation of coordinated development of urban agglomeration in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, the evaluation index system of coordinated development is constructed from four dimensions: industrial coordinative innovation, environmental coordinative governance, service coordinative sharing and institutional coordinative arrangement. The theory and method of space of flows, big data, network analysis and interlocking network model are comprehensively used to quantitatively analyze the interurban relationship, liquidity, connectivity and boundary effect. The research shows that: 1) Interurban capital flow is concentrated between Guangzhou and Shenzhen, and interurban knowledge flow is concentrated among Hong Kong, Guangzhou and Shenzhen. Macao, Zhuhai, Zhongshan and Jiangmen have higher level of collaborative environmental governance, while Shenzhen-Dongguan-Huizhou and Guangzhou-Foshan have lower level of collaborative environmental governance. The interurban service coordination sharing level of infrastructure such as transportation, communications, logistics and banking is higher among cities of Guangzhou-Shenzhen, Guangzhou-Foshan and Shenzhen-Dongguan. And Hong Kong and Macao have institutional advantages in cross-border regional coordination. 2) Guangzhou and Shenzhen, Guangzhou and Foshan, Shenzhen and Dongguan, and Hong Kong and Shenzhen have the best level of coordinated development in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. At the same time, Guangzhou and Dongguan, Shenzhen and Foshan show a linkage trend. Although the de-boundary trend is obvious and the interurban liquidity is enhanced, the coordinated development level of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area is generally not high. 3) The collaborative capacity of Guangzhou and Shenzhen is the strongest, and there is still much room for improvement in the collaborative capacity of the two international cities, Hong Kong and Macao. It is of great practical value to deeply understand the typical characteristics and potential trends of the coordinated development of urban agglomeration in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area for the construction of international first-class bay area and world-class urban agglomeration.

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    Spatial Features of Urban Vitality and the Impact of Built Environment on Them Based on Multi-Source Data: A Case Study of Shenzhen
    Na Wang, Jiansheng Wu, Sheng Li, Hongliang Wang, Zifeng Peng
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1280-1291.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003406
    Abstract451)   HTML8)    PDF (1692KB)(177)      

    As a key index to evaluate whether a city is attractive or has a healthy, comprehensive, and sustainable development potential, urban vitality is critical to the future development and construction of a city. Exploring the mechanism of how the built environment influences urban vitality from the perspective of urban morphology can be conducive to future urban space planning and design and can provide city planners with quantitative and scientific decision-making support. This study uses urban POI, cellular signaling, and nighttime light remote sensing data from Shenzhen to measure its cultural, social, and economic vitality, which constitutes a comprehensive vitality assessment of the city. Spatial features of these urban vitalities were then analyzed to further illustrate their distribution patterns. Using Bivariate Moran's I method, the spatial autocorrelations between economic, social, and cultural vitality were calculated. From the five dimensions of Density, Design, Diversity, Distance to Transit, and Destination Accessibility, the 5D detection index system was constructed to measure the urban built environment. This study also used GeoDetector to detect and analyze the spatial differentiation between various built environmental factors and comprehensive, economic, social, and cultural vitality and to explore the mechanism of the influence of the built environment on urban vitality. The results show that: 1) The spatial distribution of comprehensive vitality is extremely uneven in Shenzhen, with a higher vitality in the southern and western regions of Shenzhen city and a lower vitality in the northern and eastern regions. Areas with higher comprehensive vitality usually developed along the main roads and metro lines and are distributed in strips along the coastline of central-southern and western Shenzhen. The high-value areas of the urban comprehensive vitality center are primarily concentrated in city- or district-level commercial centers, and employment centers. Comprehensive vitality in Shenzhen reflects social vitality. 2) Urban comprehensive, economic, social, and cultural vitality are significantly affected by the built environment, as indicated by the 5D system. High POI and building density, average building floors, and land use entropy, have significant positive impacts on urban vitality. However, residential population density did not have a significant impact on each aspect of urban vitality. 3) Some interactions between built environment factors had a greater impact on urban comprehensive vitality, such as residential population density, road network density, land use entropy, and road network density. Overall, the interaction between building density, average building floors, land use entropy, and other factors, have a more positive impact on each aspect of urban vitality. 4) The presentation of urban comprehensive vitality is the result of multiple dimensions and factors. In the influencing mechanism of urban comprehensive vitality, building density and average building floors were the fundamental factors. POI density and land use entropy were the direct driving factors. Residential population density was an inducing factor. Distance from the administrative center, intersection density, road network density, metro station density, and bus station density were adjustive factors. The research results therefore provide valuable suggestions for the optimal allocation of resources and the rational layout of urban functional facilities in Shenzhen.

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    Progress and Prospects of Western Geopolitical Research in the Arctic Region
    Zhiding Hu, Feifei Gu, Yidan Huang, Debin Du
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1175-1187.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003402
    Abstract450)   HTML1)    PDF (873KB)(96)      

    As the melting of Arctic Sea ice because of global warming creates new shipping routes and energy resources, the post-Cold War peace and stability of the Arctic has been shattered. It has once again become a strategic location for multinational rivalries, attracting widespread attention in international geopolitical circles. Compared to other regions of the world, studying the Arctic region from a Western geopolitical perspective is at the forefront of international research. Although China, as a near-Arctic country, has developed geopolitical research on the Arctic in response to its practical needs, domestic research in this field started late, with room for improvement in its breadth and depth. Therefore, 98 papers in the Web of Science core database that are highly relevant to Arctic geopolitics are selected as the object of the study. Through a literature review, we summarize the development of Arctic research from a Western geopolitical perspective, and the shift in perspective and hot topics; we adopt a forward-looking perspective of future research development trends to provide reference for innovative research in this field in China. The results reveal the following: (1) Research on the geopolitics of the Arctic has been conducted in a wide range of fields and topics in Western academia, with some correlation among the topics, although the links among the studies are not strong, and the research scale generally shows a fluctuating growth trend. (2) The research content, composed of six major fields (boundary and territorial politics, Arctic shipping routes, Arctic resource development, Arctic geo-strategy, Arctic security and governance, and indigenous population issues), focus on politics and economics but is lack of cultural research. (3) Under the influence of aesthetic humanism and the "cultural and institutional turn," the trend in the cross-fertilization of geopolitical, geo-economic, and geo-cultural perspectives has increasingly become more obvious. (4) Research on the Arctic from a geopolitical perspective has been relatively fruitful, although there remain shortcomings in the depth of theoretical research, breadth of research scale, diversity of research methods, and geo-economic and geo-cultural research paradigms, which require further development. Future research will generate new ideas and directions in immaterial areas such as theoretical framework studies, interdisciplinary studies, and emotional culture, and will focus more on the role of multiple actors, such as indigenous peoples and NGOs, in geopolitical knowledge production and power competition.

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    Verification and Expansion of the Theoretical Model about Trans-Local Food Brand Rebranding: A Case Study of Starbucks
    Xinwen Liang, Guojun Zeng
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1236-1245.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003405
    Abstract443)   HTML12)    PDF (829KB)(172)      

    The globalization of capital is the product of the social division of labor and the development of social productive forces. It is also the worldwide expansion of the capitalist mode, and its relations, of production. Trans-local catering brand management is a process of brand remodeling; its general strategy is to re-establish its brand identity, which is unique and different from its competitors', such that the production capital can help establish a new brand image in other countries. Simultaneously, the catering needs of Chinese residents are now different and complex, which meets the self-appreciation needs of foreign capital to a certain extent. Western chain enterprises have become the forerunners of global cultural input, having achieved different degrees of brand remodeling in China in the process of globalization and local cooperation. Although studies have preliminarily explored the phenomenon of trans-local food brand remodeling, it is worth verifying and discussing whether the existing theoretical models are universal and have sufficient explanatory power in the context of the ever-changing international situation and domestic consumption environment. Moreover, few studies discuss brand remodeling from the perspective of the simultaneous effects of two cultures, such as the cultural factors of the home country and the trans-local and post-local cultural factors. Therefore, based on the background of the "spatial turn" and the "cultural turn" this study reflects on the reality of contemporary consumption, empirically analyzes the theoretical path of trans-local catering brand remodeling, and establishes a structural equation model with the culture of brand origin and local consumption culture as the pre-factors of brand equity, to verify the influencing factors and mechanism of trans-local catering brand remodeling. The study finds that the continuous improvement in brand equity contributes to the process of trans-local brand remodeling. The image of origin has a direct and significant positive impact on brand awareness, brand loyalty, and perceived quality. Local consumption culture only affects brand awareness, but has no direct influence on perceived quality or brand loyalty. However, local consumption culture can affect perceived quality and brand loyalty through brand awareness, which then influence purchase intention. Local consumption culture provides the necessary cultural, historical, and political basis for understanding brand meaning in various situations. However, with the development of the economy and the establishment of cultural self-confidence, Chinese people's consumption concept is more rational and pragmatic. Thus, brand reconstruction must be based on the promotion of brand equity. It is not sufficient to have the advantage of brand awareness. Perceived quality is an important intermediary to brand loyalty, which is the only way to develop purchase intention. Although the "halo" effect of the image of origin still exists, good brand quality perception is another important factor influencing customers' brand loyalty and purchase intention. Food quality is the primary factor in the survival of the catering industry, and trans-local catering brands should focus more on the customer recognition of the products themselves. The extent to which the current food experience can directly meet customers' expectations will determine whether customers are willing to pay for the brand continuously. In summary, this study discusses two kinds of cultural and geographical factors, namely the origin effect and local consumption culture, verifies and expands the existing trans-local restaurant brand remodeling model, and verifies the new path hypothesis. It enriches the case study objects and explores the contextualized differences of the theory, thus providing a new case practice for contemporary catering geographical and cultural consumption.

