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    Urban Villages' Redevelopment in Cities of Migration through the Lens of Cultural Identity: A Comparative Study of Singapore and Shenzhen
    Di Zeng, Jin Zhu, Shenjing He
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (3): 449-460.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003337
    Abstract497)   HTML28)    PDF (2934KB)(270)      

    With a strong emphasis on historical heritage and culture-making, culture-led redevelopment has become an important policy in many megacities to revitalize declining areas, such as urban villages. However, local governments have different understandings of cultural development and historic preservation and often take them at face value while ignoring the internal mechanisms. For cities of migration, cultural identity has richer connotations. The time-space nexus between the origins and destinations of migrants is highly significant for fostering a diverse and more inclusive urban culture. Taking three urban villages in Singapore and Shenzhen as empirical cases and using the theoretical perspective of cultural identity, this paper explores the culture-making process in the redevelopment of urban villages. We argue that the essence of cultural identity lies in social relations, not merely in visual symbols and images, and understanding cultural identity requires comprehending the relations between the global and the local, as well as between the past and the present embedded in places. The paper starts with an interpretation of the culture-led macro policy, followed by an analysis of urban redevelopment's internal political and economic driving forces. Based on data from participant observation and semi-structured interviews in both cities, a qualitative analysis on the modality, mechanism, and influences of identity-making in urban village redevelopment was conducted. Research findings include differences in the dominant stakeholders' attitudes toward cultural identity, especially migrants' identity, in the redevelopment modalities in the two aforementioned cities. These differences have led to different outcomes. The case of Singapore's Geylang Serai Village centered on the living needs and activities of Malay migrants, who were the main residents there, to conduct the regeneration. Further, the Housing and Development Board (HDB) issued a policy to ensure residents' housing rights. Therefore, the program maintained the continuity of the existing community by protecting the spontaneously formed identity while developing the showcase economy based on simultaneous market activities. Regarding Shenzhen, developers of Nantou Ancient City and Gankeng Hakka Town focused on specific historical periods and designated the architectural style as the local characteristic in order to develop the tourism economy. However, the top-down imposed identity had little to do with the migrants' community, which led to their exclusion and broke down their established social networks, indicating that the mere focus on beautifying the physical environment will lead to gentrification catering to middle-class aesthetics. The study findings point to the conclusion that the designation of the cultural identity of a place is, effectively, the use of cultural capital. The voice of identity in cultural discourses represents the social right of a community to urban spaces. Therefore, culture-led urban village redevelopment should focus more on local communities' social relations and actual needs in order to promote a more just, inclusive, and sustainable urban redevelopment.

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    The Bibliometric Analysis on the 40 th Anniversary of Tropical Geography Based on CiteSpace
    Kai Liu, Minying Lu, Xiaoling Li
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 957-969.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003285
    Abstract422)   HTML16)    PDF (3067KB)(144)      

    On the 40th anniversary of Tropical Geography, a Bibliometric analysis based on CiteSpace was made on 2 938 articles published in tropical geography during1980-2019. At the interval of every 10 years, this paper conducted keyword co-occurrence analysis, keyword emergent detection, author co-occurrence analysis and institution co-occurrence analysis, aiming to explore the trends of the themes, historical burst terms, the core author partnerships and the core institutions partnerships in Tropical Geography. As a result, in the first 20 years, the research topics and areas of Tropical Geography were concentrated, mostly focusing on south China and the development and utilization of its resources. The cooperation among the core authors was weak and overall dispersed. Besides, it mainly reported the research results of Guangzhou institute of Geography and the cooperation among the core institutions was less. Since 2000, the number of research themes has increased significantly and has formed diversified research hotspots. The research area has been expanded, but it is still concentrated in southern China. More cooperative teams were formed among the core authors, and the inter-team cooperation and communication were significantly enhanced. The proportion of research results of universities and other institutes has increased greatly, and cooperation between institutions has been strengthened also.

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    Difference in Thermal Comfort at the Province Scale: A Case Study of the Nanshan Cultural Tourism Zone
    Wenli Lai, Jie Zhang, Zhizhong Zhao, Yeqing Cheng, Tao Li, Shengyu Wang
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 1127-1135.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003289
    Abstract284)   HTML2)    PDF (2488KB)(37)      

    With the influence of global warming, changes in climate suitability have become one of the most important factors that affect tourist satisfaction. The Nanshan Cultural Tourism Zone in Sanya City was selected as the study area. The thermal comfort of tourists was subjectively evaluated with a random questionnaire survey and objectively through the Net Effective Temperature (NET), which was based on 1960-2019 daily meteorological datasets that included air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed data obtained from 756 meteorological stations. The spatial differences in thermal comfort with long-term and/or short-term climate memory were discussed with respect to the theory of neutral state deviation. The results showed that there were significant differences in sex and age, and the risk of thermal stress in young women wasis the highest. None of the differences that emerged between men of different ages were substantial. The heat tolerance of young men was significantly higher than that of young women. With increasing age, the incidence of high thermal stress showed a significant linear decreasing trend. In addition, the proportion of high thermal stress at the province scale was classified and discussed. In category I (high risk, including eight provinces), the ratio was 75% with higher long-term NETs and increased to 88% with lower long-term NETs. In contrast, in category II (low risk, including 14 provinces), the ratio was 75% with higher long-term NETs and decreased to 63% with lower long-term NETs. The neutral state of thermal stress has a more obvious short-term memory bias. We discovered that the correlation between long-term climate state and the proportion of high thermal stress was weak. The lower the temperature in tourist source destinations, the greater the proportion of high thermal stress was. This is consistent with the hypothesis of neutral state, which verifies that the neutral state of thermal stress has a more obvious short-term climate memory bias. It is worth noting that the 9-day short-term memory leads to the most significant neutral state deviation. Compared to the air temperature, the NET had a stronger spatial consistency. We noted that it is easier to identify the neutral state deviation of thermal stress with the NET, and the NET is more suitable for the quantitative assessment of thermal comfort. This study detailed the influence of climatic factors on tropical coastal tourism and revealed that the short-term climate memory of tourist source destinations is a crucial factor affecting the thermal stress deviation of tourists. Based on the analysis results, the tourism market can be subdivided according to the differences in thermal stress between different tourist groups in the off-season, and could be influenced through various processes, such as strengthening the publicity for off-season tourism in low-risk tourist source destinations (Category II, 14 provinces), designing tourism products according to age and sex, and transforming short-term sightseeing tourism into holiday-oriented medium- or long-term tourism. These targeted suggestions can provide important practical guidance for optimizing the management and marketing strategies of local scenic spots in off-season tourism.

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    Spatial Distribution Patterns and Factors Influencing the Shanghai Catering Industry Based on POI Data
    Jinyue Tang, Yijun He, Na Ta
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 1015-1025.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003280
    Abstract281)   HTML18)    PDF (1951KB)(110)      

    Commercial space structure is an important research focus of Urban Geography. Analyzing the spatial distribution of urban commerce is of great significance to urban planning management, within which spatial distribution patterns of the catering industry have always been a focus of research. Quantitative analysis of the catering industry's spatial pattern and influencing factors using big data is a primary trend in recent research. This paper uses Shanghai as a case-study. Based on POI data and using GIS spatial analysis methods and spatial regression models, the spatial distribution patterns, influencing factors, and internal heterogeneity of different catering industry types are investigated. This paper's conclusions are useful for understanding the influence of urban internal spatial elements on the catering industry's spatial pattern. It also provides a location selection reference for the catering industry and analyzes residents' consumption behavior. We find that the catering industry is clustered and multi-centered, and concentrated in the central urban area. The foreign catering industry is highly concentrated within the inner ring, extending from east to west. The fast-food industry is primarily agglomerated in central areas and rural-urban continua where universities cluster. We use a spatial error model to analyze the influencing factors, finding that the catering industry distribution is influenced by four factors: population, economy, transportation, and space. A larger population provides for more consumers in the catering industry, and the spatial concentration of the population can promote the creation of more catering companies. The catering industry tends to assemble in areas with a higher level of regional economic development. Superior transportation conditions can attract catering companies, but the influences of transport facilities differ. Parking facilities and bus stations are vital to the catering industry. In terms of macroeconomic location, catering industries concentrate around regional centers. Densities of catering companies within the inner ring are significantly higher than those outside. The density of catering companies does not show a significant difference between new towns and the Puxi area. Regarding the micro-built environment, the clustering of public, leisure, entertainment, and cultural facilities positively impacts the distribution of catering companies; however, the degree of diversity of surrounding industry types negatively impacts agglomeration. There are also differences in the factors affecting the catering industry's four distribution types: Chinese food, western food, fast food, and dining establishments. Western food companies tend to be located in areas with higher land prices. Chinese food companies have a greater demand for traffic accessibility. The distribution of dining establishments corresponds significantly to the level of local economic development. The distribution of fast-food companies is closely related to cultural and entertainment public facilities. We extrapolate the relevant theories of urban commercial space structures, providing theoretical support to facilitate the catering industry in choosing company locations and conduct future urban planning.

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    Emotional Effect of Cherry Blossoms in Wuhan during the COVID-19 Epidemic
    Tenghui Xing, Xiaofeng Wang
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (1): 25-35.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003297
    Abstract281)   HTML11)    PDF (1813KB)(89)      

    The COVID-19 interrupted the lives of Wuhan residents. This study attempted to understand the psychological loss and emotional changes in urban residents in this unusual period by exploring the relationship between city, residents, and landscape. By comparing the typicality of Wuhan's representative landscape during this period, we chose cherry blossoms as representative of the landscape of Wuhan. We then selected six cities as data sources for non-Wuhan regions (i.e., Beijing, Shenyang, Xi'an, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Kunming). Using crawler software, we collected Sina micro-texts that contained Wuhan cherry blossoms and were published by residents of Wuhan and non-Wuhan areas. After eliminating the invalid text, using the big data text analysis tools ROST CM6 and Gephi, we obtained the key nodes in the micro-texts expression. Then, using coding analysis of grounded theory, we explored the emotional relationship between the urban representative landscape and the residents in different regions and identified the emotional effect of Wuhan cherry blossoms during the epidemic. The study reached the following conclusions: 1) There were many indications of scattered concern in the posts of cherry blossoms from local residents, which were closely related to the details of life and emotional changes during the epidemic. Non-natives had fewer concerns and were more focused, mainly expressing blessings for Wuhan and China. 2) The average emotion value of Wuhan residents' micro-texts was negatively correlated with the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 during its rising period and positively correlated during its declining period, while the emotional value of non-Wuhan residents was negatively correlated with the number of confirmed COVID-19 patients. 3) The impact of the urban representative landscape on the emotions of residents in different regions was closely related to the development of the epidemic situation. In particular, the Wuhan cherry blossoms had an emotional support effect on Wuhan local residents during the epidemic, which gave people the power to face the epidemic positively, while at the same time, having an emotional cohesion effect on non-Wuhan residents during the epidemic, which prompted people to help Wuhan positively. (4) The epidemic changed the background of human emotions and landscape interpretation, giving the landscape new meaning. This new landscape meaning in turn affects human emotions and constitutes a closed emotional circuit. Based on the research conclusion, different emotional effects were discussed based on the theory of sense of place and national identity. The research conclusion had not only theoretical value but also practical significance. Finally, we suggest that anti-epidemic recovery work should pay more attention to residents' psychological problem and start with the emotional relationship between residents, the city, and the landscape to convey the idea of better urban life to Wuhan residents.

