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    Spatiotemporal Evolution and Formation Mechanism of Missing-Person Incidents in the United States
    Zhe Lin, Gang Li, Junjun Zhou, Jinlong Shi, Feng Xu, Yingying Wang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (9): 1475-1487.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003545
    Abstract871)   HTML3)    PDF (2309KB)(172)      

    The problem of missing persons is a major global challenge, which causes serious harm to their families and societies. For this study, we collected 9,193 U.S. missing-persons records for the years 1996-2021 from the Doe Network platform. We used mathematical statistics and Moran's I index to analyze the socio-demographic characteristics, spatio-temporal distribution and its evolution patterns. Then the geodetector was applied to conduct an in-depth analysis of the influencing factors in socio-cultural, economic and demographic aspects. Based on above findings, a sociological theory of the formation mechanism of the missing-person phenomenon in the United States was proposed. Major findings included: (1) With age increasing, the number of missing persons initially increased and then dropped gradually. The highest missing rate was found among adolescents (13-18 years old) and adults (19-59 years old). Although more males than females were reported missing, the high-incidence period of males lagged slightly behind that of females. The high missing rate among adolescent females was linked to sexual crimes, including sex trafficking and rape, while that of adult men tended to be caused by family discord or debt problems. Among racial groups, black people faced the greatest risk of going missing. (2) From 1996, the number of missing-person incidents initially showed a wave upward trended and then fell sharply, after peaking in 2017, because of a series of immigration regulations. In 2020, it declined dramatically again, due to COVID-19. Influenced by the temperature, school holidays, and festivals, most people were reported missing during the months of June, August, and December. Only few missing incidents happened between February and April. (3) Spatially, at the state level, the missing population distribution decreased from the coastal border area to the inland area; over time, areas with a great number of missing-person incidents advanced simultaneously from the eastern and western coastal areas and the southern US-Mexico border to US inland areas. At the county level, they were concentrated on the edge and scattered internally. (4) Missing-person incidents were caused by the interaction of multiple factors; regional population mobility, fertility rate, and the number of vulnerable people had a positive impact on numbers of missing people, while per capital GDP had a negative impact. The power of population-based environmental factors was significantly enhanced after be interacted with social and economic factors, on explaining the missing-person spatial distribution, all of which were above 80%. (5) The underlying mechanism of missing-person incidents could be understood from the perspective of "social anomie". In other words, the disconnect between social goals and means led to social anomie, which then induced deviant behavior, including abduction, murder, and running away from home, increasing the likelihood of missing-person incidents. Finally, we offered suggestions for disappearance prevention and further study directions. The findings provided a basic understanding of the missing-person phenomenon, contributing to global scientific information, which could aid in preventing missing-person incidents.

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    Formation Mechanism and Prevention of No.3 Landslide in Fei'e Mountain, Shunde District, Foshan City
    Bo Tao, Feng Li, Wei Ma, Jianxiong Liu, Shouyong Yi
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (10): 1761-1770.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003563
    Abstract868)   HTML18)    PDF (2492KB)(150)      