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    Influence of Population Mobility and Migration on the Original Economic Gap and Spatial Spillover Effect in the Yangtze River Economic Belt
    Yongming Zeng, Zepingand Wang Yaoyao Luo
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1258-1269.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003400
    Abstract421)   HTML5)    PDF (1487KB)(75)      

    The difference in endowment and the implementation of the gradient development strategy have promoted the large-scale cross-regional migration of China's population and have led to a close relationship between population mobility and migration and the spatial pattern of regional development. There has always been a debate about whether population mobility and migration have an expanding or narrowing effect on the regional economic gap. Therefore, the study revisits the topic and uses panel data on 104 cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2001 to 2017, fully considering spatial dependence based on spatial econometrics models. The main findings are as follows: First, for the global regional economic gap, there is an inverted "U"-shaped nonlinear relationship between population mobility, population migration, and the economic gap, with an expansion effect in the early stage and a convergence effect in the later stage. This is in line with China's gradient development strategy, and is consistent with the phased development concept of "the first rich lead the second rich, ultimately achieving common prosperity." Second, regarding the provincial regional economic gap, population mobility manifests itself as an expansion effect initially and a convergence effect afterward, while population migration only manifests as an expansion effect without a convergence effect. The difference in the effects of population mobility and population migration may be due to the spatial transformation of the economic behavior and resource allocation owing to the latter's household registration (hukou) change, as population migration is a direct output of the economic behavior of the emigration area. Services will be reduced, and the agglomeration effect in moving-in areas will further widen the regional economic gap with moving-out areas. Third, having considered the spatial effect, judging the endogenous relationship between population mobility and migration and the regional economic gap has become relatively complex but more comprehensive and objective; the decomposition of the spatial effect shows that population mobility and population migration are ultimately conducive to the balanced development of the region, in which the spillover effect plays an important role. The study's marginal contribution is breaking the simplified study of the linear relationship between population mobility, migration, and the regional economic gap. The inclusion of spatial effects confirms the non-linear relationship between them. The conclusion is consistent with the reality of the regional development process in China. This study shows that population mobility and migration are not only conducive to regional economic growth but are also conducive to regional economic equilibrium. Therefore, it is beneficial to rationally guide and promote the population flow among regions, and to further reform the household registration system. In future, it will be necessary to deepen the study of the geographical process of population flow and of the law of temporal and spatial evolution and its effect on regional development, paying special attention to the protection of the welfare rights of the floating population.

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    The Research Progress of Emotional Geopolitics in the West
    Peng Li, Luchao Yao, Yuqian Lin, Da Feng
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1166-1174.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003408
    Abstract417)   HTML5)    PDF (658KB)(70)      

    Emotional geopolitics, as a new field of geopolitical research, advocates that geopolitics should pay more attention to the analysis of emotion. It breaks the dualistic opposition between emotion and reason in classical geopolitical theory, and places emotion at the center of geopolitical analysis. Through the application of non-representational theory, emotional geopolitics takes individual emotion from the periphery to the core. At present, studies on emotional geopolitics in the West have focused on the power geometric relationship of "everyday life-emotion-global politics" from both the macro and micro views. The macroscopic approach constructs the structural relations between different emotions and political actions, attempting to develop general theories on how emotions matter in geopolitics, whereas micro studies focus on how specific emotions gain resonance in particular political circumstances. Microscopic approaches investigate how specific emotions are constituted by and function in particular cultural and political environments, and how emotions in different cultural contexts are localized and serve to interact with global geopolitics. By searching "emotional geopolitics" and "affective geopolitics" as key words in the Web of Science, 145 articles were detected, and 73 of these were reviewed in this study. The number of articles related to emotional geopolitics fluctuated before 2018 and has increased significantly in recent years. The study subjects of this emerging field include youth, housewives, diplomats, and border migrants. The research topics are diverse, mainly including critical geopolitics on global fear, daily life and emotional geopolitical practices, and the relationship between emotion and policy/diplomatic action. First, the emergence of globalized fear associated with terrorism and the War on Terror since 2001 played an important role in shaping the Western geopolitical environment in the past decades. Some scholars tend to criticize the discursive strategies and specific actions of fear geopolitics by arguing that governments and public policies increasingly exploit and recreate the emotion of fear to control and manipulate state decision-making and community actions. Second, emotional geopolitics inspired by feminism, popular geopolitics, and anthropology theoretical approaches, focus on exploring the emotional lives of individuals with the intervention of geopolitical action. Most emotional geopolitics literature draws on the everyday lives of ordinary people, not only focusing on the affective intervention of geopolitics in individuals' daily lives, but also continuously exploring how people emotionally respond to geopolitical events and how these emotions are related to collective action in different contexts. Third, some studies have examined the roles emotions play in policy/diplomacy. As a force of public opinion, emotions provide legitimacy or impetus to geopolitical action. This paper argues that the study of emotional geopolitics can provide a new perspective on the changes in the world system and geopolitical relations caused by the rise of China, enriching the understanding of subjectivity and multi-scale of geopolitics in theory.

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    Structural Characteristics of Trade Network in Countries along the Polar Silk Road
    Wulin Wang, Jiao Gong, Zhen Lin
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1199-1208.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003396
    Abstract407)   HTML9)    PDF (2183KB)(103)      

    As an extension of the Belt and Road Initiative to the Arctic, the Polar Silk Road initiative has provided opportunities for international trade development along its routes. this can accelerate the transnational flow of economic factors and promote the sustainable development of global trade. Based on the trade data of 37 countries along the Polar Silk Road in 2019, a trade network of these countries has been constructed. The complex network analysis method is used to study the topological structure characteristics of the trade network and to analyze the geo-spatial distribution characteristics of the three centrality indexes of the nodes. Community detection is used to identify the structure of the trade community and analyze its spatial distribution characteristics. With the help of the Continuous Coreness model, the core degree of the country is calculated and its circle structure is visualized. This study found that: (1) The high density and reciprocity of the trade network indicate that the network is very interoperable and diffusive. Compared with the random network, the Polar Silk Road trade network has a higher agglomeration coefficient and a shorter average path length, indicating that it has the characteristics of small-world and scale-free. (2) The trade network node has a typical hierarchy, presenting obvious characteristics of the "core-edge" circle structure, while Germany, China, the United States, and the Netherlands are in the core circle and are the hubs of the trade network. (3) The trade network can be divided into five different communities, namely the North American community, a community dominated by East Asian countries, and three communities dominated by European countries. Their spatial distribution is characterized by continuity, with close trade links among the communities, and China is the core of the community to which it belongs. (4) The trade network is characterized by the coexistence structure of hub radiation and full connection. The intensity centrality presents an embedded unit pattern, and the closeness centrality is characterized by the block distribution of a concentrated continuous area. The polarization of intermediary centrality is very obvious, forming a spatial pattern of "high in European and American countries and low in Asian countries." This study enriches the empirical research on the trade network of countries along the Polar Silk Road, provides new ideas for promoting trade cooperation and development of countries along the road, and is conducive to optimizing the trade network structure. It also provides a theoretical basis for China to rationally formulate the economic construction strategy of the road and the ways and specific implementation of trade cooperation with countries on that route. Future research could focus on the evolution and influencing factors of the trade network topology characteristics of countries along the road, with a view to better explore ways to promote the implementation of the Polar Silk Road initiative.