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    The Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Risks of COVID-19 Pandemic Based on the Effects of Traffic Control
    Fangqu Niu, Zhongling Xin, Fang Wang
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003312
    Abstract271)   HTML17)    PDF (2024KB)(147)      

    On December 31st, 2019, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission issued the first report of the pneumonia epidemic of novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19). Studies regarding the relationships between traffic and the epidemic situation are far from systematic. When the epidemic broke out in Wuhan, Hubei province, an important transportation hub of China, it occurred at the peak of Spring Festival-related travel. Therefore, the relationships between the spread of the epidemic and the impact of traffic have remained underexplored. This paper systematically analyzes the spatiotemporal characteristics, hazards, and the growth trend of COVID-19 spread from a macroscopic and full sample perspective, to provide a comprehensive understanding toward epidemic prevention and control in China and abroad. The analysis performed in this article is based on the publicly available data, using the basic reproductive number measure and complex network method. This study found the following. First, the overall growth of the epidemic is exponential, and the outbreak of Hubei province in China has a strong spread in the eastern and southern directions. Provinces such as Jiangsu, Hunan, and Fujian have seen rapid day-to-day growth rates, and the epidemic situation is generally more serious in the capital or the developed city in each province. Based on analyzing the disturbance of the spread of the epidemic through traffic control, the average incubation period of COVID-19 was approximately found to be four days and the number of basic regenerations showed a downward trend in fluctuation. As of April 8th, the R0 in all regions of China tended to be one. The ratio of cure to death outside Hubei province is much higher than that within Hubei province, indicating that with sufficient medical resources, the risk of the epidemic can be greatly reduced, and it is not to be feared. Second, the quarantine policy of Hubei has a greater impact on cities with higher centrality. From the perspective of changes in centrality, most cities in the northern region have increased their centrality, indicating that the region's connection with Hubei Province is relatively weak. The cities with decreasing centrality are mainly located in the Beijing-Guangzhou line and the Yangtze River Delta. Similarly, the changes in the bottom 20 cities on the centrality ranking are also analyzed. Except for a slight change in the ranking, the cities have been not affected. Additionally, before and after the "closing of the Hubei province", the number of edges of China's railway network, Beta and gamma indicators all declined, but the decline was not significant. Thus, although Hubei plays an important role in China's railway network, in general, the " quarantine of the Hubei province" does not have a particularly large impact on China's entire railway network.

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    Citizenization of Villagers in City Based on Field Theory: A Case Study of Liede Redeveloped Community, Guangzhou
    Zhuolin Pan, Ye Liu, Yuqi Liu, Zhigang Li
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 981-992.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003287
    Abstract262)   HTML9)    PDF (1682KB)(107)      

    With the acceleration of urbanization in China, the transformation from increment planning to inventory planning in large cities has initiated the upsurge of urban village redevelopment. However, this redevelopment has overemphasized the economic benefits while neglecting the social benefits behind the redevelopment, resulting in villagers' difficulties in re-employment, inadequate social security, and other problems regarding citizenization. Taking the Liede redeveloped community as a case study, and using the field theory of Bourdieu, this paper adopts descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis based on data from questionnaires and in-depth interviews to measure urban villagers' level of citizenization after the redevelopment. The level of citizenization is measured through the four dimensions of economic integration, socio-cultural adaptation, structural integration, and social identity. The research indicates that to some extent, although the redevelopment of Liede village has brought new changes to community management, the village collective economic organization continues to undertake a large number of community services and livelihood security functions closely related to the daily life of villagers. The villagers and the village collective have formed an exclusive and closed pattern based on their common interests. Villagers have sought safety strategies for action and decision-making when facing social transformation, and their conservative economic strategies and homogenous social networks have resulted in little changes in the structure and quantity of their capital. In essence, the new village community has not been restructured along with the redevelopment of the physical environment, and the capital of stakeholders is in a relative state of equilibrium, which has not motivated the villagers to adapt to their new environment and reconstruct the structure of the field. After the redevelopment of Liede village, the villagers' living environment improved, their basic rights were secured, and their newly-moved in neighbors also exerted a demonstration effect, which considerably improved villagers' consciousness of their roles as citizens, their behaviors, and their way of thinking. However, many villagers have not achieved self-empowerment or integrated into the urban society, judging from the four dimensions of citizenization. In terms of economic integration, the difficulty of employment persists. Regarding socio-cultural adaptation, the younger generation can effectively adapt to urban society, while the older generation's habits and ways of thinking are solidified. In terms of structural integration, without a platform to interact with other social groups, it is difficult for villagers to expand their social network. Finally, regarding social identity, villagers' social status has not improved with their economic status, and the recognition of their roles as citizens is inadequate. Therefore, the government is advised to promote the transformation of village communities, regard the citizenization of villagers in cities as long-term social work, and carry out community activities and skills training to enhance the human and social capital of villagers, and facilitate their integration into urban society.

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    Spatio-Temporal Evolution of Shawan Ancient Town in Guangzhou from the Perspective of Spatial Syntax
    Wei Tao, Kefeng Lin, Hengyu Gu, Chaoming Liao, Shiying Liu, Qianyi Ou
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 970-980.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003282
    Abstract252)   HTML11)    PDF (3912KB)(152)      

    Against the background of the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, the development of ancient towns is faced with new challenges, such as the expansion of urban scale, the weakening of traditional cultural values, the lack of continuity between new and old urban areas, and the inconsistent pattern of old urban areas. This research takes the Shawan Ancient Town, Panyu District, Guangzhou City, as its research object and conducts a spatial syntactic analysis of urban morphology in 2002, 2008, and 2017, based on the axis model. The research shows that: 1) Shawan Ancient Town has experienced three stages of development in terms of overall shape, from "single nucleus cohesion" to "axis growth" and then to "divergence and spread." The town's core has been expanding and its shape has been perfected. 2) The direction of expansion of the ancient town's spatial form is consistent with expansion in the direction of the integrated nuclear center, with which the town's new business is in line. The central transfer is synchronized with the evolution of the spatial form. 3) The phenomenon that the integration core of ancient towns and the development of commercial centers are out of sync is related to modern cities' orthogonal grid form and traditional ancient towns' relatively dense and complex spatial texture. This study reveals the law of development of the traditional village spatial form in the process of rapid urbanization and provides a useful reference for the traditional village's new spatial design and the inheritance and reconstruction of the spatial development structure and order. Finally, the research proposes the following suggestions for the spatial protection of ancient towns: 1) The development of ancient towns should extract the spatial rhythm from the traditional space and follow similar rules to update and develop the town, so as to protect the sense of scale and the traditional daily living space. 2) Good traffic planning can ensure that the original space is only minimally affected. At the same time, the use of transit rail to connect the ancient towns old and new districts can improve continuity between the spaces and ensure efficient operation. 3) Demonstrating the need for the rational control of tourism development., Shawan Ancient Town is in the stage of high tourism development, which makes residents' living space overlap with tourists' visiting space, often resulting in the occupation and destruction of the original settlement space to meet the needs of "others." As a characteristic element of traditional ancient towns, their protection and continuation need to be respected during tourism development. Planning should fully analyze ancient towns' spatial rules and development needs to avoid excessive transformation of the space due to commercial development and the timely restoration of some places worth preserving" if applicable..

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    Characteristics of the Urban System and Its Influencing Factors in Pakistan
    Qi Li, Ye Dong, Yungang Liu
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (2): 290-302.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003330
    Abstract244)   HTML8)    PDF (3118KB)(57)      

    Pakistan is a influential country in South Asia and an important fulcrum of "The Belt and Road Initiative." The study of its urban system can promote the understanding of Pakistan and provide references for related cooperation. This paper conducts a more comprehensive empirical analysis of the scale structure, spatial structure, and functional structure characteristics of the urban system, based on existing research and on the census data, natural environment, economic industry, and traffic network and other public data. It uses the analysis methods of the urban system pyramid, Gini coefficient of urban scale and nuclear density analysis, and analyzes the endogenous and exogenous factors of the urban system. The results were as follows: 1) First, regarding scale structure, the overall distribution of the urban scale is relatively concentrated, showing characteristics of both "large urbanization" and "small urbanization." The development of intermediate-level cities is delayed, and the urban population pyramid is roughly shaped as an hourglass. Regarding spatial structure, the urban system of Pakistan embodies the coexistence of differentiation and integration, forming different urban density patterns in the East and the West and a provincial urban system with its own characteristics. However, the spatial structure of towns in the southeast-northwest region shows an integration trend. The eastern region gradually formed the urban agglomeration core areas of Karachi and Lahore, and the urban agglomeration areas of the Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan area, Peshawar, Multan, Sukkur, and Hyderabad, with a "seven"-axis distribution in the southeast-northwest. Regarding the functional structure, there are three national centers, two regional centers, and some important industrial and transportation node cities. 2) The urban system is formed under the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors. Regarding endogenous factors, natural environment factors constitute the basis of urban system evolution; the intensity of the economic industry and spatial agglomeration determine the basic pattern of the urban system. The joint effect of terrain and traffic transforms the space-time distance, resulting in the difference of urban systems between the East and the West. The relatively independent social and administrative factors of each province cause the differentiation of the urban systems in each province. This process is indirectly affected by exogenous factors such as international investment and trade, geopolitics, and the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. 3) The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor will strengthen the motivational force of urbanization in Pakistan, promote the transformation of the "seven" urban development axis into the "two vertical and three horizontal" urban development axis system, and promote the development of western cities. Suggestions for the overall policy of Pakistan's urban system include: (1)promoting the industrialization process, strengthening the power of urbanization, and promoting the development of cities at all levels, especially the intermediate level cities. (2) Further, it proposes strengthening integration development with the world market, promoting the development of cities in the southern coastal areas and the transportation links with inland cities, as well as the development of cities along the line. (3) Finally, it suggests reducing the administrative and social system barriers between provinces, reducing the distance and division of factor flow, and accelerating the process of urban system integration.

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    Impact Factors of COVID-19 Epidemic Spread in Hubei Province Based on Multi-Source Data
    Wenyue Liao, Meiwei Sun, Chuying Yu, Yingbin Deng, Miao Li, Ji Yang, Yong Li, Jianhui Xu, Yuchan Chen, Yingwei Yan
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (1): 12-24.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003315
    Abstract235)   HTML15)    PDF (2833KB)(102)      

    With more than 26 million confirmed cases and over two million case-fatalities worldwide, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has transformed the dynamics of human lives globally. It has been designated as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The COVID-19 virus can be transmitted through droplets, aerosols, or direct contact. It possesses evident characteristics of human-to-human transmission. Additionally, COVID-19 is a highly pathogenic new coronavirus, and people are prone to serious respiratory diseases resulting in high mortality after becoming infected. It has posed a great security threat to the entire human society and caused hundreds of billions of economic losses. The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic spread from Wuhan to all other cities in China before Spring Festival, causing serious public health issues and preventing the growth of the social economy. Analyzing the spatial-temporal spread pattern of COVID-19 can support the prevention of the epidemic. Thus, this study aims to analyze the temporal-spatial spread characteristics of COVID-19 in Hubei Province. First, a regression model with variables of migration big data (mobility scale index (MSI) and traffic intensity) is employed to explore the temporal pattern of the spread of the epidemic. Second, the spatial spread characteristics of COVID-19 are analyzed using a regression model comprising transportation information (primary and secondary road transportation networks) and social economic information (2018 GDP data). The results illustrate the following. First, the regression model based on population migration data and daily COVID-19 cases in each city was significant (Sig.=0.00), with R2 up to 0.715, indicating that the independent variable could explain the dependent variable. As indicated by the standardized coefficient results, MSI (0.85) has a greater impact on the daily new cases in each city. Second, the cumulative infection rate per 10000 people was positively correlated with the number of medical institutions and GDP with correlation coefficients of 0.689 and 0.774, respectively, Sig. was less than 0.05. However, it was not correlated with the number of beds (Sig. > 0.05). Third, the spatial regression model based on the traffic network, socio-economic data and cumulative infection rate of ten thousand people in each city of Hubei was also significant. The independent variables in the model can explain the variability of 67.2% of the dependent variables. The results of the standardized coefficient show that the GDP ratio of each city has a greater impact on the model. The results of the study are expected to provide scientific data support for the government and epidemic prevention workers to formulate efficient epidemic prevention and policy decisions. In conclusion, the model fit of multiple regression on the time scale is better than that on the spatial scale. Population migration has the greatest impact on the spread of the epidemic. That is, population mobility has a greater effect on the prevention and control of epidemic situations. The results of the study are expected to provide scientific data support for the government on formulating epidemic prevention policies.