    Landslide No.3 in Fei'e Mountain is located in the Shunde District of Foshan City, Guangdong Province, and its' lithology is mainly composed of pre-Cretaceous Baizushan Formation (K1b) argillaceous siltstone. In this study, engineering geological drilling, geophysical exploration, geological mapping, and indoor testing were used to determine that it is a medium-scale bedding rocky landslide with a typical double-layer deep sliding surface. The maximum length of the landslide body is approximately 220 m in the longitudinal (south-west) direction and approximately 230 m in the horizontal (north-west) direction; the maximum thickness is approximately 32m, and the attitude of sliding surface is 230°∠12°-17°. Landslide body tensile cracks, including nine large-scale tensile cracks, are very well-developed. The longest crack is approximately 120 m long and has a crack opening width of 0-13 cm, with a height difference between the two sides of the crack (rupture wall) of 0-0.2 m. The ground of the leading edge of the landslide was uplifted and cracked, with a maximum uplift height of approximately 1.7 m. The landslide shear outlet was clearly visible and exhibited well-developed scratches. The scratch direction was the same as the main slide direction of the underlying landslide. Landslide deformation severely cracked the building structure and obstructed the drainage channel. There was a loose residual soil layer on the surface of the slope of Landslide No.3, and many fractures and joints were present in the lower bedrock. During rainfall, rainwater penetrated the deep part of the slope along the rock layer surface, joints, and fractures, which greatly increased the bulk density of the rock and soil mass, and softened the argillaceous siltstones, which greatly decreased their shear strength. The excavation of the slope formed a steep surface, which reduced the load at the foot of the slope and thus reduced the anti-sliding force. During long-term seepage, the rock and soil mass near the landslide face was softened to form a weak zone mixed with joints and stratigraphic phases. During long periods of heavy rain, the weak zone became soaked, soft, and plastic, which reduced its shear strength. When downward force increased, the effective anti-sliding force of the weak zone was greatly reduced, resulting in a landslide. During this process, Landslide No.3 developed two slip surfaces. The maximum buried depths of slip surfaces 1 and 2 (corresponding to landslides 1 and 2) were 32 and 15.5 m, respectively, which means that landslide 2 overlaid landslide 1 and slip surface 1 creeping occurred before that of slip surface 2. The trailing edge of slip surface 1 developed a fissure, the characteristics of which are described above. As the fracture surface was not fresh, its' development time is unknown. As in the sliding process, landslide 2 first formed a continuous sliding surface, and its' sliding rate was slightly greater than that of landslide 1, landslide 2 was the first to cut out from the steep ridge of the landslide's front edge. As a result of the shearing action of landslide 2, landslide 1 developed multiple vertical cracks. Rainwater seeping down these cracks further lubricated slip surface 1, which resulted in drum mounds and cracks in the leading edge of the landslide. Slip surface 1 subsequently formed a continuous sliding surface, and Landslide No.3 entered the uniform deformation stage. Timely emergency measures prevented landslide deformation damage and halted landslide progression before entering the accelerated deformation stage. Considering its double-layer slip surface structure, a comprehensive combination of slope cutting, an anchor (cable), lattice beam, double-row prestressed anchor-pulling anti-slip pile, three-dimensional mesh grass greening, interception, drainage, and a hairy stone retaining wall was used to prevent and control the landslide. Long-term monitoring results showed that these methods had a high rectification effect and successfully controlled landslide deformation and displacement.

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    Geographical Studies on Human Trafficking in China: Progress Review and Governance Implications
    Gang Li, Yue Yu, Junjun Zhou, An'nan Jin
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (9): 1403-1418.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003553
    Abstract444)   HTML16)    PDF (2330KB)(395)      

    The crime of human trafficking is an abnormal (involuntary, passive) phenomenon of population migration (disappearance, persecution); it has attracted great attention from the public and academic community because of its resultant social harm and far-reaching impacts on individuals and families. Constrained by the concealment, dispersion, variability, and complexity of the crime of human trafficking in China, the perspectives of earlier research topics were relatively clustered and limited. During the last 10 years, geographers have gradually achieved certain new understandings and progress through continuous exploration. From the perspective of the related sub-disciplines of geography, this study focuses on the main progress, existing issues, future trends, and crime governance paths to review studies on the crime of human trafficking in China. The results indicate the following: (1) Regarding the interdisciplinary situation: The crime of human trafficking is a social pain point of common concern among multiple disciplines. Geography has the advantage of being a latecomer and its integration with other disciplines will help understand the problem in depth and solve it systematically. Geographers will have a broad stage for future research in the field of human trafficking crimes. (2) Regarding the research objects: The earlier studies on the crime of child trafficking in China in the international context were actually subject studies of human trafficking in the Chinese criminal law context. The crime of human trafficking in China is unique compared to other countries and other types of crimes. (3) Regarding the research data: In the past, the data sources mainly comprised non-governmental organizations and individuals. The current data sources show the co-occurrence of non-governmental and official sources and the trend of the integration of offline and online availability. The integration and utilization of multi-source data will be the main path to future studies. (4) Regarding field investigation: In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic's impact and the upgrading of related family tracing means, field investigation has opened up new ways, and online investigations (online interviews, participatory observation in live broadcasting rooms, etc.) have become complementary or alternative channels of traditional field investigations and surveys. (5) Regarding patterns and trends: Based on the update and verification of available data, it is found that the stability of the spatiotemporal pattern of trafficking crimes and the dependence on the main routes in China, and cross-border and inter-provincial border areas, are worthy of attention. Future research trend will shift from being independent to comprehensive—from a quantitative study to a qualitative or mixed study; from case numbers to individuals, families, and their social networks; from the source area to the bridging of source, flow, and sink areas; and from a type of human trafficking to multi-type comparisons of missing persons. (6) Regarding measures and suggestions: Combined with the existing research knowledge and current crime trends, this study presents overall strategies and specific paths for dealing with the crime of human trafficking and assisting the abducted and their relatives.