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    Features, Models and Logic of Function Renewal of "Living-Production-Ecological" Space in Tourism-Driven Traditional Villages: A Case Study of Zhang Guying Village, Hunan Province
    Yindi Dou, Weiyi Ye, Bohua Li
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (1): 136-147.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003423
    Abstract406)   HTML6)    PDF (1543KB)(129)      

    In the context of new urbanization and rural revitalization, analyzing the function renewal features, modes and logic of traditional villages based on the perspective of "living-production-ecological" space can reflect the multi-functional value mining process and the socio-economic structure transformation process of tourism-driven traditional villages to a certain extent. This study sorts out the spatial function evolution of Zhang Guying Village in the past 30 years through field investigation, constructing the land use transformation matrix by using GIS spatial overlay, and makes empirical research on the function renewal features of the "living-production-ecological" space in Zhang Guying Village.The research conclusions are as follows: 1) The function renewal of the "living-production-ecological" space in Zhang Guying Village is mainly manifested in the tourism adaptability characteristics of the integration of production and residence in life functions, tourism of production functions, landscaping of ecological functions, and diversification of tourism functions, showing the development trend of the integration of "production-life" and "ecology-production" functions based on the rural authentic experience, as well as the spatio-temporal differentiation characteristics of the degree of functional renewal in space and orderly deepening in time. 2) The "living-production-ecological" space system of Zhang Guying Village realizes the renewal and integrated development of tourism functions of traditional functional space through three modes: the development of human landscape and the excavation of folk culture of living space, the construction of diversified and high-quality tourism service modules of production space, and the conservation of ecological environment and natural landscape combing of ecological space. It has obvious functional space transformation and integration direction and interactive characteristics of rural tourism and residence. 3) Tourism-driven rural society drives tourism development and functional renewal through the construction of supply-demand relationship, drives multi-stakeholders to participate in tourism management,through the extension of demonstration effects along with expanding the scope of function renewal and deepening the degree of function renewal, and promotes the diversified development of tourism functions through host-guest interaction feedback. As a part of the "living-production-ecological" space system, under the interaction of various socio-economic elments, the tourism renewal process of spacial function also reflects the orderly change of spatial structure of orderly housing construction, agglomeration of production layout and expansion of ecological space, as well as the improvement of spatial attribute quality of production efficiency, improvement of living level and improvement of ecological environment, reflecting the co-evolution process of all aspects of the rural "living-production-ecological" space system. The quantitative analysis method adopted in this study is relatively simple. Although it complements the qualitative perspective and expounds the functional renewal features and modes of the "living-production-ecological" space in traditional villages, the research results are still subjective. Therefore, the research results of this study may deviate from the actual situation. As this study takes the features, modes and logic of functional renewal as the main analysis content, in the follow-up research, we can focus on a specific aspect of tourist villages, absorb the relevant theories and research methods of other disciplines, and carry out the thematic analysis of the impact of functional renewal. With the help of study site, this study constructs the spatial function renewal framework of the "living-production-ecological" space in traditional villages, so as to provide theoretical and empirical reference for the organic renewal and living development of traditional villages.

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    The Geographical Pattern and Diversity of Strategic Industry Technological Innovation in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    Kangmin Wu, Yuyao Ye, Hong'ou Zhang, Zuxin He, Xiangyu Wang, Zhijun Zheng
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (2): 183-194.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003438
    Abstract404)   HTML10)    PDF (2156KB)(109)      

    The dynamics of innovation in geographical space is closely related to the regional development trajectory. Evolutionary economic geography points out the path dependence characteristics of regional development, and emphasizes that the direction of regional development is rooted in the original industrial and technological structure characteristics. Therefore, the geographical pattern of technological innovation and the identification of its diversity characteristics are of significance to the realization of regional innovation and the evolution of industrial structure. From the perspective of strategic industry, this paper aims to reveal the geographical pattern and diversity characteristics of technological innovation in strategic industry in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA). Based on the point scale spatial data of invention patents in the GBA and by means of connecting strategic industry with national economy industry classification code and patent IPC classification code, the invention patents of six major industries in the GBA are extracted, which are the new generation of electronic information industry, automobile industry, green petrochemical industry, new energy industry, advanced material industry and intelligent robot industry. And the nuclear density analysis, standard deviation tail value test, entropy method and average nearest neighbor distance analysis are used to identify the spatial distribution characteristics and differences of multiple types of technological innovation in the GBA. The results show that the geographic pattern of technological innovation in the GBA presents a significant spatial imbalance. At the regional scale, Guangzhou and Shenzhen are the two agglomeration cores. There is a large gap in the innovation ability between the east and west sides of the Pearl River. The accumulation of technological innovation on the east bank is much higher than that on the west bank. The innovation profile line on the east bank has formed two obvious peaks in Guangzhou and Shenzhen. The high value of the innovation profile line on the west bank is mainly concentrated in Guangzhou and Zhuhai, and the peak value is far lower than that on the east bank. The location of technological diversity is mainly distributed in the core areas of the GBA, mainly including Yuexiu District and Tianhe District in Guangzhou, Nanshan District and Futian District in Shenzhen, Binhai District in Dongguan and Xiangzhou District in Zhuhai. And the distribution characteristics of technological innovation data of different industrial types are different. The innovation of the new generation of electronic information industry, advanced materials industry and green petrochemical industry accounts for 51.67% of the total innovation in the GBA. The innovation of different technological types shows obvious spatial differentiation. The innovation agglomeration degree of the new generation electronic information industry is the highest, with the R value of 0.0576. And its observed value of the average nearest neighbor distance between invention patents is 32.03 m, which belongs to the minimum value in the selected analysis industries, showing strong agglomeration characteristics. There are differences in the distribution characteristics of the agglomeration core of the six major industries in the GBA. The common ground is that they have formed the largest two agglomeration cores in the core areas of Guangzhou and Shenzhen, covering Yuexiu-Tianhe area in Guangzhou and Futian-Nanshan-Luohu area in Shenzhen. And the spatial distribution is mainly concentrated in the core areas of Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Dongguan and Zhuhai. Among them, the spatial agglomeration degree of the new generation of electronic information industry innovation is the highest. Agglomeration and multi-dimensional proximity, diversity and path dependence are the main mechanisms for the formation of the geographical pattern of technological innovation in the GBA, and these two key mechanisms promote the formation of current multi-type technological innovation space in the GBA.

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    Comparative Study on the Governance Framework of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area: From the Perspective of Institutional Environment
    Chengpeng Wu, Xianchun Zhang, Yingjie Hu
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (2): 256-268.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003446
    Abstract399)   HTML8)    PDF (2787KB)(256)      

    As the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area has become a national strategy, bay area governance has become an important issue of academic attention. Existing studies pay more attention to specific governance measures and current situation, and there are few studies on the environmental causes behind them. In addition, most of the existing studies focus on the governance of the Greater Bay Area from a single perspective of politics, law, economy, culture and society, and lack of a more comprehensive institutional environment perspective to summarize the theoretical explanation of the political, legal and participant issues that are particularly prominent in the governance of the Greater Bay Area. Therefore, studying the construction of a comparative analysis framework around the institutional environment is aimed to examine the internal causes of the governance characteristics of the Greater Bay Area, enrich the research perspective of domestic regional governance, and provide suggestions for the governance of the Greater Bay Area. This paper constructs a comparative research framework of bay area governance institutional environment, including three dimensions of power structure, legal structure and social capital structure. Using the text/desktop analysis method, it systematically summarizes the governance frameworks of the Greater Bay Area, San Francisco Bay Area and Tokyo Bay Area, and comparatively analyzes the governance institutional environment of the three bay areas. The study holds that the mode characteristics and effects of bay area governance are closely related to the institutional environment composed of power structure, legal structure and social capital structure. The power structure affects the flexibility of governance, and the power structure of the Greater Bay Area is asymmetric and fragmented, which is relatively closed and centralized, resulting in a single governance model always dominated by the government; the legal structure affects the transaction cost of governance, and the Greater Bay Area has not yet formed a unified and efficient legal system structure, resulting in higher transaction cost in the governance process; and the social capital structure affects the multiple participation in governance and the cohesion of the bay area, and in the Greater Bay Area, the positive social capital is relatively weak, the multiple participation in governance is insufficient and the bottom-up cohesion is not strong. Finally, it is suggested that the governance of the Greater Bay Area should start from the power, law and social capital structure, and explore the flexible reconstruction of the institutional space under the respective advantages of the three regions; in the construction of institutional environment, non-governmental subjects should be guided to participate in governance stably and orderly, so as to enhance the cohesion of the Greater Bay Area; and on the basis of ensuring the authoritative policies of the central and provincial governments, it should explore the decentralization and autonomy of local governments in the Greater Bay Area in due course. This paper constructs an institutional environment including power structure, legal structure and social capital structure, and comparatively analyzed the governance characteristics of the three bay areas under different institutional environments. From a more comprehensive perspective of environmental internal factors, it makes a theoretical explanation of the particularly prominent issues of politics, legal system and participants in the governance of the Greater Bay Area, which enriches the research perspective of regional governance in China.