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    Spatial Pattern of Population Flow in China's Typical Outflow Areas: A Case Study of the Sichuan-Chongqing Area
    Cong Li, Huiming Zong, Lei Xiao
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (3): 516-527.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003354
    Abstract225)   HTML6)    PDF (4681KB)(38)      

    Population flow is an important component of regional spatial network, but there are few empirical studies on its quantity and spatial pattern in outflow areas in extant literature. The development of the population flow pattern since 2010 has important theoretical contributions to the understanding of the population flow pattern and mechanism in modern China. Based on the Migrants Dynamic Survey of China's floating population by the National Health Commission, PRC, in 2017, this study systematically analyzed the spatial pattern and mobile network of the floating population in Sichuan-Chongqing, one of the most important outflow areas in China. The study found that the scale of the interregional outflow in this area is still large in terms of floating population. However, there has been a certain degree of population backflow since 2010 and the floating population has begun to surpass interregional mobility, which shows that Sichuan-Chongqing is increasingly attracting population. In terms of the spatial distribution pattern of floating population, the outflow to other provinces is mainly from the county units in the northeastern part of Sichuan-Chongqing and the inflow is mainly from the neighboring provinces of Sichuan-Chongqing. Further, the outflow to urban agglomerations is mainly toward the eastern coastal regions and the neighboring provinces in southwest China, whereas the inflow is toward the urban areas of Chengdu and Chongqing. Overall, the population flow here is mainly toward the urban center in both Chengdu and Chongqing. The areas that attract the utmost population flow are as follows, in order: the urban area of Chongqing; the urban area of Chengdu, which is a center for Sichuan; and the urban areas of Panzhihua and Yibin. The distribution of the population flow is highly concentrated in the central region of Sichuan-Chongqing, which shows a spatial pattern of "core-periphery." Short-distance population flow dominates the mobility network in this region. Further, the core of Chongqing urban area is closely connected with not only most districts and counties in the city but also Guang'an City and Nanchong City, Sichuan Province, whereas the core of Chengdu urban area is closely connected with the Chengdu Plain Economic Zone. Cities located along the border of Sichuan and Chongqing, such as Zigong, Yibin, Ziyang, Neijiang, and Dazhou, are greatly influenced by the cores of both Chengdu and Chongqing, and the population flow network is comparatively complex. The population flow between the two cores is weak. This shows that the administrative boundary between Chongqing and Sichuan has a significant influence on the population flow in this area.

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    How Does Green Finance Impact Chinese Urban Environmental Pollution? A Case Study of Haze Pollution
    Xiangdong Zhu, Shengjun Zhu, Yongyuan Huang, Haifeng Huang
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (1): 55-66.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003303
    Abstract221)   HTML11)    PDF (2373KB)(88)      

    Green finance is a novel concept that combines environmental protection with finance. It aims at ensuring sustainable development by regulating investment and financing. The features of green finance meet the demands of China's economic transformation and environmental protection. Since 2015, green finance has increased rapidly in China and attracted a great deal of research. Previous studies focus on the concept, overseas experience, development models, and policy incentives, while green finance's environmental effect has been largely neglected. Theoretically, we deduce that as an innovation of environmental governance, green finance would potentially promote the impact of the existing environmental regulations. Moreover, both green finance and environmental regulations can alleviate pollution through upgrading the regional industrial structure and stimulating technological innovation. Moving on to regional heterogeneity, we hypothesize that the effects of the two kinds of environmental governance are varying across regions. This paper applies the econometric model to explore green finance's impact on the Chinese urban haze pollution and its interaction with environmental regulations, industrial structure, and technological level. Our dependent variable is the volume of the reduction of the haze pollution index in 289 Chinese prefectural cities. The scale of green finance in each city is denoted by the insuring scale of green bonds. Environmental regulation is denoted by a commonly used indicator system consisting of two kinds of contaminants: sulfur dioxide and liquid waste. Industrial structure is denoted by the percentage of the secondary industry to GDP in each city. Technological level is denoted by the number of selected patents over prefectural industrial output. We confirm the correlations between variables by descriptive analysis and apply the Spatial Durbin Model to test our hypothesis. The results show that green finance has significant spatial spillover, as a high level of regional green finance can benefit the alleviation of haze pollution. Green finance and environmental regulation exert a synergistic impact on improving environmental quality. Compared to the eastern and western regions, the synergistic impact is less significant in the central part of China. Green finance can reduce pollution by optimizing local industrial structure and upgrading technology. In both eastern and western regions, green finance's structural and technique effects are significant and positive, while in the central areas, the structural effects are not noticeable. Compared to environmental regulations, green finance has a stronger technique effect and a weaker structural effect. This article argues that the impact of green finance and environmental regulations on alleviating environmental pollution can complement each other. Thus, we suggest several policy implications. First, the policy system of green finance should be modified by taking existing environmental regulations into consideration. For example, restrictions on investment and financing can be applied to punish polluting firms and institutes. Second, with the significant effect of green finance on technological innovation, green finance should be encouraged to promote regional industrial upgrading. Third, the development and potential of green finance is varying across regions. Thus, mechanisms for promoting regional cooperation should be established to enhance the inclusivity of green finance. Overall, implementing green financial instruments can help different regions balance their environmental and economic goals and achieve sustainable development.

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    Water Surface Profile Dynamics and Underlying Mechanism of Transverse Channel in Pearl River Channel Networks: A Case Study of the Dongping Channel
    Bozhi Wang, Hao Yang, Suying Ou, Linxi Fu, Huayang Cai, Qingshu Yang
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (2): 410-422.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003334
    Abstract209)   HTML1)    PDF (2768KB)(41)      

    Since the 1980s, the Pearl River Delta has undergone rapid development on economic and social fronts. Owing to the impacts of large-scale and intensive human activities, the river discharge and sediment loads entering the Pearl River channel networks along with its morphology have changed drastically, leading to substantial alterations in spatial-temporal tide-river dynamics. Accordingly, the estuarine water surface profile has also experienced stepwise evolution. However, little attention has been paid to the mechanisms underlying water-level profile dynamics. In this study, the characteristics of and factors influencing the spatiotemporal evolution of the water surface profiles and residual water level curvature in the Dongping Channel were systematically explored based on the abrupt change in the Sanshui and Makou hydrological stations' flow diversion ratio in 1993, with the Dongping Channel considered as a case study. The obtained results are useful for setting scientific guidelines for evaluating morphological changes, adjusting flood control strategies, preventing saltwater intrusion, and constructing large-scale water conservancy projects. First, according to the abrupt change in the Sanshui and Makou hydrological stations' diversion ratio at the apex of the Pearl River channel networks, the evolution of the surface water profile dynamics in the Dongping Channel was divided into two phases: the pre-human period (1960-1992) and the post-human period (1993-2016). Subsequently, the dependence of the residual water level slope or tidal damping rate on discharge before and after the abrupt change in diversion ratio was studied using the double accumulation curve method. The residual water level curvature before and after human intervention was used to understand the dynamics of the residual water level slope and the resulting water surface profiles; in particular, the larger the curvature, the faster was the change in the residual water level. Meanwhile, the change in curvature from positive to negative (or vice versa) indicated a change in the shape from concave to convex (or vice versa). The results showed that: 1) The slope of the double cumulative curve of the residual water level slope or the tidal damping rate with regard to the river discharge decreased, indicating that the dependence of the residual water level or the tidal damping rate on the river discharge decreased; 2) the water surface slope of the Dongping Channel decreased as a whole, and the water surface slope upper reaches (Zidong-Sanshui reach) decreased the most. The rate of change of the gradient among the four seasons decreased by 4% to 67%. Meanwhile, the curvature fluctuation amplitude decreased, ranging from 2×10-10 to 5.48×10-10 before 1993, and from -0.9×10-10 to -0.07×10-10 after 1993; and 3) the main reason for the substantial change in the water surface profile was that sand excavation occurred in the middle and upper reaches of the Dongping Channel, leading to a substantial deepening of the river bed, a decrease in the water level, and an increase in water discharge. The lower reaches were mainly affected by tidal flat reclamation, resulting in channel deposition. Owing to the geometric changes, both the river discharge and tidal discharge increased in the middle reaches, leading to conversion of the water surface profile into an upward convex shape. Meanwhile, owing to the regulations for the Feilaixia Reservoir in the upper reaches of the Beijiang River and the seasonal regulation for cross-sectional width-depth ratio and sea-level change, the variation in the water surface curvature of the Dongping Channel in winter was much more significant than that in summer.

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    Urban Functions of Guangzhou and Shenzhen Focusing on the City Network Relationship: A Comparative Analysis on the Original Places of Air Passenger Flow
    Leixian Guo, Xiaoli Wu, Xiaofang Guo, Xuejun Zhou, Changcheng Kan
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (2): 229-242.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003323
    Abstract200)   HTML18)    PDF (4856KB)(93)      

    Over the past forty years of reform and opening up, the urban center system in the Pearl River Delta Region has been rapidly restructured. Its two central cities, Guangzhou and Shenzhen, have been fiercely competing in the field of economic development. Dealing with the functional positioning of the two cities has constituted a long-term concern for regional planning and policy making. Under the new circumstances of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, there is an urgent need to clarify the functional positioning of the two central cities of Guangzhou and Shenzhen. Further, there is a need to coordinate the relationship between competition and cooperation, the premise of which lies in the dynamic and accurate identification of urban functional characteristics. Previous studies directly used economic and industrial statistical data to study and analyze urban functions. However, due to the relative low frequency and high cost of data collection and analysis, it is difficult to carry out real-time analysis using these data. Based on the theoretical understanding of the projection of city functions to the city network, this article uses inter-city air passenger flow as its research medium. Further, it uses the air passenger flow data extracted from Baidu location-based services (LBS) big data. Taking the Chinese city network as its overall scope, it adopts the following two approaches. First, it compares the functional characteristics of the cities where the air passenger flows toward Guangzhou and Shenzhen are sourced. Second, it compares the functional characteristics of the employment places in the two megacities of Beijing and Shanghai, where the air passenger flows toward Guangzhou and Shenzhen are sourced. Therefore, the functional attributes and the functional areas of the source cities are used as the basis for identifying the comparative functional features of Guangzhou and Shenzhen to judge their overall functional characteristics in the Chinese urban network. The research results show the following. 1) First, compared with Shenzhen, Guangzhou's network connection with cities across China and Beijing and Shanghai focuses on administrative management and business functions. It plays the role of an administrative and business center within the spatial scale of the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration. 2) Second, compared with Guangzhou, Shenzhen focuses on technological innovation, finance, and high-tech manufacturing functions, and plays the role of a technological innovation and financial center and high-tech manufacturing base under the scale of the Pearl River Delta. 3) Third, as the two major service industry centers in the Pearl River Delta region, Guangzhou focuses on public and general producer services, and Shenzhen focuses on advanced producer services such as finance and technological research and development. Shenzhen has a higher status within the Chinese urban network system based on the producer service industry. The method provided by this article, which involves locational big data to flexibly extract urban functional characteristics from the city network, is novel. Further, it can serve as a supplementary approach to the studies on urban functions which relied on traditional economic and industrial statistics. Meanwhile, the research results of this article provide evidence for deepening the theoretical understanding of the urban function-space-network mapping relationship.

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    Theoretical Analysis of a Community with Shared Future for Mankind and Its Applications in Anti-COVID-19 Practice
    Dongping Long, Zaiqi Chen, Ming'en Xu, Danhong Liu
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (4): 694-707.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003366
    Abstract200)   HTML64)    PDF (1811KB)(120)      

    China is the advocator and builder of the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind. The international dissemination of its discourse requires more solid theoretical supporting research. Hence, the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind is China's intelligent contribution to the world and has been instrumental in solving major regional and global problems. Consequently, the Chinese academic community has the responsibility and obligation to convey the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind to the world in an understandable, objective, and authentic discourse. Further, it is responsible for continuously enhancing the scientific aspect and feasibility of the thought through academic achievements and excellence, thus establishing a leading research system. Currently, COVID-19 jeopardizes global public health security, including in political, economic, and social arenas. However, countries across the world are already in a state of close ties and destiny. Amid global public security incidents, the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind is connected by common interests, values, and responsibilities. Through the value resonance of its theoretical connotation, contacts and cooperation between countries are promptly promoted to form a close community of interests, health, destiny, and responsibilities to jointly respond to global crises and disasters. Therefore, amid the critical global fight against COVID-19, society urgently needs to forge an international consensus for fighting against this virus and maintaining global public health and safety with the thought of a community of a shared future for mankind. Accordingly, based on the perspectives of geopolitics and community, this paper first attempts to explore a theoretical analysis of the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind regarding scientific connotation, historical evolution, and contemporary values. Then, we examine specific cases to explain the practical applications of the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind in the fight against COVID-19 from the perspective of domestic practice, the Chinese program, and Western practice. Further, in doing so, we aim to demonstrate its dual value in spread and practice as well as its plight. Finally, we propose that governance and responsibility in the post-COVID-19 era, based on the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind, should be implemented by countries globally. Doing so involves playing a significant role in promoting global cooperation, maintaining world public health security, preventing a global recession, eliminating secondary disasters arising from COVID-19, transforming global governance, and reshaping international geopolitical relations. Therefore, this article may contribute to human society in fully and objectively understanding the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind, thus leading it to play a greater role in solving major global issues such as public health emergencies.