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    Challenge or Opportunity: Comparison of Rural Tourist Behavior before and after the COVID-19 Outbreak
    Yuqing Xi, Guangshu Sang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (12): 2121-2131.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003583
    Abstract427)   HTML5)    PDF (1016KB)(183)      

    Tourism is a sensitive industry that is extremely vulnerable to crisis situations. The development of China's tourism industry was halted altogether after the massive outbreak of COVID-19 in early 2020. Entering the phase of normalization of epidemic prevention, rural tourism becomes the main force of tourism recovery. This study uses online travelogues to determine the behavioral changes of rural tourists before and after the occurrence of COVID-19. The study applies rooting theory and constructs a rural tourism behavior model based on the temporal logic of tourism progress. The following results were obtained: First, rural tourism behavior includes three stages (behavior motivation, experience behavior, and evaluation behavior), and its framework can be organized into four aspects (behavior time, behavior link, behavior content, and behavior level). Second, while the COVID-19 outbreak poses a serious impediment, it also brings development opportunities. Rural tourism, as the "dark horse" of tourism recovery speed, has obvious advantages. The vast space and good environment of the countryside in the post-epidemic era have become an ideal tourist destination for the urban population during the epidemic. Six rural tourism objectives emerged during the epidemic: epidemic suppression rebound, escape from the epidemic haze, the lure of ticket specials, search for safe areas, travel time constraints, and travel space constraints. Third, rural tourism's tourist experience behavior in the context of the epidemic presents a series of new features, including transportation choice behavior, perceived degree of congestion, and consumption behavior. Changes in the number of visitors to scenic areas, scenic management measures, and scenic consumption places can influence tourist behavior accordingly. Finally, owing to the specificity of the tourism experience process, its physical and mental contradictions and interaction mechanisms are systematic and complex. The contradictions between the need to travel during the epidemic and reality fiercely affect the emotions of tourists, whose emotional expression is more complex and adds a layer to the perception of life. Ultimately, the process of the tourism experience is reflected in the individual, thereby facilitating the visitor's satisfaction of self-growth and discovery. The novelty of this study lies in its research perspective, which takes tourist behavior as an entry point to explore the impact of the epidemic on the behavior of rural tourists from their point of view. The study findings can point to new directions for the tourism industry to achieve market recovery and industry revitalization after the epidemic and guide rural tourism destinations to better assess and respond to changes in tourism demand.