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    Scene Planning: Promoting Coordinated Development of Urban Agglomeration A Case Study of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    Chen Guo, Shu Feng, Moxi Tang, Zhengyu Tang, Zhipeng Yang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (2): 305-317.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003433
    Abstract393)   HTML4)    PDF (1156KB)(68)      

    Since the 21st century, the term "scene" has been widely used in various fields, mainly involving sociology, communication, education, the Internet, commercial marketing and so on. Academic circles have also carried out scene-related research to form their own definitions and theories. With the continuous innovation of technical means, the connotation of a scene is constantly enriched, from the face-to-face physical space dimension to the multi-dimensional information space, and gradually evolved into the scene characteristics of spatio-temporal integration. However, there is still a lack of complete theoretical research and practical discussion on what is the scene, what are the elements of the scene, and how to combine the specific scene to guide and carry out the scene planning and design in different fields. The existing scene theory cannot be well applied in the field of urban development, and cannot help the scene related research of coordinated development of urban agglomeration. By combing the development context of scene theory at home and abroad, this study makes an in-depth interpretation and analysis of the connotation and characteristics of the scene. It is believed that the scene contains six characteristic elements, such as time, space, object, problem, path and value. The scene is a kind of specific interactive relationship formed by a series of actions, based on the key issues and objectives of the events under specific spatio-temporal conditions, with technology and resources as the media. The construction of the scene can meet the needs of stakeholders and create and realize value. The theoretical system of scene planning including scene elements, scene hierarchy characteristics and scene planning methods is constructed. It is considered that scene planning is a systematic process to realize specific social, economic or ecological functions and values by integrating existing resources and technologies to carry out scene construction and design, focusing on key issues and objectives with stakeholders as its center, under the environmental factors of social and economic development, government policies and technological innovation. From the perspectives of scene recognition, scene construction, scene evaluation and scene application, the new exploration of scene planning tools is realized to guide scene practice in different fields. Taking the coordinated development of urban agglomeration in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area as an example, this study excavates the current problems and development objectives of the Greater Bay Area based on the scene planning method, identifies 100 important scene units representing the coordinated development direction of urban agglomeration in the Greater Bay Area, and identifies and analyzes each scene element for these scene units, so as to provide basic support for further scene construction. Finally, taking the ecological corridor construction of urban agglomeration in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area as an application example, the scene planning method is preliminarily applied to analyze the scene elements, so as to provide a basis for the next practical exploration work such as scene evaluation and scene application demonstration. The theoretical system of scene planning is not only a further extension of the scene concept, but also an overall coordination tool to promote the coordinated development of urban agglomeration. It can provide theoretical basis and practical guidance for the future scene research on the coordinated development of urban agglomeration, and help the collaborative construction of urban agglomeration. In the future, it is suggested to carry out specific scene analysis and scene design on the industry, population, transportation, environment, infrastructure and public services of the GBA urban agglomeration, and gradually realize the in-depth exploration of the coordinated development theory and mechanism innovation of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area through the scene planning theory.

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    The Multi-Center Spatial Structure in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area Urban Agglomeration Based on Luojia1-01 Nighttime Light Data and POI Data
    Qiuying Zhi, Jieying Chen, Yingchun Fu, Biyun Guo
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (3): 444-456.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003455
    Abstract392)   HTML19)    PDF (2746KB)(91)      

    The Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (referred to as "GBA") is an important strategic deployment for China's current economic development. Clarifying the spatial structure characteristics of the GBA urban agglomeration is conducive to optimizing its spatial structure to develop into a multi-center network spatial structure and promoting coordinated regional development. This study uses the advantage of Luojia1-01 nighttime light data, which can distinguish the difference in urban night light intensity. Through multi-scale segmentation of nighttime light intensity, the potential center range is established. The point of interest (POI) data are used for spatial autocorrelation analysis and geographically weighted regression to identify the multi-center distribution of the GBA urban agglomeration, and to analyze its spatial structure characteristics from multiple perspectives such as functional structure identification, spatial correlation measurement, and main center service range. The following list illustrates what the results show. 1) The GBA has five main centers and 14 sub-centers, including the main centers of Guangfo, Shenguan, Hong Kong, Aozhu, and Zhongshan. The functional structures of the five main centers are mainly mixed functional areas, and 14 sub-centers (such as Huadu, Zengcheng, Conghua, Huicheng, Duanzhou, Xinhui, Shiqi) are distributed around the periphery of the main centers. 2) The correlation strength of the five main centers and nine cities plus two special administrative regions in the urban agglomeration, calculated based on the Luojia1-01 nighttime light data, shows characteristics of "strong in the east and weak in the west" and "strong inside and weak outside." 3) The study considered the distribution of the main centers of the urban agglomeration and their spatial correlation strength characteristics, as well as the three groups served by the main centers (Guangfozhao group, Gang-Shenguanhui group and Ao-Zhuzhongjiang group), combined with the planning requirements of the "Outline Development Plan for the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area" and "Guangdong Province Land and Space Planning (2020-2035)." The findings suggest that the GBA should build a regional spatial structure of "five centers, one area, three groups and four axes" to achieve pole-driven, axis-supported, and group cooperation and promote its coordinated development into a world-class urban agglomeration.

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    Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Sources of River Nitrogen in Typical Urbanized Areas in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    Manzi Li, Aiping Zhu, Ying Wang, Jianyao Chen, Zuobing Liang, Qirui Wu, Di Tian, Gang Zeng, Liangjie Zhao
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (2): 318-327.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003441
    Abstract391)   HTML10)    PDF (2240KB)(74)      

    A typical urbanized area in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, Liuxi River-West Channel-North Channel in Guangzhou City, was used to reveal the impacts of rapid urbanization on riverine nutrients. Two field campaigns were implemented in both wet and dry season, e.g. July 2020 and January 2021. Forty surface water samples were collected to analyze indicators such as major ions and stable isotopes (δ15N- N O 3 - , δ18O- N O 3 - and δ15N- N H 4 + ) The spatiotemporal characteristics and sources of river nitrogen in the study area were explored by using hydrochemistry and isotopes (δ15N- N O 3 - , δ18O- N O 3 - and δ15N- N H 4 + ) methods. The results show that from upstream to downstream, the influences of human activties on the mass concentrations of Cl-, N H 4 + -N, N O 3 - -N, DIN (Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen) are gradually prominent. The concentrations of N H 4 + -N and DIN in the wet season are higher than those in the dry season, mainly due to the the more intensive influence of exogenous input than the combined effect of rainfall and upstream water dilution. In the composition distribution of dissolved total nitrogen, N H 4 + -N and N O 3 - -N are the main forms in the wet and dry season respectively, indicating significant impact of human activities in the wet season. There is a strong positive correlation between N H 4 + -N and Cl- concentration in the wet season, indicating that N H 4 + -N and Cl- may have similar or the same sources in the wet season. Results of ion ratio of Na/Cl and stable isotope tracing are highly consistent. This indicates that upstream farmland chemical fertilizer, soil organic nitrogen and aquaculture sewage are the main sources of nitrogen in the upstream, while the soil organic nitrogen and urban sewage are the main sources of nitrogen in the downstream. The research results can provide data support and theoretical basis for river water environment protection and water resources management in the study area.