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    (a. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology; b. Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China)
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 1063-1074.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003293
    Abstract192)   HTML3)    PDF (3176KB)(74)      

    Against the backdrop of global warming, the structure and patterns of precipitation have changed significantly. This includes changes in the non-uniformity of spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation, while the frequency of extreme precipitation events has increased. Studies have shown that regional drought and flood disasters are related to rainfall and also closely related to the frequency and intensity of precipitation. As the main climate factor, the spatial and temporal variation in precipitation for different grades has become of significant research interest in recent years. Based on daily precipitation data from 1960 to 2017, this study used the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test and R/S analysis (rescaled range analysis) to analyze characteristics of spatial-temporal variation for precipitation at different grades in the Taihu Lake Basin for the past 60 years. Additionally, these results were used to explore the impacts of this variation on the annual precipitation. The observed daily precipitation (P) was categorized into four grades of intensity: light precipitation (0.1≤P<10 mm/d); moderate precipitation (10 ≤P<25 mm/d); heavy precipitation (25≤ P<50 mm/d); and storm precipitation (P≥ 50 mm/d). These classification criteria have been used in many global precipitation analyses. The results show that the annual precipitation days were dominated by light rain days, accounting for 73.55% of the total annual precipitation days between 1960 and 2017. The contribution rate of light rainy days to the total annual precipitation days had significantly reduced, and the contribution rate of heavy rainfall to the total annual rainfall had significantly increased. There was a significant increase in the rainfall, rainy days of heavy and storm rain, rainfall intensities for light rain, and the annual average precipitation. The number of light rain days had decreased significantly, and the precipitation structure in the Taihu Lake basin showed a tendency to shift to extreme heavy precipitation. There were significant differences in the spatial distribution of precipitation trends for different grades. The light rainy days, total annual precipitation days, and intensities of light rain and annual average precipitation showed a similar spatial pattern in the changing trend. The light rainy days and total annual precipitation days showed a significant downward trend across the entire basin, while the intensities of light rain and annual average precipitation showed a significant increasing trend. The spatial distribution of the change in the days of moderate rain, heavy rain, and storm rain were similar to the corresponding spatial pattern of rainfall. R/S analysis showed that, in addition to light rainfall, the indicators related to light rain, heavy rain, and annual total precipitation showed strong persistence, and the future trend was consistent with that of the past. In the past 60 years, the annual total rainfall, precipitation days, and annual average precipitation intensity in the Taihu Lake basin were greatly affected by moderate rainfall, light rain days, and heavy rainfall, respectively. The annual precipitation reduction was greatly affected by the decrease in heavy rainfall in dry years, and the increase in annual precipitation was heavily impacted by the increase in storm rainfall in flood years. There is a need for further study on the climate dynamic mechanisms underpinning different precipitation grades, such as atmospheric circulation and water vapor transport.

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    Spatial Effect of Construction Land Misallocation in China: An Empirical Analysis Based on Data o 235 Cities
    Junfeng Zhang, Congcong Wang, Lei Xu, Yuwei Weng
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (2): 217-228.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003327
    Abstract189)   HTML17)    PDF (2027KB)(116)      

    China's social and economic development is currently transitional. There is great incompatibility between the traditional construction land allocation model and the requirements of social and economic development, marked by a prominent contradiction between the supply and demand of construction land that has severely restricted the sustained and healthy development of China's social economy. Improving the efficiency of land resource allocation has become a new driving force for economic growth. With the limited driving power of this factor input for economic development, it is important to explore the occurrence and mechanism of rare construction land resource misallocation to secure the structural benefits of construction land allocation and sustainable economic development, as correcting construction land misallocation would greatly advance land supply-side reform and improve the efficiency of land resource allocation. To explain the mechanism of construction land misallocation, the article builds models for the measurement of both construction land misallocation and its mechanism, applying methods such as spatial autocorrelation model and the spatial Dubin model (SDM). Using these models, we focus on the space-time characteristics, driving factors, and spatial effects of construction land misallocation in China from 2001 to 2016. The sample data in this article come from 235 prefecture-level cities in China. The results show that the misallocation of construction land in China tends to decrease, followed by an increase, with a spatial distribution high in the West and low in the East. There were obvious spatial agglomeration and association features of construction land misallocation and its influencing factors in China, but the spatial correlation effect has weakened. Land financial dependence, industrial structure optimization, and market development have a significant negative impact on construction land misallocation, while government corruption and economic development have a significant positive impact and exert a space spillover effect. We find that the misallocation of construction land in our country is widespread and shows an upward trend. Changing the mode of economic development, increasing government governance, and improving market mechanisms and regional integration can effectively alleviate the misallocation of regional construction land. This paper is significant in discussing the driving factors of construction land misallocation from both theoretical and empirical perspectives, and in analyzing their spatial effect for the first time. It provides research directions and ideas for quantitatively exploring the problem of land resource misallocation, and indicates a feasible way to correct the misallocation of land resources.

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    Comprehensive Assessment and Deep Spatial Management of Coastal Zone in Lingao County, Hainan Province from Multiple Viewpoints
    Penghua Qiu, Na Du, Bingbing Liu, Xing Yang, Genzong Xie, Zunqian Zhong
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 1094-1108.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003284
    Abstract186)   HTML1)    PDF (2883KB)(41)      

    Sensitivity and risk assessments are not only effective methods for disaster prevention and alleviation but are also important bases for scientific spatial planning and regional environmental policy-formulation. To further strengthen the integrated management of coastal zone and explore more efficient methods of ecological space control, ten factors, namely soil erosion, desertification, soil salinization, typhoon disaster, rainstorm and flood disaster, special habitat, storm surge, disastrous wave, coastal erosion, and red tide, were selected to evaluate the eco-environmental sensitivity of the coastal zone in Lingao County, Hainan Province. Earthquake, collapse, landslide, land subsidence, and sand liquefaction were considered in the risk assessment of geological hazards. The results derived from eco-environmental sensitivity and risk assessment of geological hazards were combined with territorial planning to analyze the deep spatial management zoning of the study area. The results indicated that: 1) Desertification, soil salinization, rainstorm and flood disaster, red tide, and coastal erosion were mainly slightly sensitive; soil erosion and typhoon disaster were mainly moderately sensitive; and special habitat, storm surge, and disastrous wave were highly sensitive. The area of moderate, high, and extreme-high comprehensive sensitivity zone was 9 682.11, 3 275.29, and 983.88 hm2, respectively. Among them, Diaolou Town had the largest distribution area in the highly sensitive zone, and Bohou Town had the most widely distributed area in the extreme-highly sensitive zone. 2) The main geological hazards were earthquake, collapse, landslide, land subsidence, and sand liquefaction. Except for the seismic risk, which was divided into high-risk zone and middle zone, the other four types only had medium-risk and low-risk zones. The comprehensive risk zones were classified as high, medium, and low, among which the risk areas were mainly distributed in the 15 m area on each side of the fault zone of Bohou, Dongying, Bolian, and Huangtong Town, with a total area of 118.86 hm2. 3) The development and utilization of the coastal zone in Lingao County may be divided into three levels. The first level includes specific protected zone, moderate development zone, and intensive development zone. The second level included eight zones, including natural reserves, retention zone, utilization zone in control, agricultural development zone, tourism and leisure zone, public facility zone, residential construction zone, and industrial zone. The third level consisted of 18 tertiary divisions. 4) The deep spatial management zoning of the coastal zone with multiple horizons of ecological sensitivity, geological hazard risk, and territorial planning can better identify important protection objects and key protection areas and enable the coastal zone to be fully developed and utilized. Although this paper attempted to diagnose and identify the intensity and spatial distribution of various eco-environmental sensitivity types in the coastal zone from the views of quantification and visualization, some problems need to be explored further in the process of application, such as index selection, model construction, data acquisition, synergistic influence among different ecological environment sensitivity types, and so on. Moreover, the visual expression of geological hazard formation mechanism in the coastal zone and the commonness and individuality of the quantitative measurement of potential geological hazard risk assessment are also aspects that need to be strengthened.

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    Late Holocene Environmental Changes and Human Activity in Guangzhou City Area, China
    Ka Ian Lei, Zhuo Zheng, Junjie Gu, Ting Ma, Xibing Yi, Yongjie Tang
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (1): 67-81.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003304
    Abstract184)   HTML5)    PDF (3390KB)(91)      

    This study analyzed the radiocarbon chronology, lithology, and diatom and mollusk shell assemblages obtained from the profile of the Jiefang Middle Road archeological site in Yuexiu District, Guangzhou. It is determined that the Guangzhou Old Town, which lies on the northern bank of the Pearl River, was in a river bed and an estuarine wetland or lowland during the pre-Qin period. Microfossils of organisms with a high salinity tolerance were not observed in the sediment as the inflow of fresh water reduced the estuarine salinity; only estuarine-marine diatom taxa were found, with the mollusk shell fragments being mostly those of freshwater species and a few brackish water species. Therefore, we postulate that the salinity of the water bodies within the Guangzhou region was completely different during the pre-Qin period than during the mid-Holocene. In the former period, the area along the riverbanks of the Pearl River was mainly affected by riverine freshwater discharge and upward tidal convergence. In addition, radiocarbon dating results and the absence of enclosed bivalve mollusk shells in situ suggested that most of the freshwater and brackish water mollusk shells excavated at the site were food waste discarded by the ancient Nanyue people during the period in which their fishing tradition boomed in the pre-Qin (Eastern Zhou Dynasty) period. This also suggested that the shell deposits were relocated to the later strata via constant digs by the Nanyue successors, most probably due to the expansion of the town and restoration of the river, development of agricultural irrigation, or redeposition caused by the flooding that occurred throughout the Tang Dynasty. Since the establishment of the Nanyue Kingdom, signs of frequent human activity–particularly during the Tang Dynasty–can be recognized in the study area, which was then still a wetland or lowland area influenced mainly by fluvial and tidal dynamic forces, with its soil fertility serving as a foundation for the flourishing of agriculture. This is also consistent with the human-driven shoreline reorganization of the Pearl River noted in the Tang historical records. During the period from the late Tang Dynasty to the Five Dynasties, rulers expanded the wetland in the south due to a marked growth in population. Moreover, the region was exposed above water and gradually developed into the Guangzhou Old Town during the Northern Song Dynasty, despite having been affected-to some extent-by multiple flood events, as recorded in the history of the Kaibao reign (AD 968-976) and Zhidao reign (AD 995-997). The expansion and development of the Guangzhou Old Town continued during the Song Dynasty, with the expansion of agricultural and industrial practices, and the shoreline of the Pearl River was pushed farther south. In conclusion, the environmental and urban transformation of the Pearl River Delta region since ca. 2 ka BP were mainly related to the influence of Holocene sea level alterations, the quantity of river sediment being discharged, pressure from human use of the land, and the practice of river restoration. This study also suggests that the archeological records coincide with the historical records and the general course of the progressive transformation of the Pearl River Delta region, thereby providing new evidence for environmental archeological research.