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    Digital Agricultural Space Construction and Practice in the Context of Rural Revitalization: A Case of the Tea Industry in Zijin County, Guangdong Province
    Zhiwei Luo, Huiyan He, Min Wang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (8): 1324-1334.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003535
    Abstract421)   HTML22)    PDF (1198KB)(162)      

    With the promotion of China's rural revitalization strategy, rural industrial formation based on digital technology is increasingly emerging. How digital technology stimulates rural industrial development as a new infrastructure force and guides the transformation and reconstruction of rural space has become a topic of concern for the Chinese government. Using field research and semi-structured interviews, this research took the tea industry in Zijin County, Guangdong Province, as an example to explore the digital construction process of rural agricultural space. Furthermore, it focused on how digital technology promoted the social and spatial organization transformation of rural areas and analyzed the operation mechanism of digital agricultural space. The main findings of this study are as follows: (1) The introduction of digital agricultural technology realizes real-time monitoring of the production space, which helps break the "black box" dilemma arising from the physical isolation of the production and sales sides, and promotes the construction of a logic for agricultural modernization operations. To support the routine operation of the technology platform, digital infrastructure and the introduction of skilled human resources stimulated the creation of new rural spatial functions. 2) Differences in the digital practices of different rural entities were observed. First, targeted digital agricultural space construction leads to differences in resource allocation among rural enterprises of different scales, which intensifies the differential development of rural space construction. Second, the top-down-led digital construction of rural areas has differences between the implementation strategies of governance subjects and the actual needs of local enterprises. This is mainly reflected in the lack of coupling between the integration of digital infrastructure resources and the granting of hierarchical technical knowledge. In addition, grassroots farmers form cognitive inertia to traditional production models and have insufficient knowledge of digital technologies, making it difficult for them to participate in the everyday construction of digital rural discourse systems. 3) Digital technology is leading the rurality turn, i.e., features digital intervention in the construction of agricultural space. Under the discourse of precise poverty alleviation and rural revitalization, the logic of digital rural operation in Zijin County centers on the three-subject framework of government, enterprise, and villagers. With the intervention of digital technology, a hybrid of multiple subjects, networks, and meanings guides the structural transformation of rurality. Overall, digital technology has triggered a reconfiguration of the spatiality of the Chinese countryside. On the one hand, it drives the spatial transformation of rural areas by guiding the transformation of rural social and spatial organization. On the other hand, the current top-down digital technology sink model of rural areas needs to be further improved due to the differences in multiple subjects in rural areas. To broaden the effectiveness of digital technology in promoting the development of rural areas, future construction of digital rural areas should deepen the bottom-up participatory transmission path and guide the participation of more diverse rural subjects.

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    Basic Characteristics and Genesis of Cavernous Weathering Features on the Steep Slopes of Danxia Landscape in Danxiashan UNESCO Global Geopark
    Yuexin Shi, Liuqin Chen, Dingding Du, Le Chai, Zihan Wang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (1): 103-114.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003614
    Abstract407)   HTML14)    PDF (3420KB)(95)      

    Cavernous weathering is widely distributed in different climate zones worldwide. The dominant controlling factors and their formation processes have long been discussed in the geomorphological community; however, many controversies remain. In the danxia landscape, various forms of cavernous weathering develop on steep slopes. They are important elements of the landscape and provide shelter for the preservation of many precious historical cultures, yet there have been few studies investigating their origin. Danxiashan is representative of the Natural World Heritage site 'China Danxia', with widespread cavernous weathering features of various sizes and shapes, providing a good opportunity for investigating the origin of cavernous weathering in subtropical humid climates. Typical caverns on sandstone and conglomerate slopes at five sites in Danxiashan were selected and studied by field investigation, morphological measurement, meteorological monitoring, sample microscopic observation, and salt experiments. The results show the following. First, the diameters of the cavern openings vary from centimeters to meters, and the shape of the cavern openings is elliptical to elliptical. The tafoni on conglomerate slopes are generally large and tend to grow upward and inward, while the caverns on sandstone slopes are generally small and arranged in a honeycomb-like structure. Second, lithology is fundamental for the development of caverns. At the macroscopic scale, it determines their location and arrangement because the caverns generally align within the lamination of beddings or cross-beddings. Indeed, the morphological characteristics of caverns developed differently under varying lithologies. At the microscopic scale, the red beds consist of abundant soluble mineral components, such as feldspars and carbonate cements, which are chemically dissolved in the seepage of acid rainwater, the salt crystallization of which leads to the destruction of the rock texture. Collectively, they would have initiated the formation of caverns. Third, the favorable microclimate within the caverns is a key factor that is water and salt accumulation, and consequently, salt weathering and enlargement of the caverns over time. Notably, the microclimate within the Jinshiyan Cave has provided favorable conditions for algae colonization, which controlled the formation of the cell-and-wall structure of the regular honeycombs at the Longlingpian Rock. Finally, the dominant controlling factors were dissimilar between caverns and interplayed in different development stages of cavernous weathering, the entire progression of which was potentially regulated by a self-organized mechanism. However, the influencing factors and critical values of the positive and negative feedback mechanisms require further study.