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    Food Symbol Economy in Tourist Destination: The Making of Local Symbol and Path Dependence
    Yuting Wang, Honggang Xu, Lifen Lao
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1246-1257.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003410
    Abstract390)   HTML18)    PDF (1227KB)(164)      

    Food symbols with local characteristics are part of the image of a tourist destination, and tourism catering based on local food is one of the important economic activities of such destinations. This study analyzed the formation of the food symbol economy in tourism destinations through the story of Yangshuo beer fish. As a food product with a short history in Yangshuo, beer fish has grown out of nothing and from less to more, and it has gradually evolved into a food symbol of Yangshuo. This study used in-depth interviews, observation, and second-hand data methods to collect data, and analyzed the data through thematic analysis, process analysis, and feedback analysis methods to explore the formation mechanism of Yangshuo's beer fish food symbol economy. It finds that the reason for the food symbol economy is not only the marketing of local characteristics but also the path dependence of product agglomeration. From the perspective of product characteristics, the image of the beer fish aligns with Yangshuo's location on the banks of the Li Jiang River; further, fish is a food that suits local conditions. Additionally, Yangshuo West Street's pub culture is famous, in line with the image of Yangshuo. From the perspective of food production, local materials, high profits, and simple cooking procedures, beer fish cuisine can be produced on a large scale and at a low cost. The barriers to entry for the beer fish catering market are low with strong profit drivers; consequently, new catering companies choose beer fish as the main product. From the perspective of food consumption, the taste of beer fish has local characteristics and is accepted by the public, thus meeting the symbolic and supportive dietary needs of tourists. The recommendations of the government, residents, and other stakeholders further strengthen the image of beer fish. The agglomeration of the services industry can result in the consumption of such products among tourists and generate cumulative appeal, thereby reducing the marketing costs of enterprises. Lower cost and higher sales make the production of beer fish a positive feedback mechanism and lock-in. However, the popular trend of consuming beer fish in the Yangshuo tourist catering market results in an extrusion effect on other catering products. The entry of new products requires high promotion costs, which makes it difficult for other catering products to replace beer fish. This study contributes to the literature in the following ways: 1) combining the path dependence theory to abstract the formation mechanism of tourism destination food symbol economy, it indicates the product characteristics as a tourism destination food symbol based on the market characteristics of tourism catering and the psychological characteristics of consumers. It is an in-depth exploration based on the literature on the production and consumption of tourist food, which has guiding significance for the practice and sustainable development of food in tourist destinations. 2) Since food is a daily necessity, not only the symbolic attributes but also the satisfaction of the consumer's supportive experience should be considered. This research shows the characteristics of tourism catering as a special symbol economy, which is a supplement and specific exploration of the research of symbol and space economies.

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    Geographical Contributions and Prospects of Chinese Heritage Studies in the Past 30 Years
    Juan Zeng, Yuanxi Liu, Lin Lin, Shiqin Xiong
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (1): 1-15.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003418
    Abstract382)   HTML10)    PDF (3079KB)(172)      

    In the past 30 years, the study of Chinese heritage at home and abroad has gradually increased. Influenced by Western heritage research, Chinese heritage research has been developed and conducted independently, forming a huge interdisciplinary heritage research system with unique Chinese academic characteristics. Among them, architecture has led to the evaluation, repair, and activation of heritage material carriers. Sociology has focused on the excavation and construction of heritage history and cultural value. Archaeology has continued to promote heritage archaeology and interpretation. Geography, with its comprehensive vision, has made abundant achievements and become increasingly important, but its research context is rather vague. Therefore, to clarify the specific geographical contribution in the field of heritage research, this study, based on CNKI, CSSCI, WOS, and other databases, uses the knowledge graph tool to sort 1,172 geographical papers from 1990 to 2020. The contributions of this study are as follows: The first concerns obvious stage characteristics. The number of studies has increased rapidly since 2005, peaking thrice in the last decade. The number of articles presented a "zigzag" type development trend, and keywords showed olive type development characteristics. The research has experienced the initial stage of "World Heritage" (1990-2004), the multi-exploration stage of "intangible cultural Heritage", "agricultural heritage" and many other topics (2005-2012), and the in-depth research stage focusing on practice and theory (2013-2020). Second, the cooperation network of scholars presents a "small agglomeration and large dispersion" pattern. This includes a large number of independent scholars, small coauthors scattered sporadically, and a closely linked aggregation group in which the core authors have a high primacy ratio. Third, cultural heritage research is the largest in quantity. The content involves agricultural cultural heritage, intangible cultural heritage, world heritage, and other sections. Agricultural heritage research is at the forefront of the international and becomes hotspots in geographical heritage research, with the literature focusing on the impact of ecologically sustainable environmental change and tourism development and utilization, and gradually expanding its scope to include the origin of the evolution of agricultural, landscape, economic and cultural value research. Based on the analysis of 198 papers with a high citation rate, this study shows the geographical research characteristics of emphasizing the orientation of reality and practice, focusing on the relationship between subject and object, and attaching importance to spatial analysis. In the future, geography should make more contributions to consolidate the leading position of agricultural heritage research, promote theoretical output, build the heritage research academic community, and expand the multi-perspective of heritage research.

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    A Review of Regional Environmental Governance Research in the West and Its Enlightenment to the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    Jiangmin Yang, Gengzhi Huang, Desheng Xue
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (2): 293-304.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003430
    Abstract379)   HTML7)    PDF (794KB)(91)      

    Since the 1990s, with the region becoming an important space for governance, people have become more and more aware of the importance and urgency of environmental coordination and promoting sustainable development on the regional scale. Different from the traditional environmental governance model, which regards administrative divisions as boundaries, regional environmental governance actively responds to regional environmental changes across administrative divisions, adapts to the new requirements of regional sustainable development, and effectively complements environmental governance on local, national and global scales. Therefore, a growing attention has been paid on the regional environmental governance research in the West. Since the 40 years of reform and opening-up, the economy and society have developed rapidly in China, especially in the eastern region, which puts forward higher requirements for regional environment and its governance. However, domestic geography research pays insufficient attention to regional environmental governance. This article systematically combs the research progress and frontier issues of western regional environmental governance, in order to promote the research of regional environmental governance in China and provide a conceptual framework for the research of environmental governance in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. Firstly, it analyzes the concept, importance and challenges of regional environmental governance, explains what regional environmental governance is, and focuses on the complementary relationship between regional environmental governance and local, national and global environmental governance. Then it analyzes the development progress of regional environmental governance theory, and expounds the regional environmental governance model and impact effect. Based on the above research progress, it is considered that the research on environmental governance in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area should focus on the following four aspects: (1) The organizational framework under the "one country, two systems" policy with Chinese characteristics that leads the formulation and implementation of regional environmental policies and coordinates different stakeholders; (2) The geographical factors for intergovernmental cooperative environmental governance and jointly implementation of environmental strategies in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Great Bay Area led by the government under the background of urbanization and globalization, which are different from western countries under the influence of strong non-governmental organizations; (3) The potential impact of the implementation of regional environmental governance on China's current economic transformation and development and spatial reconstruction;. (4) The institutional arrangements that are conducive to the balanced development of economic development and environmental protection and can promote regional sustainable development. The research on regional environmental governance will help to expand the research on domestic regional environmental governance, and has important practical significance for understanding the contradiction between economic development and environmental protection and exploring sustainable development policies since the in-depth development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area and even China.

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    The Enlightenment of EU Cross-Border Cooperation Research on the Collaborative Governance in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    Dening Chen, Kangmin Wu, Jiayu Wu, Renfeng Ma, Yanpeng Jiang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (2): 283-292.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003435
    Abstract368)   HTML9)    PDF (1175KB)(176)      

    Economic globalization and regional integration are the core motivations of regional cooperation in the 21st century, and the issue of cross-border cooperation has attracted much academic attention. As the largest regional integration organization with the highest level in the world, EU takes the lead in practicing regional integration in the process of economic globalization. Europe's cross-border governance has been paid attention in a long time in economic geography and political geography, and a large number of theoretical and empirical research results have been achieved on issues such as border cooperation model and cross-border governance mechanism. The development experience of EU provides rich theoretical and practical experience for the collaborative governance in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, as the two also involve the collaboration across institutional boundaries and power restructuring. Therefore, the analysis of EU cross-border cooperation is of great significance to promote Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao coordination. Based on the bibliometric analysis of Citespace, this paper systematically studies the research trends of EU cross-border cooperation from 1993 to 2020. The study finds that: 1) EU cross-border cooperation research mainly focuses on border regional interaction, cross-border cooperation mode, cross-border cooperation field, cross-border cooperation barriers and other issues. The regional integration of Europe has promoted the transformation of border areas from marginal areas to the forefront of development, and gradually formed a cross-border governance model under the superposition of formal institutional arrangements and informal institutional arrangements. The field of cooperation involves economic cooperation, tourism, environmental governance, health and other fields. 2) The development of EU cross-border cooperation benefits from the political interaction and mutual trust between countries, formal and informal institutional coordination, and the expansion and deepening of the scope of cooperation. However, there are still deficiencies in bilateral differences, cross-border accessibility, immigration and security. 3) As the same cross-institutional border region, the practical experience of EU cross-border cooperation has important enlightenment for the collaborative governance in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. Value identity is the basis of cross-institutional cooperation in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. Inclusive and orderly institutional arrangements are conducive to reducing the shielding effect of cooperation boundaries. And the combination of multi-scale cooperation and multi-dimensional governance system will effectively improve the cooperation in border areas.