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    Evaluation of Coastal Water Quality and Influence Factors Identification in South China
    Peihuan Huang, Gang Wang, Ziyin Huang, Dongsheng Guan
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (1): 124-135.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003299
    Abstract173)   HTML3)    PDF (1618KB)(63)      

    Evaluation of coastal water quality and identification of the main factors affecting water quality were the prerequisites for the targeted implementation of environmental protection measures, which would help to improve the coastal water quality and promote the construction of regional marine ecological civilization. This study area included 32 cities along the coastline of South China. Firstly, coastal water quality was evaluated using the single factor standard and comprehensive evaluation index. Second, canonical correspondence analysis and stepwise linear regression analysis were used to explore the correlations between the various impact factors and the quality indicators of coastal water. The results showed that the quality of coastal water of South China in 2017 was mainly influenced by inorganic nitrogen (N), active phosphate (P), and suspended solids (SS). The N and P contents significantly exceeded the Chinese national standards in Xiamen, Ningde, Fuzhou, Zhuhai, Shenzhen, and Qinzhou, which were mainly located in the coastlines of Fujian, Guangxi, and Guangdong provinces. Correlation analysis showed that N, P, and SS pollution were closely related to marine aquaculture. The high quantity of domestic wastewater discharge should also be accountable for N and P pollution. The contents of heavy metal and petroleum pollutants in the coastal waters in 2017 did not exceed the national standard along the coastline of most cities in South China. However, analysis results of the integrated water quality indices indicated that coastal water quality would be more likely affected by the heavy metals and petroleum in these cities (such as Huizhou, Zhanjiang, Jiangmen, Shantou, Zhuhai, and Yangjiang) in Guangdong province, in comparison with other cities. This can be attributed to the vigorous development of local industrial production in these cities. Industrialization is usually related to industrial wastewater discharge. As a result, industrial wastewater discharge was directly related to heavy metal and petroleum pollution. Furthermore, the correlation analysis results found that the heavy metal copper (Cu) is more likely related to the influencing factors in comparison with other heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb). In addition, frequent water traffic might also affect the pollution level of Cu. At the same time, it was also found that there was a positive correlation between the comprehensive water quality index and the regional gross domestic product. This result partially indicated that environmental infrastructure would be more improvable with economic development, and thus, the treatment efficiency of domestic and industrial wastewater was relatively higher in cities with higher economic levels. As mentioned above, to promote the construction of regional ecological civilization and improve the coastal water quality in South China, these measures can be carried out in these relevant cities and regions along the coastline of South China as follows: (1) The scale and intensity of marine aquaculture should be rationally planned and ecological aquaculture should be recommended; and (2) more attention should be paid to the interception and emission reduction of domestic and industrial wastewater. In particular, the removal efficiency of N and P could be largely improved through technical innovation for existing wastewater treatment facilities. Moreover, the construction of environmental infrastructure should be largely strengthened in these undeveloped cities; and (3) it was also noteworthy that an environmental risk assessment should be carried out before entering the sea for these ships using Cu ion antifouling paint or ships made by Cu-containing metals.

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    Bypass Behavior and Influencing Factors Among Older Adults with General and Chronic Diseases in Guangzhou
    Lin Lin, Chengqi Yan, Ying Yang, Yixin Fan, Qing Wu
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 993-1003.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003296
    Abstract172)   HTML3)    PDF (2042KB)(59)      

    Optimizing medical behavior is an important way to promote health equity for older adults. Foreign studies have reported on the phenomenon of bypass behavior, in which patients choose to receive medical services from a hospital farther away instead of a closer one. The distribution of medical facilities in rural areas of foreign countries is relatively scattered, therefore, bypass behavior is fairly common. However, in China, community health service sites have a standard configuration, in accordance with regulations designed to meet the needs of older adults with general and chronic diseases. However, remarkably, many older adults still prefer medical service institutions that are farther away from them over those that are closer. In an analysis of questionnaire survey data from 13 communities in Guangzhou, with graph analysis and linear regression to explore the characteristics and influencing factors of older adult bypass, it was found that there were two critical points in the distance of older adults with general and chronic diseases in Guangzhou: 1 km is the critical point of "in-community bypass" and 5 km is the critical point of "near bypass-far bypass". This forms a core-peripheral bypass circle. Unlike foreign studies that suggest that bypass behavior mainly occurs in rural areas, this study found that bypass behavior in Guangzhou occurs not only in rural communities, but also in urban ones. Another important difference is that most foreign researchers believe that bypass distance is more than 25 km, whereas findings in the present study show that bypass distance in Guangzhou is distance that is more than 1 km. Older adult men have longer bypass distances than older adult women, and older adult men are more likely to choose higher-grade hospitals. Residential community type is a key influencing factor of bypass behavior, and incomplete medical grade configuration also has a great influence on bypass distance, which is also an important reason for the difference in bypass distance between older adults in urban and rural communities. Older adults who are more satisfied with their community are more likely to choose to seek medical care locally in the community. This finding supports those of foreign studies indicating that high community satisfaction promotes closer medical treatment among older adults and that high community satisfaction has a "pull" factor that attracts older adults to local medical treatment. There are important differences between bypass behavior in China and other countries. Applying the index of community satisfaction to the Anderson healthcare utilization model in the research on personal characteristics is more suitable for studies in China. Older adults with low self-rated health had longer bypass distances. Therefore, bypass distance, to a certain extent, can reflect the circumstance of health equity. The average bypass distance among older adults in a certain community is shorter when the community has more health equity. Predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, and medical needs jointly affect bypass distance among older adults, which in turn affects the level of health equity. Therefore, balancing the medical grade configuration and improving the community satisfaction among older adults will greatly reduce bypass distance and effectively improve health equity in the community.

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    Scenic Byway Policy Evolution in United States: Process, Characteristics, and Enlightenment
    Panpan Sun, Qing Yu
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 1136-1149.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003294
    Abstract167)   HTML0)    PDF (1452KB)(48)      

    This study analyzed the American scenic byway policy evolution process from five aspects, namely policy evolution background, policy types, policy subjects, policy themes, and policy instruments. On this basis, the authors described and identified its evolution to provide some enlightenment and references for the construction and improvement of China's scenic byway policy. The results showed that: 1) the American scenic byway policy evolution process has gone through four periods, namely germination, initial exploration, growth and development, and transformation. This is a historical process of dynamic evolution and a landmark policy promotes historic turn. 2) The evolution of scenic byway policy in United States is influenced by various internal and external factors, such as social civilization and ideological trends, economic and ecological environment development, traffic construction and tourism demand, and the development of the scenic byway itself, which promote historical policy change through interaction and mutual driving. 3) The Act, technical guide, and research report are a triad that jointly promotes the evolution of the American scenic byway policy. Among them, research reports are the premise, acts play a guiding and leading role, and technical guides are practical. 4) After one hundred years of changes, America has formed a structure of policy-making, which is dominated by the transportation sector, united by multi-sector and cross-sector, and and participated by the public. The special scenic byway management organization has been established at the national level (National Scenic Byways Advisory Committee). 5) The United States has formed a relatively complete and practical value scenic byway policy system, which involves "construction, management, maintenance, and transportation" and provides comprehensive policy support and institutional guarantees. Finally, this paper proposed that China should follow the general law of the evolution of scenic trail policies, consider various internal and external factors, further enrich policy types, incorporate the scenic byway into China's national calendar system as much as possible, establish national-level scenic byway directorate or leading department as soon as possible, and pay attention to the whole process of "construction, management, maintenance, and transportation", based on the experience of the United States, combined with the current situation and problems of China's scenic byway policy.

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    Spatio-Temporal Evolution and Influencing Factors of E-Sports Industry: A Case Study of Shanghai
    Shaowen Zhan, Yixin Zhu, Zhe Cheng, Shibin Dou
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (2): 303-314.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003316
    Abstract162)   HTML11)    PDF (1933KB)(77)      

    As an emerging industry formed by the integration of multiple industries, the e-sports industry contributes to urban development, economic growth, and promotion of urban image owing to the characteristics of low pollution, strong driving effect, and high social influence. However, the e-sport industry is a new industry with limited studies about the general features, evolutionary mechanism, and spatial dynamics. As an e-sports industry center in China, Shanghai has the most complete e-sports industry chain and the largest industrial scale. This study takes Shanghai as a classical case to explore the spatial evolution process, features, and influencing factors of the e-sports industry using the spatial analysis methods, including the kernel density estimation, nearest neighbor index, and the Kriging spatial interpolation analysis based on the data mining of Shanghai e-sports enterprises from 2006 to 2018. The results show that, first, according to factors such as historical background, policy support, and development characteristics, the e-sports industry in Shanghai can be divided into the initial stage from 2006 to 2010, the rapid development stage from 2010 to 2014, and the explosive growth stage from 2014 to 2018. Second, the spatial distribution of the e-sports industry in Shanghai has evolved from a dual-core aggregation to a multi-core aggregation with the characteristics of central aggregation and simultaneous outward expansion. The south and north are the main directions of the expansion of e-sports enterprises. Third, high-capital e-sports enterprises tend to focus on software parks and universities in the surrounding area. There are currently four high-capital hotspots, namely, Zizhu Science Park in Minhang District, Zhaojiabang Road in Xuhui District, Lantian Enterprise Development Industrial Park in Jiading District, and Tiandi Software parks in Putuo District. These hotspots will have more opportunities to extend more competitive e-sports enterprises in the future because spin-off firms can inherit excellent capabilities from the parent firms. Fourth, based on the analysis framework of agglomeration economy—enterprise spin-off—institutional environment, this study analyzes the evolution mechanism of e-sports industry cluster in Shanghai. The agglomeration economy plays a centripetal role, the enterprise spin-off enables new enterprises to inherit successful routines from the parent company, and the institutional environment is conducive to the formation and management of industries. Compared with previous studies which showed that the government plays a smaller role in promoting the cultural industry, the development of the e-sports industry is affected more by the institutional environment. Finally, at an urban scale, government policy planning has a guiding effect on the location selection of the e-sports industry. High-quality human resources, economic development level, e-sports market environment, and transportation convenience are the key factors for the aggregation of e-sports enterprises. In addition, compared with traditional industries, the e-sports industry has the characteristics of competition as a sporting activity. Furthermore, the excitement of competition and the holding of big e-sports events will have a significant impact on the development of the e-sports industry. This study explores the spatial-temporal pattern, evolution process, influencing factors, and evolution mechanisms of the e-sports industry in Shanghai from the perspective of evolutionary economic geography. This study verifies and enriches the theory of evolutionary economic geography from an empirical perspective, providing a theoretical basis for optimizing the spatial distribution of the e-sports industry, developing an e-sports industry cluster district, and enhancing the urban cultural brand. It also provides a decision-making reference for other cities to develop the e-sports industry.

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    Water and Soil Carrying Capacity and Adjustment of Industrial Structure in Hainan Province
    Fangqu Niu, Xinyu Yang, Dongqi Sun
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 1109-1116.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003281
    Abstract159)   HTML4)    PDF (1070KB)(61)      

    After 40 years of rapid development, China has produced incredible economic results at the heavy cost of resources and the environment. Although research on this has attracted increasing attention, no unified paradigm has been formed so far. Additionally, the mechanical exploration of the interaction among socioeconomic factors, resources, and the environment is still weak, and conclusions lack operability, which makes it difficult to provide effective decision-making support for industrial development. This study focuses on the relationship among industry, population, resources, and environmental factors in order to construct a comprehensive evaluation framework to be applied to Hainan province. The framework first evaluates the importance of industries and then analyzes the quantitative relationship among regional industries, population resource consumption, and the intensity of pollution emissions. Finally, it sets different adjustments to the industrial structure based on the industrial and population resource consumption and the intensity of pollution emissions to evaluate the resource and environmental carrying capacity of different industrial structures (that is, the upper limit of the scale of industry and population). The results show that the current economic scale of Hainan province is not overloaded, and there remains room for further industrial development. For example, land resources have become the primary limiting factor for the development of Hainan province, followed by the water environment. Most pillar and basic industries with higher economic benefits are highly water-consuming and polluting industries. There is an urgent need to reduce the use of water resources as well as the intensity of pollution emissions. To further enhance economic development, it is necessary to cultivate industries with low energy consumption and low emissions. The evaluation method of resource and environmental carrying capacity constructed in this study holds clearer policy significance and can provide decision-making references for optimizing industrial structure adjustments while controlling the scale of industry and population development. This study further connects the theoretical research and practical application of resource and environmental carrying capacity, improves the operability of the research results in terms of decision-making support, and provides methodological references for the evaluation of resource and environmental carrying capacity. Future research challenges were also discussed. With respect to the specific application of the model, it is more meaningful to focus on the relative value of the model evaluation results (that is, differences among development scenarios) instead of the absolute values of each scenario.