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    Spatiotemporal Pattern and Influencing Factors of Minor Trafficking in Yunnan Province from 1958 to 2019
    Lan Yang, Jiahui Xu, Nuo Chen, Gang Li, Junjun Zhou, Xiaoxuan Niu
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (9): 1523-1533.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003551
    Abstract404)   HTML4)    PDF (1453KB)(85)      

    The crime of trafficking crime has a long period and high social harm, which can easily cause life-long memory trauma to the victims, which has aroused the attention of all walks of life. As a vulnerable group, minors are vulnerable to the crime of trafficking crime. Earlier related studies were mainly concentrated in the fields of law and sociology. The research on the analysis of minor trafficking crimes from a geographical perspective started late, and there was a lack of research on Yunnan Province, a high-incidence area of minor trafficking crimes. Therefore, based on the data of the public welfare platform "Baby Coming Home" website, this paper uses mathematical statistics, spatial analysis, and other methods to explore the spatiotemporal pattern and influencing factors of minor trafficking crimes in Yunnan Province from the perspective of minor victims. This study found that: 1) The inter-annual change of the crimes of trafficking minor in Yunnan province shows a strong concentration and fluctuation. The rise and fall of the number of crimes is closely related to the household registration reform system, the family planning policy, and the efforts to crack down on the crime of trafficking; In terms of age and gender, most of the trafficked minors came from rural areas, which tended to be younger; in terms of gender, there was a strong preference for younger males and older females. 2) From 1958 to 2019, the number of minor trafficking in Yunnan Province showed an "inverted V-shaped" fluctuation in time, and the high incidence period was from 1994 to 2005. 3) On the urban scale, the crime of trafficking gradually decreasing from the east to the west of Yunnan province. While trafficking was prevalent throughout the province, Qujing, Kunming, and Zhaotong had high incidence rates.On the county scale, it spreads from the Guandu district of Kunming city to the surrounding areas, the diffusion rate in the east is fast and the total number of crimes is high. 4) In terms of influencing factors, natural factors have the least impact on child abduction crimes, and there is no significant change in different time periods. Population factors are affected by regional culture, fertility preferences, and marriage and family systems, and become the dominant factor in the rapid growth period of child trafficking crimes. Social and economic factors have a significant effect on the high and low crime periods.

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    Classificatory Assessment of Islands and Reefs in the South China Sea from the Perspective of Sustainable Development
    Shaoyang Chen, Li Xiao, Na Liu, Yanwei Gong, Yun Xiao
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (7): 1039-1049.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003511
    Abstract399)   HTML7)    PDF (1130KB)(88)      