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    Characteristics of the Urban Gravity Structure in the Guangzhou-Foshan Metropolitan Area Based on Multi-Source Data
    Wei Zhan, Chaolong Chen, Wu Sun, Pengfei Ban
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1292-1302.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003401
    Abstract367)   HTML5)    PDF (1796KB)(94)      

    As the endogenous driving force of regional development, the development of urban entities in metropolitan areas has a great influence on the development of the metropolitan areas, while the interactions between the urban entities' systems directly affect the metropolitan areas' development. Studying the relationship between urban entities in metropolitan areas and the basic development law of the structure between urban centers can provide some reference for the planning, development, and construction management of the urban centers and their surrounding areas in the metropolitan areas. Although the core entity territory of Guangzhou-Foshan has been contiguous, its development connection with the peripheral urban territories remains the focus of research. In the context of the synergistic development of the Bay Area, exploring the characteristic relationships between the urban territories in the Bay Area hinterland can provide a positive response to the sustainable development of the Bay Area cities. This study constructs a POI & NPP composite index by a mathematical mean method to determine the POI & NPP composite value and the number of urban centers; Based on the feature that the integrated data will produce abrupt changes at the boundary, the city's boundary extent is then analyzed using the fracture point analysis method. We then analyze the strength and direction of the gravitational force between the urban entities within the Guangzhou-Foshan metropolitan area by adding the modified gravitational force model based on the divided urban-entity territory and the POI & NPP composite index within the scope. The results show the following: (1) A "7+1" urban system structure centered on the core area is formed in the Guangzhou-Foshan metropolitan area. (2) A "heptagonal" positive urban system structure is generated around the core area and a "hexagonal." (3) The urban triangle structure is the basic unit of the Guangzhou-Foshan urban gravitational structure, while the better-developed urban clusters are "Core-Shunde-Nansha," "Core-Shunde–Gaoming," "Core-Sanshui–Huadu," "Core-Huadu-Conghua," "Core-Zengcheng-Nansha," and "Core." (4) The size and structural stability of the gravitational potential of the Guangzhou-Foshan metropolitan area are positively related to the intensity of the urban economic functions.

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    Progress and Enlightment of Geography Research Themes in China, Britain and the United States: Comparison of Authoritative Journals of Geography in the Three Countries from 2010 to 2020
    Zhenjie Yuan, Huiyu Xie, Yingjun Zheng
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (3): 339-357.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003453
    Abstract364)   HTML17)    PDF (2665KB)(124)      

    Internationalization and localization are important issues in the development of contemporary Chinese geography. China's local geographical knowledge research has become a force that cannot be ignored in the world's geographical knowledge system. This paper hopes to reveal the heterogeneity, complexity and diversity of the development of geography in the three countries by comparing the development characteristics of geography in China, Britain and the United States. By the knowledge mapping tool CiteSpace, this paper analyzes the literature of Journal of Geographical Sciences, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers and Annals of the Association of American Geographers from 2010 to 2020, revealing the knowledge evolution, historical hot spots and thematic context of geography in the three countries in recent years. The findings are as follows: 1) American geography pays equal attention to both nature and humanity. In recent years, the comprehensive geographical research on the elements of "nature-environment-humanity-society" has been more active. It shows that American geography circle pays attention to the human-land contradiction and big politics of the world or other countries and regions on a large scale, as well as the human-land relationship and daily politics at the meso and micro scales. It pays attention to a wide range of topics, which are close to the hot spots and needs of American social development. 2) British geography is more "focused" on the study of human geography. In particular, the development of sociocultural geography is very characteristic, and the tradition of political geography is still distinct. There are common issues with the development of American geography, such as climate change, ethnic minorities and segregation. In addition, British geography has paid more and more attention to the research on the relationship between man and nature this year, and has gradually formed the voice of integrating natural and human geography research. 3) Chinese geography focuses on physical geography and regional research, which is different from the trend of American geography and British geography towards the research paradigm of "nature and human" integration. Human geography and geographic information science show rising trends, and the research area is mainly within China. Summarizing the development of geography research in the three countries is conducive to providing reference for the future research direction of Chinese geography and promoting the dialogue between China and world geography. Chinese geography needs to grasp the major demand traction of China's era change, deepen and strengthen the research of Chinese geography in theory and practice, and realize the diversified development of various branches and the transformation and integration of research paradigms.

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    Participation of the Global Shipping Network in the Guangdong- Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    Qi Wang, Wei Chen, Chunzhu Wei
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (2): 236-246.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003431
    Abstract360)   HTML10)    PDF (1921KB)(317)      

    This paper focuses on the internal hierarchical structure of the port group in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area and the external connection patterns of the region. This article considers the Greater Bay Area port cluster as its research object, uses regional container port throughput data , global shipping network route data, and social network analysis methods to study the relative indicators of the cluster's internal port throughput. The results show that: (1) the total port throughput of the Greater Bay Area increased by 32.3% from 2007 to 2020, and reached 72.94 million TEU(Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit) in 2020, accounting for 9.2% worldwide and 28.3% for China. Among them, Shenzhen and Guangzhou ports are experiencing rapid growth. The port group of the Greater Bay Area occupies an important position in national and global maritime markets. (2) In terms of participation in the global shipping network, the Greater Bay Area has emerged as a hierarchical structure with Shenzhen and Hong Kong ports as the core in the eight global shipping regions. The Greater Bay Area has the closest connection with East and Southeast Asia, while its routes to Europe, America, Africa, and other regions are limited to the direct connection between regional core ports. (3) Shenzhen, Hong Kong, and Guangzhou within the Greater Bay Area port group will be firmly established, and their major businesses will be developed simultaneously. Shenzhen port, an international container transport hub in Hong Kong, a foreign trade port and a comprehensive domestic trade port in Guangzhou, and other regional ports, such as Zhuhai and Dongguan, will be jointly developed. The rapid development of the port group in the Greater Bay Area has provided important support to the country's construction of the 21st-century Maritime Silk Road Economic Belt. It has formed a multi-level structure with Shenzhen, Hong Kong, and Guangzhou as the core, and the leading ports play an important role in the internal market and external shipping links. In the future, the positioning and regional coordinated development among Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou ports will become the key to the overall competitiveness of the port group in the Greater Bay Area. In future development, the regional integration of port groups will surpass the competitive pattern among them. Instead of competing, Shenzhen, Guangzhou, and Hong Kong should break down barriers and integrate port resources to combine the advantages and allocate them efficiently. The port group of the Greater Bay Area urgently needs to adjust its internal development pattern to meet the unknown opportunities and challenges of globalization.

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    The Mechanism of the Influence of Tourists' Perceived Cultural Distance on Ethnic Cultural Heritage Intention
    Jiaguo Wang, Haixin Yang, Mi Zheng
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (1): 55-66.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003424
    Abstract358)   HTML3)    PDF (887KB)(69)      

    Although the impact of perceived cultural distance on tourists' behavioral intention has attracted great attention from tourism academic circles, relevant research conclusions are inconsistent and the action mechanism is unclear. Based on the theoretical framework of "cognitive-affective-conative" and by introducing the theory of travel career pattern, this study constructs a research model that includes Tourists' Perceived Cultural Distance (TPCD), perceived novelty, perceived cultural risk, cultural experience intention, and tourism experience. Taking two typical ethnic cultural heritage tourist destinations as case sites, a total of 705 valid questionnaires were collected. Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) tools were used to examine the path, mediation effect, and moderation effect of the structural model. There were three significant findings. First, TPCD positively affects perceived novelty and perceived cultural risks, and perceived novelty positively influences cultural experience intention, while perceived cultural risks negatively affect cultural experience intention. Second, perceived novelty and cultural risk play an intermediary role in the process of TPCD's influence on cultural experience intention, verifying the scientificity and applicability of the "cognitive-affective-conative" theoretical framework. Third, tourism experience negatively regulates the positive impact of TPCD on perceived cultural risk, and the moderating effect of TPCD on the positive impact of perceived novelty is not significant, thus demonstrating that tourism experience is insufficient to influence the relationship between TPCD and perceived novelty. The research has found a more reasonable explanation mechanism for the inconsistent conclusions of the simple attribution study of cultural distance-tourist behavior, exploring the complex psychological mechanism of the influence of TPCD on cultural experience intention. This article explains the hypothetical path from three standpoints: the cognitive, affective, and conative stages. It verifies the important mediating role of perceived novelty and cultural risk, and the moderating effect of tourism experience based on the theory of travel career pattern. In addition, a unique contribution of this paper is that it breaks through the limitations of previous similar studies in terms of research subjects. Most of the existing studies have been conducted on transnational tourists in international tourism scenarios, while our study finds that cultural distance has an equally significant effect on travelers' behavioral intentions in ethnic tourism contexts within the same country.