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    The influence of Subways on Service Industry Agglomeration: Taking Guangzhou as an Example
    Hongping Zhu, Wentao Zhu, Rongbao Zheng
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (1): 114-123.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003307
    Abstract157)   HTML6)    PDF (1301KB)(75)      

    Agglomeration is an important feature of the spatial distribution of an urban internal service industry. Most of the previous studies on the influencing factors of urban internal service industry agglomeration have ignored traffic factors, especially the influence of subways. The improvement of traffic convenience can often affect the location of a service industry by gathering a flow of people. With the rapid growth in the number of China's metro cities, it is necessary to evaluate the impact of subways on the service industry activities within the city. In addition, most of the previous literature has not considered the spatial dependence of service activities, and there is little discussion on the heterogeneity of the service industry. In view of this, based on POI(Point of Information) data in Guangzhou as an example, this study uses a spatial autoregressive (SAR) model to identify the impact of subways on service industry agglomeration and analyzes the heterogeneity of different types of service industry. The results are summarized as follows. 1) Using Moran's I to measure the spatial correlation of Guangzhou's service industry agglomeration, the results indicate strong spatial correlation characteristics. In addition, according to the regression results of the SAR model, the spatial lag coefficient is significantly positive, which indicates that the service industry agglomeration has a considerable spatial dependence. Specifically, the degree of local service industry agglomeration will increase with an improvement in the surrounding areas. 2) The opening of subways has a significant positive impact on the spatial agglomeration of Guangzhou's service industry, which could increase the agglomeration levels in urban areas. One possible reason for this is that subways bring a floating population and reduce transaction costs. 3) There are different industries within the service industry, each of which has varying characteristics; thus, the impact of subways is heterogeneous, specifically as follows: the impact of a subway opening is higher on the wholesale and retail industry, accommodation and catering industry, and other life services than on other service industries but not significant on scientific research and technical services. 4) The impact of the metro on service industry agglomeration is also affected by the level of regional economic development. In areas with a higher level of economic development, the promotion effect of the metro on service industry agglomeration is more obvious. 5) Finally, a metro transfer station has a higher impact than a non-transfer station. One possible reason for this is that a metro transfer station is the intersection of multiple metro lines, which can often attract a greater flow of people and promote the flow of production factors, making service industry agglomeration more likely. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: first, taking Guangzhou, which has a well-developed metro network, as an example, this study evaluates the impact of the metro on service industry agglomeration and analyzes industry heterogeneity. Second, on the basis of constructing a spatial distance matrix of each economic unit, when considering the spatial dependence of service activities, the method of spatial economics was used to investigate the impact of subways on service industry agglomeration; third, taking big data represented by POIs as the source data, and taking streets and towns as the units of analysis, it more objectively and accurately reflects the spatial distribution characteristics of service industry agglomeration in cities.

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    Grain-Size Fractal Dimension of Aeolian Sand during the Last Glacial Period: The Houtian Section of Nanchang and Its Paleoenvironmental Significance
    Jiangzhen Zhan, Zhiwen Li, Zhigang Wang, Li Sun, Wubiao Li, Lan Du
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 1075-1084.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003288
    Abstract155)   HTML4)    PDF (2489KB)(279)      

    Fractal theory can be used to reveal the fractal features of many geographic phenomena, and the composition of sediment grain size has been successfully applied to the study of the evolution of geographic environments. The fractal dimension has widely been used as a new grain size index, which is consistent with the environmental changes reflected in the traditional analysis of grain size and composition; however, whether the fractal dimension can also reveal environmental changes in the Poyang Lake area in the mid-subtropics has not yet been determined. This study analyzes the fractal dimension characteristics of Houtian sandy land based on the results of grain size and the power of the exponential function relation method in fractal theory. A series of dune sand-sandy paleosol sequences were developed intermittently on the terraces of the lower reaches of the Ganjiang River. Based on multiple comprehensive investigations, the Houtian section, with rich sequences and a relatively continuous deposition, was selected in Houtian sandy land, Xinjian County, and Nanchang City. With the research carried out, Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) age and grain size tests were completed. A comparison of the fractal dimensions with clay, average grain size, winter and summer monsoon intensity-sensitive grain size, and the Nanjing Hulu Cave stalagmite oxygen isotope gave the following results: 1) Combined with the results of OSL dating and deep-sea oxygen isotope and stratigraphic characteristics, an age-depth framework was constructed based on the segmented sedimentation rate interpolation. The sand dune-sandy paleosol sequence of the Houtian section was mainly formed during the last glacial period (14.9-77.0 ka). The entire section has a good fractal structure, with the dune sand's fractal dimension at 2.04-2.62 (average 2.34) and the sandy paleosol at 2.24-2.70 (average 2.51). 2) The fractal dimension is positively correlated with the summer monsoon intensity-sensitive grain size, negatively correlated with the winter monsoon intensity-sensitive grain size, and closely related to the standard deviation (whereby the smaller the standard deviation, the smaller the fractal dimension). Medium silt, coarse sand, and winter monsoon intensity-sensitive grain size content are higher during the developmental period of the dune sand, and the average grain size is thicker. The standard deviation is smaller, the sorting is better, the degree of self-organization is higher, and the fractal dimension is smaller during the development period of the sandy paleosol. Due to the warm and humid climate, the weathering pedogenesis is stronger; the content of clay, fine silt, and summer monsoon intensity-sensitive grain size has increased significantly; the average grain size is finer; the standard deviation is larger; the sorting is worse; the self-organization is lower; and the fractal dimension is significantly larger. As a result, clay and fine silt formed by weathering sedimentation have the most significant impact on the fractal dimension. 3) The fractal dimension shows some alternating peak-valley cycles in the vertical direction. The peak values correspond to the early MIS2, MIS3c, and MIS3a stages, indicating a strong summer monsoon and a warm and humid climate; the valley values correspond to the late MIS2, MIS3b, and MIS4 stages, indicating that the winter monsoon is strong, and the climate is dry and cold. The results indicated that three climate warming cycles have occurred in the Houtian sandy land. At the same time, the fractal dimension reveals that the H5 and H6 events, which occurred in the HTS3b and HTS4 stages, show that the winter monsoon is the strongest and the summer monsoon is the weakest. Further, the sequence of aeolian sand deposition in the Poyang Lake area is practically synchronized with global climate change and extreme cold weather events.

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    Regional Differences in Access to Homeownership for China's Young Generation: A Case Study of Shanghai and Nanjing
    Can Cui, Jiayi Li, Junru Cui, Wei Xu, Fenglong Wang
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 1004-1014.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003292
    Abstract153)   HTML2)    PDF (1436KB)(79)      

    Homeownership crucially affects the quality of life of residents and the social stability of society. Therefore, access to homeownership has been extensively studied in the fields of housing studies, human geography, and sociology. In recent years, with the rapid rise in housing prices, China's young generation has been facing obstacles in accessing homeownership, which has attracted considerable attention from the media and scholars. Most of the existing literature centers on the debate of the "market transition theory" and "power persistence hypothesis", which focus on the impacts of market and institutional factors on homeownership acquisition. However, limited attention has been paid to regional variations in the influencing factors. There are widening differences in housing prices, housing purchase regulations, and demographic structures between cities and regions, which may result in variegated effects on the young generation's access to homeownership. To fill this gap in literature, this paper re-visits the "market transition theory" and "power persistence hypothesis" by comparing Shanghai and Nanjing, which are first-tier and second-tier cities, respectively, within the Yangtze River Delta. Based on the Yangtze River Delta Social Transformation Survey and Nanjing Housing Survey in 2013 and employing logistic regressions, this study investigates the factors that affect the young generation's housing tenure and the differences between the two cities. The results show that there are greater location differences within the city and more institutional barriers compared to Nanjing. The young generation's access to homeownership in Shanghai is associated closely with residential location, hukou status, and being a communist party member working in the public sector. In contrast, market factors such as educational attainment, job mobility, and demographic factors, including age and whether one is a parent, exert relatively little influence in Shanghai, but have significant influence in Nanjing. This study contributes to deepening our understanding of the regional variations in factors that influence homeownership acquisition among China's young generation. Furthermore, it sheds light on the implementation of the "different policies for different cities" strategy and the establishment of a long-term effective regulation system for the real estate market.

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    The Risk of Heat Wave along the Jakarta-Bandung High-Speed Railway in Indonesia
    Xin Dai, Qingsheng Liu, Xilin Wu, Chong Huang, He Li
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (1): 147-158.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003301
    Abstract148)   HTML4)    PDF (2819KB)(64)      

    Since heat wave is currently one of the most important meteorological disasters, it has a significant impact on residents' health and social economy. The accurate identification and assessment of heat wave risk is an effective means to deal with this problem. In this paper, the hazard, vulnerability and regional comprehensive prevention ability factors were selected as the indexes for evaluating heat wave risk. The index weight was determined by the H-AHP method, and the spatial distribution map of the risk level of heat wave was calculated by the graph cascade method. The results show that there is a significant spatial difference in the risk of heat wave in the regions along the Jakarta-Bandung High-Speed railway. On the whole, the risk in the northern region is higher than that in the southern region, and the risk in the western region is higher than that in the eastern region. The high-risk areas are mainly concentrated in Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia. The medium-high-risk areas were mainly distributed in Jakarta's peripheral suburbs and Bandung City. The low-risk areas are distributed in the central region, forming a typical V-shaped distribution being high on both sides and low in the middle. The overall risk of heat wave in this region is at a medium level, with the medium-level risk area accounting for nearly 50%. With the exception of Jakarta, Bekasi, Bandung, and Cimahi cities, half or even more than half of the other counties are at medium-level risk. The area with low risk level accounts for the least, only 8.10%, mainly distributed in the northern part of Karawang county near the Java sea, and in the southwest part of Bandung county and West Bandung county with high forest coverage. In this paper, a method of heat wave risk assessment based on remote sensing is proposed, and spatial social and economic data are used, providing a new idea for heat wave risk assessment for countries along the Belt and Road region.

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    Impact of Comprehensive Land Consolidation Rehabilitation on Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of the Shazai Island, Jiangmen, Guangdong Province
    Mengyuan Su, Jialong Wu
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (1): 159-166.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003305
    Abstract147)   HTML4)    PDF (1556KB)(66)      

    The problem of more people and less land and the shortage of cultivated land resources have been a long-term and difficult challenge in China. Comprehensive land consolidation and rehabilitation is an important means to optimize the spatial layout of the land, promote rural revitalization and urban renewal, and realize the integration of urban and rural development. China will promote green development and harmonious coexistence between man and nature in 2021-2025, and the ecological effect evaluation of land consolidation has become one of the hot topics at home and abroad. For a long time, land consolidation and rehabilitation had focused on improving the quality of cultivated land and supporting farmland infrastructure and paid less attention to the impact on ecosystem service value. The research object of this study is Shazai Island, Xinhui District, Jiangmen City, which was the first demonstration project of comprehensive land consolidation and rehabilitation in Guangdong Province. The study employed the ecosystem service value method to explore the impact of comprehensive land consolidation and rehabilitation on the ecosystem service value of the study area. The results showed that the adjustment of land use type and structure before and after comprehensive land consolidation and rehabilitation and the implementation of ecological restoration measures were the key factors in enhancing the ecosystem service value of Shazai Island. After comprehensive land consolidation and rehabilitation, the overall ecosystem service value, economic production, soil protection, wave dissipation and revetment, biodiversity, and habitat protection value of Shazai Island improved by 250%, 587%, 20.2%, and 182%, respectively, while the ecosystem service value of flood regulation and storage decreased by 87%. In terms of spatial distribution, the ecosystem service value and its increase showed the following order: North Island > South Island > periphery of dam area. This study demonstrated that the combination of land consolidation and rehabilitation and ecological protection and restoration could help to improve the ecosystem service function and provide a reference for the evaluation of land consolidation and rehabilitation and ecological restoration.