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    Rurality and Rural Tourism Attraction: Element Structure Identification and Cognitive Mechanism Analysis Based on Tourists' Perception
    Mingjie Wang, Kai Meng, Shize Zhang, Wenjie Li, Jiaxin Tang, Chenlu Wang
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1325-1337.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003407
    Abstract357)   HTML3)    PDF (1337KB)(97)      

    With the development of the economy and the improvement in quality of life, the need for leisure tourism is increasing. Rural tourism, which can fulfil people's need to stay away from the city and pursue leisure, has been favored in recent years. From the perspective of tourists and the market, it is precisely owing to the unique characteristics of rural areas, formally called rurality, that people's psychological needs for rural tourism are met. Many scholars at home and abroad believe that rurality, which differs from the city lifestyle, and originated in the countryside, is the core attraction of rural tourism. However, most studies on rurality are concentrated in the field of geography, and relevant scholars have attempted to set up a scale to evaluate rurality or use social semiotics to interpret the connotation of rurality. However, extant research is still unable to identify the elements and structure of rurality from the perspective of tourists' perception, failing to show tourists' cognitive logic in the rural tourism experience or reflect the relationship between rurality and rural tourism attraction. To solve these problems, this study utilizes the qualitative research method combining visitor employed photography with semi-structured interviews, based on the five sensory perceptual systems proposed by Gibson (including the visual, auditory, tactile, taste-smell, and basic orienting systems). A total of 202 rural pictures and corresponding interview texts provided by 20 interviewees were coded to identify the elements and structure of rurality and illustrate the cognitive mechanism of rural tourism attraction from the perspective of tourists' perception. The main conclusions are summarized as follows. (1) First, as per tourists' perception, the rurality structure contains 234 elements and 42 categories, and further summarized into two core dimensions: basic rurality and implanted rurality. (2) Second, in the process of rural tourism, tourists rank rurality elements according to their attractiveness intensity, showing the "core-marginal" perception characteristic of their personal subjective level. Notably, the boundary between core rurality and marginal rurality is blurred, and the possibility of mutual conversion exists. (3) Third, the cognitive mechanism of rural tourism attraction from the perspective of tourists' perception follows the logical development of "Perceptual system—Rurality elements—Rurality landscape—Rural tourism attraction." Under the guidance of these logical clues, the study finds that although rural tourism attraction can be based on a basic landscape, it is also a composite structure, composed of basic, implanted, and integrative landscapes. The core attraction is mostly exerted by the integrative landscape. Overall, the study reveals the elements and structure of rurality from the perspective of tourists' perceptions in the tourism context and analyzes the cognitive mechanism of rural tourism attraction. The research expands and enriches the study of rurality, especially in the field of tourism. Moreover, it plays a guiding role in the development of rural tourism destinations and suggests that rural tourism developers take active steps to create integrative landscapes for tourists.

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    Spatial Connection Analysis and Coordinated Development Policy Mechanism Optimization in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area from the Perspective of Policy
    Qijun Li, Leixian Guo, Yi Lei, Cheng'i Cheng, Xiao Sima
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (2): 269-282.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003445
    Abstract357)   HTML12)    PDF (2073KB)(110)      

    Public policy is an important support for the coordinated development of urban agglomeration. Since the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area has become a national strategy, a series of policies aimed at deepening regional cooperation and promoting regional coordinated development have been introduced. The quantitative measurement of policy can finely reflect the internal relationship structure of urban agglomeration governance. This study collected 428 regional coordinated development policies from the websites of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area Leading Group Office and the relevant municipal governments. It topologized the relationship between policy subjects, measured the supply intensity of coordinated development policies, and analyzed the spatial connection based on policy relevance. The study found that: 1) The policy measures of one-way benefiting Hong Kong and Macao are the main policy supply direction at present, and in most cases, the policy feedback from Hong Kong and Macao is less than expected. 2) Policy supply is highly concentrated in the field of public services and industrial development, aiming to narrow the service gap between Hong Kong, Macao and the Mainland and attract high quality talents. 3) Districts and counties and local professional departments have not yet fully entered the coordinated development policy network of the Greater Bay Area, due to the lack of consultation platforms matching with their administrative levels. 4) The four central cities of Hong Kong, Macao, Guangzhou and Shenzhen have different policy relations and spatial connections with other subjects in the Greater Bay Area. It is worth noting that although Zhuhai is not regarded as one of the central cities in the Greater Bay Area, it takes the initiative to establish close policy cooperation with Macao and actively seeks to establish partnerships with Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Hong Kong. And these initiatives have enhanced Zhuhai's embeddedness and influence in the regional relationship network. 5) The policy linkages between cities in the Greater Bay Area are frequently interacted within the metropolitan area, and the policy linkages across metropolitan areas are relatively loose. Therefore, this paper suggests that the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area can further strengthen the two-way policy linkage between neighboring cities, neighboring districts and counties, professional departments and the two central cities of Guangzhou and Shenzhen, coordinate the policies towards Hong Kong and Macao, and make the policy supply further adapt to the governance structure of the Greater Bay Area. In short, this paper explores a method to measure and study the spatial connection of urban agglomeration based on coordinated development policies, which provides a research path for quantitatively indicating the correlation strength of coordinated development policies and the internal relationship structure of regional governance of urban agglomeration, provides technical support for policy formulation and optimization, and supports the fine governance of urban agglomeration.

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    Space Association Features of Domestic Tourist Flow Network in the Shanghai Metropolitan Area
    Shanshan Yan, Heqing Zhang, Chen Jin
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (6): 1313-1324.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003394
    Abstract347)   HTML4)    PDF (2407KB)(74)      

    A metropolitan area refers to the central urban area and its surrounding hinterland. The area plays a strategic role in the development of its regional tourism economy. As a unique form and organization of regional spatial structure, tourist flows in metropolitan areas present different spatial structures and characteristics. However, the existing research on tourist flow is rarely explained from the perspective of metropolitan areas,. Therefore, this study examined the trip strategy data published by tourists, analyzed the spatial correlation characteristics of the tourist flow network in the Shanghai Metropolitan Area (SMA) from the node and network levels by employingsocial network theory and GIS spatial analysis methods and technologies, The results revealed the following: (1) the tourism nodes in SMAdisplayed obvious hierarchical structural characteristics, and the elite scenic spots occupied an important core position in the tourist flow network. Simultaneously, according to the comparative analysis of degree centrality and intermediary centrality, Shanghai tourism nodes, t could be categorized into four types: agglomeration, diffusion, equilibrium, and intermediary. (2) SMA presented a "single-core radial" spatial distribution pattern with Huangpu District at its center, and Huangpu District as the spatial diffusion source, with the mainstream diffusion directions of southwest (central Huangpu District-Songjiang District), southeast (central Huangpu District-Pudong New Area), northwest (central Huangpu District-Jiading District), and a few tourist flows spreading from central Huangpu District to Baoshan District and Chongming County in the north. (3) The topological structure of the Shanghai urban tourist flow network was characterized by low connection, strong diffusion, and balanced distribution. There were five condensed subgroups with high internal and low external correlations. The core-edge division of the network was significant, and the driving effect of the core area on the edge was limited. (4) There was an exponential relationship between tourist flow and the distance between scenic spots inSMA, which had an evident distance attenuation law. However, the attenuation degree in each distance segment was different, and the distance attenuation law of tourist flow was the most significant at 0–20km. Bycomparing the conclusions of this study with other types of domestic tourist flow networks, it was found that various types of domestic tourist flow networks had the same core-edge structure, but the difference lied in that other types of tourism flow networks showed the characteristics of a multi-center balanced structure, and the core nodes were usually high-grade scenic spots, while the tourist flow network in Shanghai was a "single-core radial" spatial structure with the central city as its core, and the core nodes were high-profile scenic spots without grades in the central city. This study provides an example for exploring analyzing the spatial characteristics of tourist flow networks by using the data of network travel notes and optimizing the spatial structure of tourism destinations in metropolitan areas.

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    Reproduction of Tourism Space in Ethnic Villages under the Practice of Multiple Power Subjects: A Case Study of Zhaoxing Dong Village in Guizhou Province
    Baoling Dong, Kai Bai, Yonghong Chen
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (1): 87-99.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003421
    Abstract347)   HTML4)    PDF (1942KB)(101)      

    In the context of tourism development, modernization and commercialization relentlessly colonize ethnic areas, reshaping the physical, social, and significant spaces of tourism destinations. Due to the influx of capital and the change of power subjects, ethnic tourism villages have become a new reality through the continuous deconstruction and construction of multiple subjects. The separation and integration of modernity and tradition has led to the alienation and tension of village social relations and structure. To examine the power subjects, spatial forms, spatial relations, and emotions involved in the process of tourism reproduction, this study, adopting Zhaoxing Dong village in Guizhou Province as a case, uses Lefebvre's theory of spatial production and the methods of field survey and in-depth interview to analyze the relationship between physical space, social space, and emotion from the three dimensions of social space and meaning space. This study assesses the "material-relationship-emotion" connection of multiple power subjects and self-consistency with tourism development. The results show the following. First, physical space can be replanned with the change of power subjects, which is conducive to the return of the labor force. The authenticity of villages can be maintained under discipline and control, but the constructed landscape symbol is the misplaced expression of ethnic villages. Second, for conflicts in the social space, local residents adopt the strategy of concession and do not withdraw, reaching a tacit understanding of space use and management at the wrong time with the managers. Zhailao, an authoritarian figure, has become a representative of resolving differences and promoting the consolidation and cohesion of social relations. Through the transfer and comprehensiveness of tourists and foreign operators, it reflects the open and inclusive hospitality and philosophy of local residents. Third, the meaning space can be reproduced through the local residents' emotional injection of festival events and culture, the inheritance of cultural habits, the inheritance of local conventions, and the memory and imagination of nostalgic things. From the perspective of tourism space reproduction, the study reviews and examines the multi space of Zhaoxing Dong village tourism and concludes that there are many social problems in Zhaoxing village, which imply many social contradictions. However, under the consensus of sharing interests, positive games, and harmonious coexistence, the multi-power subjects in Zhaoxing village have different opinions. After evaluating the development trend and potential of local tourism, they will make their own spatial arrangement, spatial compromise, relationship concession, and emotional adjustment under the consideration of multi-mediation, multi-organization coordination, and multi-relationships, to adapt to the changes in the physical, social, and meaning spaces engendered by tourism development. These changes can help shape the modern local culture, maintain the original rural style, embody ethnic customs, and carry forward rural humanistic and moral values. Moreover, they can provide a practical reference for the sustainable development of tourism and the prosperity and revitalization of beautiful ethnic villages.

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    The Functional Coordinated Development of Urban Agglomeration from the Perspective of Flow Space: A Case Study of San Francisco Bay Area
    Jie Guo, Lu Jiang, Hong'ou Zhang, Yuyao Ye, Haoxi Lin
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (2): 195-205.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003443
    Abstract345)   HTML14)    PDF (1222KB)(73)      

    The rapid development of global transportation network and information communication technology has an important impact on regional economy and social spatial structure, and promotes the transformation of regional research paradigm. The coordinated development of urban agglomeration and regional functional linkage from the perspective of flow space has become an important issue in urban regional research. Different from the traditional central place theory that emphasizes the differences in scale and level of cities within the region, the flow space perspective helps to understand how the regional factor flow organizes cities of all scales and levels in the form of network with the background of space-time compression, and promotes the functional linkage and coordinated development within the region on the basis of reshaping the urban spatial relationship. Based on the literature review of relevant research at home and abroad, this paper constructs an analytical framework for the relationship between regional spatial factor flow and function collaboration, and discusses the regional function collaborative mechanism of urban agglomeration from three aspects: "how to reshape the regional spatial network by factor flow", "how to restructure the urban hierarchy by infrastructure connectivity" and "how to strengthen the regional functional linkage by functional complementarity". On this basis, taking the urban agglomeration of San Francisco Bay Area as an example, this paper discusses the evolution progress of San Francisco Bay Area from "single center agglomeration development" to "double-core symbiotic evolution", "polycentric development" and "generic network functional linkage development" from three aspects of liquidity, connectivity and complementarity. The study found that: 1) In the first stage (before the 1930s), fact flow strengthened the connection between San Francisco and Oakland, connectivity improved the status of Oakland, and functional complementarity promoted the symbiosis of the two cities. 2) In the second stage (1940s-1980s), the flow and converge of factors towards the south bay promoted the tripartite growth of San Francisco, Oakland and San Jose, transport connectivity strengthened the core-peripheral connection, and factor convection and functional reciprocity promoted the multi-center linkage development. 3) In the third stage (since 1980s), factor distribution and transportation network connectivity contributed to the generic network spatial structure, dislocation and complementary development strengthened the regional circulation and realized the functional linkage of the Bay Area. Based on the perspective of flow space, this paper reviews the basic situation of the development of world-class bay area urban agglomerations and excavates the internal mechanism of regional functional coordinated development driven by factor flow, which has reference significance for guiding China's cities from competition to competition and cooperation and establishing a new mechanism of regional coordinated development. The research shows that to promote the development of China's bay area in the future, we should: 1) Comply with the law of factor flow, innovate the mechanism and remove barriers to factor mobility, and promote the free flow of factors inside and outside the region; 2) Give play to the guiding role of the government and non-governmental organizations to improve the connectivity of software and hardware infrastructure within the region; 3) Explore the regional consultation mechanism, break through the regional administrative barriers, and formulate the regional development strategy of functional complementation and linkage with the help of multiple subject forces.

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    Perception of Brand Personality of Urban Cultural Heritage: A Case Study of Qiming Li, Jiangmen, Guangdong
    Mingliang Lin, Minghui Yang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (1): 43-54.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003419
    Abstract338)   HTML10)    PDF (2206KB)(69)      

    Place branding is an important means of enhancing place value. It promotes the competitiveness of a place by delivering a unique image distinguished from other places to the audience, to stimulate the development of the local economy and enhance the value of the place. Place branding is not merely a simple top-down marketing process, but a process in which multiple stakeholders collectively assign value to a place. Consequently, more scholars have begun to consider how consumers perceive place brands from the bottom-up. Existing marketing research has focused on the implicit aspects of brand perception. The measurement of implicit perception helps to better predict consumer preferences and behavior. Therefore, psychology, neuroscience, and cognitive science methods are used for brand perception. However, place branding has insufficiently considered implicit attitudes. The complexity of place branding lies in the fact that it is affected by the interaction between humans and places, and the differences in the meanings of different groups in the construction of places lead to contradictions in the meaning of place brands. Non-representational theory can provide an epistemological explanation for solving implicit and unconscious spatial practices in human-place interactions. This study posits that the combination of non-representational theory and psychological methods will help provide a new research approach for the implicit perception of place brands. Therefore, this study adopted Qiming Li in Jiangmen, Guangdong Province, as an example. Based on the priming paradigm, this study used brand personality questionnaire surveys and clue task experiments to analyze people's perceptions of place brand personality. By comparing the differences in implicit attitudes between residents and non-residents, and the differences between the explicit and implicit perceptions of local residents, we analyzed the impact of people's implicit perceptions on the construction of place branding. The results revealed that due to the difference in daily life experience between residents and non-residents, they have constructed different place meanings in Qiming Li. Non-residents regarded it as an urban renewal project, while local residents integrated daily life memories and experiences with it, leading to differences in implicit perception. The difference between the explicit and implicit attitudes of local residents indicated that the place brand of Qiming Li was only a consumption and self-expression tool, which had generated a functional level of place identity, but lacked recognition at the affective and value levels. People's perceptions of both explicit and implicit perceptions contributed to the construction of the meaning of place brands. Therefore, place branding needs to consider non-representational experiences and eliminate non-representation through bottom-up participation. Representational memories, emotions, and experiences were integrated into the brand narrative. This study helps compensate for the lack of focus on implicit cognition in past place brand research, and attempts to provide an explanation of the human-place interaction. The impact of people's daily life experience, embodied cognition, and place identity into the brand enables place branding to gain sustainable value proliferation.

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