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    Process and Mechanism of Embeddedness of the Taiwan High Mountain Tea Industry in Mainland China from the Perspective of Relations: A Case Study of Yongfu Town, Zhangping City
    Feng Li, Suqiong Wei, Xiaojun You
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 1026-1038.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003283
    Abstract143)   HTML2)    PDF (2136KB)(48)      

    Since the late 1980s, Taiwanese investment in Mainland China's agriculture has grown rapidly. As the main form of cross-strait agricultural cooperation, Taiwanese investment has greatly promoted the development of the agricultural economy of Mainland China. However, the question that follows is whether these Taiwanese-funded agricultural enterprises can embed themselves into the local network in order to drive the sustainable development of the region. At present, the academic community pays little attention to this issue. Therefore, following on the theory of embeddedness and the theory of relational economic geography, this study takes the Taiwanese-funded high mountain tea industry of Yongfu Town as an example. Field research and in-depth interviews were used to construct a framework of industrial embedding analysis from the perspective of the agents' relationship with each other, focusing on an analysis of the dynamic embedding process and related mechanisms in the Taiwanese-funded high mountain tea industry of Mainland China. The results showed the following: 1) The embedding of the Taiwanese-funded high mountain tea enterprises of Yongfu Town is a gradual process that can be divided into social, network, and geographic embedding. Among these, social embedding is the premise of embedding activities; network embedding is a further development of social embedding and the most important form of embedding; and geographical embedding constitutes the spatial background for both social and network embedding activities. These three steps are interconnected with and promoted each other, and together, they constitute the spatiotemporal scene of enterprises' socioeconomic activities. 2) The three relationships of Actors-Institutions, Actor Networks-Inter-Organization Networks, and Local-Global are intertwined with each other throughout the embedding process of the tea enterprises of Yongfu Town and profoundly affect the process and results of the embeddedness. In addition, the study also found that local governments and intermediary agencies play an important role in promoting the development of enterprise and network reorganization. In this regard, this research suggests that local governments pay attention to the cultivation and growth of enterprises that support the local community and simultaneously encourage further exchanges among enterprises and promote network integration to continuously improve the degree to which Taiwanese-funded high mountain tea enterprises are "embedded."

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    Exposure Characteristics and Residents' Perception of Air Pollution in Neighborhood Parks: The Case of the Guangzhou Central Urban Area
    Wenyue Yang, Xin Li, Yingmei Mo, Huiling Chen
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (1): 45-54.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003300
    Abstract140)   HTML2)    PDF (1442KB)(39)      

    Neighborhood parks are green spaces where nearby residents can have their recreational activities. However, in many cases, land use planning and park design do not consider the relationship between the park location, its shape and size, and distance to the main road, traffic, and air pollution, which may expose residents using the park to the risks of air pollution. Meanwhile, existing research has paid less attention to the air pollution of green park spaces, especially at the neighborhood level. Based on air pollution monitoring and survey data, this study explored the spatial characteristics of air pollution in 33 neighborhood parks in the central urban area of Guangzhou, China, as well as the influencing factors, and residents' perception of air pollution when using the neighborhood park. The main conclusions are the following: 1) The air pollution exposure risks and their spatial pattern distribution in neighborhood parks in various districts are quite different, and the proportion of parks with low exposure risk is relatively small; 2) the Air Quality Index (AQI), PM1.0, and PM10 are significantly negatively associated with the area of neighborhood parks, while AQI, PM1.0, PM10, and PM2.5 are significantly positively associated with the patch shape index. In addition, the carbon dioxide (CO2) index is significantly negatively associated only with the distance from the urban main roads. However, there is almost no correlation between primary and secondary road density within the 1 km buffer zone of the neighborhood boundary and the degree of air pollution. 3) More than one-third of the residents' subjective perception of the air pollution level is better than the objective measurement, which indicates that they overestimated the air quality of the neighborhood park. This may have possibly led them to more exposure to the bad air environment when they do some physical activities there. When there are possible traffic pollution sources around neighborhood parks, residents' subjective perceptions of air quality are low. 4) Alternative activity spaces and accessibility of neighborhood parks affect the risk of residents' exposure to air pollution. If there is no alternative activity space around the residence, or the nearest neighborhood park is more accessible, residents would be more inclined to head to the neighborhood park for physical activity, even if they perceive the risk of air pollution exposure. In addition, this study has some policy insights. Neighborhood parks can help to suppress the diffusion of particulate matter, but most of them are small and have limited effects on mitigating traffic air pollution. To maximize the ecological service function of neighborhood parks and their role in air pollution purification, neighborhood parks covering larger areas, having higher accessibility and fuller shapes, and being far away from main traffic roads should be promoted. It is necessary to implement targeted space optimization and air pollution control strategies, such as control traffic around neighborhood parks with more serious air pollution; increase protective green spaces, the number of street trees, and road greening; optimize building planning and layout; and improve non-motorized travel environments.

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    The Spatial Pattern Changes of Pyramid Selling Crime Sites in Wuhan City and the Factors Influencing the Built Environment
    Tiantian Gong, Shuangyu Xie, Haonan Zhao
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (2): 265-276.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003332
    Abstract139)   HTML9)    PDF (2837KB)(47)      

    In the past ten years, public-related economic crimes have shown an explosive and blowout development trend along with the rapid development of the financial market. A Pyramid Selling Crime (PSC) is a public-related economic crime and a social problem that needs to be solved urgently. PSC includes a strong spatial decision-making process. Whether its spatial distribution is related to specifically built environmental elements is a typical geographic issue and is worthy of being included in the study of criminal geography. However, research on PSC is relatively scarce, and more analyses of its causes, methods, and legal issues are needed. There is little research on the temporal and spatial pattern evolution and its influencing factors from a geographical perspective. This study took Wuhan city as an example and was based on the PSC data of the China Judgment Document Network and the Point of Interest (POI) data related to the urban built environment. The nearest neighbor index method and nuclear density estimation method were used to study the changes in the spatial patterns of PSC sites in Wuhan from 2012 to 2019. Thereafter, the geographic detector method was used to analyze the built environment factors influencing the distribution of PSC sites to grasp the temporal and spatial laws of Wuhan PSC sites and their relationship with the built environment. In addition, this method provided a reference for the efficient prevention and control of PSC in Wuhan. The results were as follows: 1) PSCs in Wuhan were concentrated and distributed spatially presenting a characteristic concentration in the city center and having three centers in Dongxihu District, Huangpi District, and Hongshan District. These centers were mainly urban commercial centers, transportation hubs, urban villages, and urban-rural junctions, which are basically similar to the distribution characteristics of high-risk areas of robbery, snatch and theft crime in Wuhan. PSCs had the same characteristics as general crimes and conformed to the "law of concentration of crimes." However, the spatial distribution of PSCs also had its particularity. For example, PSCs included places associated with science, education, culture, financial insurance, etc., showing a trend of high-quality and high-yield. 2) During the 2012-2019 period, the distribution of PSC sites in Wuhan changed from a small number and constant change in the early stage to a large number and relative stability in the later stage, stably concentrating in transportation hubs, commercial centers, or universities surrounding suburban areas where there is a large flow of people and a complex social environment. At the same time, with the expansion of the city, PSC presented a trend of moving from the city center to periphery areas. The urban-rural fringe area also became a high incidence area of PSC. 3) The spatial pattern of PSC sites in Wuhan correlated with multiple built environmental factors, especially the facilities of sports and leisure, shopping malls, companies and enterprises, and commercial residences. The interaction and influence among the various facility factors were greater and more significant, indicating that the formation of the spatial pattern of PSC sites in Wuhan was the result of the combined effects of multiple factors. Based on these conclusions, some suggestions and measures were proposed for Wuhan to effectively prevent PSC.

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    Characteristics and Mechanism of Rural Placeness Construction in the Process of Community Empowerment: A Case Study of the Zhonghe Rural Community, Taizhong City
    Fangfang Xie, Jie Sun, Fengbao Liu
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 1039-1050.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003269
    Abstract138)   HTML1)    PDF (3904KB)(51)      

    With the shift to the "post-rural" study of rural geography, the mixture of urban, rural, and hybrid environments has become the focus of rural geography. Rural community empowerment, the active intervention of urban and rural elements, promotes the establishment of sustainable rural autonomy. Taking the Zhonghe rural community in Taizhong as its case, this paper discusses the influence of social structures and individual actors on the formation of placeness through the two perspectives of social construction and humanism, and it explores the construction mechanism of community empowerment. The results are as follows. 1) The placeness of Zhonghe community empowerment is reflected in the location of rural suburbs, the practice site and activities of community construction, and the sense of place of participants and tourists. 2) The process of placeness construction is formed by the interaction between social objects and behavioral subjects in three stages. 3) Weak placeness causes reflexivity in the behavior body and the social object, which constitutes the basis of community empowerment. 4) The government has established a mature operation mechanism to promote community empowerment, which participants also promote according to the needs of daily life. This, in turn, promotes placeness production and reproduction, forming a continuous process of community building. 5) The results of placeness construction attract the reinvestment of human and economic capital inside and outside the community, which ensures the sustainable power of community empowerment. 6) Through community empowerment, a sustainable, pluralistic, and global place is created in the rural environment, which cultivates a collective identity and community cohesion, indirectly strengthening the capabilities of rural autonomy.

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    Host-Guest Interaction from a Spatial Perspective: The Case of the White Swan Hotel Lobby in Guangzhou
    Hengyu Gu, Wei Tao
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (1): 82-92.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003313
    Abstract131)   HTML0)    PDF (1790KB)(38)      

    Although host-guest interaction has become an important and heated issue in tourism and leisure research, the effect of geographical location is largely underexplored. Additionally, quantitative analysis methods are less applied in the existing empirical studies. Based on Space Syntax theory and using qualitative analysis (participant observation and in-depth interviews), the present study examined the role of the configuration of spatial elements in the process of host-guest interaction in the lobby of the White Swan Hotel in Guangzhou. Results suggested the following: 1) The hotel lobby's spatial configuration is visually integrated while also divided and permeable. These characteristics of the space meet the tourists' requirements. 2) The host-guest interaction in the hotel lobby can be categorized as temporary, limited to specific times and locations, and imbalanced. The tourists' position usually prevails over that of the hotel staff, in order for the hotel to make a profit. 3) Spatial configuration plays a role in the imbalance between host and guest in the lobby. Specifically, the hotel lobby "caters to" the needs of all kinds of tourists, enhancing the sense of tourism and leisure. In contrast, "discipline" is required of the hotel staff and is reinforced by the design of the space. There is also a positive "spillover" effect of the spatial configuration on hotel employees. The lobby can be regarded as the "facade of a shop" and "stage" to present the hotel's service level, and thus senior management uses it to maintain the unbalanced host-guest relationship. 4) The hotel managers and employees aim to construct a sense of "home" for tourists to ensure their satisfaction and provide a positive travel experience. The construction of a sense of "home" is related to tourists' emotions in the context of modernity, which can be encompassed in a kind of experience (e.g., comfort and convenience) in a specific spatial configuration, and impacts tourists' consumption behavior. Space syntax regards the space of daily life as the background of social relations and recognizes the subjective role of space. It provides a channel for quantitative analysis of the spatial configuration of the hotel lobby and its social cultural logic with relation to host-guest interaction through mathematical modeling.Host-Guest Interaction from a Spatial Perspective: The Case of the White Swan Hotel Lobby in Guangzhou

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    The Thought and Methodology of Ecological Restoration Planning of National Land Space at the Provincial Level: A Case Study of Guangdong Province
    Yuyao Ye, Hong'ou Zhang, Qingchang Ren, Qinghua Gong, Danna Lyu, Zhengqian Liu, Shengfa Li
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (4): 657-667.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003357
    Abstract131)   HTML19)    PDF (2162KB)(70)      

    Unlike previous ecological restoration programs, the main focus of ecological restoration of national land space has changed from a single element in the natural ecology to the whole social-ecological system. The approach of this ecological restoration has changed from applying the pipe-end treatment to a single process to employing system restoration of the community of life consisting of mountains, rivers, forests, fields, lakes, and seas. Additionally, the aim has evolved from improving the health and stability of the ecological system to building a complex system in which humans and nature can coexist and develop a harmonious relationship. As the research on ecological restoration of national land space is developing a systemic and comprehensive view, it urgently requires support from multidisciplinary theories and methodologies. Ecological restoration planning of national land space at the provincial level is an action guide and programmatic document for provinces to further promote the construction of ecological civilization in this new era. This is a new but arduous and complex strategic task that allows extensive discussion on its research theories and methods. Accordingly, multidisciplinary theories and methods and participation from different parties and places are required. This study begins with the analysis of the scientific connotation and theoretical basis of ecological restoration planning of national land space, uses the man-land relationship theoretical framework as the guidance, integrates landscape ecology and nature-based solutions, and considers the local practice of ecological restoration planning of national land space in Guangdong Province. This paper presents the ideas and methods of provincial-level ecological restoration planning of national land space by focusing on the key points and difficulties, such as targets, indicators, major patterns, regional layout, and engineering systems. This is summarized as follows: the overall thinking of "six steps," the target system of "four dimensions," the zoning task of "three spaces," the spatial layout of "three levels," and the engineering system of "three scales." The study enriches the research on the method of ecological restoration planning of national land space by refining thoughts and methods and providing a reference for the ongoing ecological restoration planning of provincial-level national land space in China.

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    Progress and Hot Research on Urban Functional Space Renewal in the New Era
    Hongxin Sui, Xiu Yang, Shan Xu, Daojing Zhou
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 1150-1160.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003291
    Abstract130)   HTML3)    PDF (1249KB)(63)      

    Urban functional space renewal is an important means of revitalizing urban spaces, regenerating human memory, and reshaping spatial vitality in the new era; it is the core engine of sustainable urban development. In this paper, first, based on the development history of western urban renewal, we defined the concept and connotation of urban function renewal, and then systematically reviewed the research on urban function renewal at home and abroad; we focused particularly on the background and succession trajectory, function renewal models and spatial organization, research paradigm and space judgment, and driving mechanisms and planning regulation. Importantly, we discovered that the urban function renewal trend is closely related to the economic and social development level and the urbanization stage. Moreover, the urban functional renewal operation mode was observed to reflect the tendency of diversified cooperation between the governments, private sector, and communities. Additionally, the urban functional renewal judgment showed the tendency of multi-source data fusion and identification, and the urban functional renewal strategy was shown to be affected by multiple factors, such as policy control, the driving economic force, and market mechanisms. Particularly, with respect to the transformation and adjustment of the urban development in China in the new era, research on urban function renewal focuses more on the scientific cognition of urban renewal practice, the refined turn of spatial governance capabilities, and the humanistic return of governance concepts. Importantly, this paper focused on some hot topics of the urban function space research and has presented an in-depth discussion and analysis of issues, including the construction of the theoretical system and practical framework of urban function renewal in the new era; the succession characteristics of functional business research, and the regulation of localized policy were also addressed. Of note, existing research studies mainly qualitatively describe and analyze the update mode of a single function type at the macro-scale of cities and regions; reports on multi-temporal cognition and objective evaluation of business succession under the microscopic view are still insufficient. For this reason, we proposed that the renewal of urban functions in China should, in the future, pay more attention to the micro-spatial scale, especially the multi-dimensional quantitative analysis of the renewal mode of fine urban functions. Additionally, the integration of systematic research ideas should be considered for the generation of comprehensive methods to condense a universal, representative, and complete theoretical system of urban function renewal.

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    Economic Growth Effect and Influence Path of International Tourism Island Construction: An Empirical Analysis Based on Hainan
    Gandi Lai, Yingwu Zhang
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 1117-1126.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003295
    Abstract129)   HTML2)    PDF (1692KB)(34)      

    In the backdrop of slow growth in traditional industries, the marine economy has gradually become a new bright spot for economic and social development in various countries. As a new institutional model of island development and island economic development in China, "international tourism island construction" bears the important responsibility of promoting the coordinated development of regional economy and the marine development strategy. The existing research on the economic development of China's islands focuses on the development strategies that include: "what an international tourism island is" and "how to build an international tourism island." Few empirical studies focus on the specific preferential policies such as tax exemption for outlying islands, and there is no systematic study on the economic growth effect of the construction of international tourism islands. This leaves many questions unanswered regarding the economic development system model of international tourism island construction. Using the policy practice of Hainan Province in 2010 as a natural experiment, based on the provincial panel data of China's mainland from 1996 to 2017, the economic growth effect of the construction of the international tourism island is measured using the synthetic control method, and its influence path is analyzed. The results showed that: 1) the synthetic control method can well fit the economic growth path of Hainan Province before the implementation of the construction of international tourism island, and they confirmed that the construction of the international tourism island can effectively promote the economic growth of the Hainan area; 2) the construction of the international tourism island, indeed, promotes the economic growth of Hainan through the consumption and investment path on the demand side, and the tertiary industry development path on the supply side; 3) the net export and the secondary sectors of the construction industry are not the influence paths of Hainan International Tourism Island construction to promote local economic growth. This shows that the institutional model of promoting the economic development of the island area through the construction of the international tourism island conforms to the development principle of China's construction of a new pattern of domestic circulation dominated by domestic and international mutual promotion, and strongly refutes the misconception that the construction of the Hainan International Tourism Island is failing to promote internationalization, or that the Hainan International Tourism Island construction relies on real estate to develop the economy. This paper identifies the economic growth effect and influence path of Hainan International Tourism Island construction, makes up for the lack of quantitative analysis of international tourism island construction research, and, based on the empirical results, puts forward policy suggestions to improve the construction of an international tourism island and an institutional model experience that can be replicated and promoted in other island areas to serve the economic development of China's islands and the strategic practice of maritime power.

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    Urban Physical Examination Evaluation Based on Multisource Data: A Case Study of Changsha City
    Yu Xiang, Honghui Zhang, Xiaoping Liu
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (2): 277-289.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003325
    Abstract129)   HTML8)    PDF (1948KB)(72)      

    With the continuous increase in the rate of urbanization, more attention is being paid to quality of life in cities. At present, China's major cities are facing multiple challenges, including resource shortages, environmental pollution, population congestion, traffic congestion, and inequality of public service facilities, all of which have become controversial issues affecting the development of high-quality human settlements. Taking Changsha City as an example, this study attempts to solve the problems of incomplete physical examination elements, slow data update, and previously inconsistent evaluation standards. Under the guidance of problems and objectives, a scientific, comprehensive, applicable, and operable urban physical examination index system was built to provide effective support for the comparative analysis and accurate evaluation of urban development positioning. Based on remote sensing images, social open big data, and statistical data, this study constructed an urban physical examination index system from eight aspects: ecological livability, health and comfort, safety and resilience, convenient transportation, style and features, tidiness and order, multiple inclusiveness, and innovation vitality. The evaluation standard value was determined from the perspective of vertical national standards and planning references, along with a horizontal comparison of cities at the same level. The normalization method and analytic hierarchy process were used to calculate and evaluate the urban natural background and operational signs. The findings were as follows: 1) The overall human settlement of Changsha is good, and the comprehensive score of each aspect above 0.7. The city has a high degree of ecological livability and cleanliness, but the aspects of traffic convenience and safety resilience need to be improved. There is still room for improvement in style and characteristics, health and comfort, innovation and vitality, and diversity and inclusiveness. 2) The level of thematic development in each district and county is uneven. Yuelu District has the highest average score, while Kaifu District and Tianxin District have the most balanced development levels in terms of different aspects. On the basis of retaining the regional functional characteristics, each district and county should focus on solving development and narrowing the gap with other districts and counties. 3) The indicators of population density in the central urban area, number of days with good air quality, and mortality rate of 10,000 vehicles are at the highest level, but there is still a certain gap with the urban development demand in terms of complete coverage of convenience service facilities, residential building renewal and development, and group inclusion, among other aspects. According to the results of urban physical examination based on multisource data, in the future Changsha City needs to be solutionoriented, accurately manage "urban disease," and strive to improve the life satisfaction, happiness, and sense of belonging of urban residents. This study could provide reference research ideas for the fusion of static statistical data and dynamic emerging data derived from urban physical examination, the construction of a scientific and comprehensive index system, and the establishment of horizontal and vertical evaluation standards. At the same time, it could provide decision support for the diagnosis of prominent urban disease problems in Changsha and the better management of the city.

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    Residents' Perceived and Expected Value of Linear Cultural Heritage: The Example of the Yunnan-Vietnam Railway
    Fei Li, Jigang Ma, Xianghui Liu
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (1): 93-103.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003310
    Abstract124)   HTML1)    PDF (1210KB)(59)      

    The protection, activation, and utilization of the cultural heritage has attracted increasing attention from the international community. Cultural heritage is an important carrier for inhabitants to promote their local identity and express the emotions and geographical memory of local communities. The Linear Cultural Heritage Yunnan-Vietnam Railway, which once played an important historical role, is at the critical point between decline and revival. With its traffic and economic function declining daily, its heritage value is gradually being manifested in people's nostalgic mood and emotional recall. By investigating residents' perceived and expected value of the cultural heritage at several important stations along the Yunnan-Vietnam Railway, this paper explores the realistic basis of value reconstruction and excavates the multiple values of the Yunnan-Vietnam Railway, which can contribute to the scientific protection and sustainable utilization of the linear cultural heritage of the Yunnan-Vietnam Railway. The survey covers such issues as the economy, transportation, culture, society, ecology, tourism, spiritual attribution, local identity, and international contacts. By comparing the data collected using the Richter scale, the paper explores the differences between the twelve common factors of perceived value and expected value. It was found that the local identity of the residents along the Yunnan-Vietnam Railway is mainly reflected in the functional turn, value reproduction, and tourism development; the perceived value and expected value of the residents along the railway are identical, and there are obvious differences,which are embodied in five aspects: frontier stability, economic development, international trade, ecological environment and national integration. The research concludes that: First, the residents along the railway consistently affirm the cultural heritage value of the Yunnan-Vietnam Railway, expressing an optimistic and supportive attitude toward its future functional turn, value reproduction, and tourism development. Second, the Yunnan-Vietnam Railway is a common element of the local memories of residents along the line, the source and symbol of their common cultural and local identities. The protection and utilization of the Yunnan-Vietnam Railway is a continuation of the local context that will greatly enhance the national spirit. Finally, the residents have different expectations for the future development of the railway. The overall utilization of the Yunnan-Vietnam Railway is not equal to sustaining the development of the whole railway. Attention should thus be focused on the sections with better resource conditions and foundations for tourism. The theme of the whole railway should be unified, and an international tourism route can be opened jointly with Vietnam at an appropriate time.

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    Intellectual Structure and Themes Evolution of Cluster Research
    Xiuqiong Wang, Haiying Chen, Xiaojie Wu
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (1): 190-205.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003309
    Abstract124)   HTML0)    PDF (5274KB)(56)      

    From the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) Eigenfactor Project 2015 category, 115 journals in six disciplines which are ranked top 20 in order of impact scores in their own disciplines were selected. A total of 1002 industrial cluster research studies collected from the Web of Science between 1998 to 2019 were used as samples. BibExcel software was used for data cleaning and literature co-citation analysis, and co-occurrence matrix was inserted into SPSS software and Pajek software for exploratory factor analysis and network analysis, respectively. The differences and commonalities of the two results obtained from exploratory factor analysis and network analysis were compared by reading literature abstracts and manuscripts to robustly identify the knowledge base. According to the framework of 2W1H, the knowledge module was integrated into a problem-oriented system to understand the internal logic mechanism of the entire study. The top 41 studies in the citation frequency of each period from 1998 to 2005, 2006 to 2012, and 2013 to 2019 were selected to analyze the keyword co-occurrence in different periods, main theoretical basis, contextual focus, evolution of research topics, and important research trends. The results show that: 1) The knowledge base of industrial clusters can be divided into nine modules: external economics and new economic geography, new industrial district theory, competitive advantage theory, evolutionary economic geography, buzz and pipelines, regional innovation system, new economic sociology, absorptive capacity, and global chains; 2) The knowledge structure of these modules can be reflected through the 2W1H research framework, in which the WHAT part is composed of four modules: external economics, new economic geography, new industrial district theory, competitive advantage theory, and evolutionary economic geography. It answers the questions regarding concept, types and development stages of the cluster. The knowledge base of cluster type research in this part is less, which reflects the lack of corresponding research literature, and therefore this needs to be enriched using typology theory. The part WHY is composed of external economics and this is divided into two modules, i.e., new economic geography and competitive advantage theory, which answer the questions about the causes of cluster and its impact on regional or enterprise competitive advantage. In the 21st century, researchers have paid increasing attention to the causes of urban cultural and creative industry cluster formation. The part HOW is composed of five modules: buzz and pipelines, regional innovation system, new economic sociology, absorptive capacity, and global chains. This part is the most important, and can be categorized into three levels: enterprise, region, and country; 3) Between 1998-2019, the regional innovation system had been the main theoretical source of cluster. Evolutionary economic geography had occupied a significant position between 2006 and 2012 and it tended to blend with the global chain. The important theoretical sources of the three periods were constantly updated and enriched, thereby increasing the degree of integration with management theory. The focused industries of the three periods were more diverse, especially the status of the service industry, and the focus regions were later transferred to emerging markets and underdeveloped markets; innovation and local economic development had always been the core topics of the three periods. From 2006 to 2012, globalization and entrepreneurial activities received more attention. From 2013 to 2019, management theory occupied the main position, as it focused on new topics such as environmental governance and stakeholder management, and paid more attention to social, ecological, and other issues. Finally, based on the results, some suggestions for domestic research were presented.

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