    Islands and reefs in the South China Sea (SCSIRs) are important components of maritime cooperation and ocean governance in the South China Sea (SCS), providing land conditions for a variety of maritime cooperation. The sustainable development of SCSIRs is a cornerstone of coordinated development and cooperative governance in the SCS. As most SCSIRs are coral reefs with a fragile ecological environment and simplified development models, this study aims to quantitatively and multi-dimensionally explore the current status of their sustainable development to add scientific development planning and improve China's own ocean governance capabilities. The scientific assessment of island and reef development is the inevitable choice for sustainable development of SCSIRs. Based on the method of the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process, Entropy Weight Method, and combined weight, a subject-objective weight coupling evaluation method for the sustainable development of SCSIRs was developed that can reflect their development status relatively objectively and comprehensively. In addition, the Yongxing Dao (the Yongxing Island), the Zhaoshu Dao (the Zhaoshu Island), the Nanxun Jiao (the Gaven Reef), the Meiji Jiao (the Mischief Reef), the Zhubi Jiao (the Subi Reef), and the Yongshu Jiao (the Fiery Cross Reef) were used as case studies to explore the potential of sustainable development of SCSIRs. The results showed that all six SCSIRs had the potential for sustainable development, and the development focus of the SCSIRs was mainly on the three levels of society, resources, and strategy. The ranking of the sustainable development value of the six islands and reefs is Yongxing Dao > Yongshu Jiao > Meiji Jiao > Zhubi Jiao > Zhaoshu Dao > Nanxun Jiao, among which Yongxing Dao has the highest level of sustainable development (64.19) and a clear advantage in terms of social development and geographical location, while Nanxun Jiaohas the lowest level of sustainable development (38.84) due to harsh weather conditions and fragile ecological environment, leading to difficult circumstances when building and living on the reef. Based on the evaluation results and the actual situation, this study comprehensively analyzes the strengths and weaknesses in the development of SCSIRs and proposes the development of regional centers, comprehensive guarantees, characteristic industries, and national defense and rights safeguarding for the development of SCSIRs. Moreover, the study distinguishes the types of islands and reefs along four dimensions and provides social governance strategies and recommendations regarding resource utilization, infrastructure, and maritime cooperation. In these cases, this study can facilitate the formation of high-quality and high-efficiency application pilots for SCSIRs and promote their sustainable development. Thus, it furthers the construction of a modern system for the social governance of SCSIRs, advances the development of the blue economy in the SCS region, provides security for the construction of the Belt and Road Initiative and maritime cooperation, and makes China a strong promoter in the construction of a community of common destiny in the SCS.

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    Analysis of the Geopolitical Environment of Geographical Names and Countries in the Sea Areas of the Nanhai Zhudao
    Tao Wang, Youde Wu, Jun Li, Shuai Ye, Hongcha Cui
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (7): 1050-1060.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003513
    Abstract390)   HTML5)    PDF (1059KB)(222)      

    Since the Anthropocene epoch, the geopolitical environment in the South China Sea has become complex due to the involvement of neighboring and extraterritorial powers, and China's maritime rights and interests are constantly being restricted, squeezed and challenged. Starting from the geographical environment, geographical relationship and geographical structure of the natural and social gene subsystems, this paper divides three types of ancient-hereditary toponymic DNA, modern-variant toponymy DNA and modern-complex toponymy DNA from the logical starting point of placenames. A country-specific geo-environmental analysis framework for geographical names in the Nanhai Zhudao. The results showed that: 1) the names of the Nanhai Zhudao (South China Sea islands) were determined through the interaction of natural genetic and social genetic subsystems. 2) Considering cause-effect correlation, the source flow of the names of the Nanhai Zhudao from "owner-other-owner" led to the changes in genetics, mutation, and compounding in the transcription and expression of toponymic genes. For construction, the neighboring or extraterritorial powers used illegal means to build new geopolitical relationships for multilateral competition for maritime resources and maritime rights in the South China Sea. 3) The origin of the names of the Nanhai Zhudao was determined to be an interactive coupling process of spatial and material dominant genes and conceptual and historical evolutionary recessive genes in terms of gene transcription and expression..

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    A Comparative Analysis of Chinese and American Cartography in the South Sea of China: Based on a Critical Cartographic Perspective
    Yushi Chen, Yungang Liu
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (7): 1085-1095.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003508
    Abstract390)   HTML12)    PDF (1580KB)(119)      

    In recent years, frequent conflicts in the South Sea of China have hindered peaceful Chinese development processes. For the first time, this study used political geography and territory to examine the process of interplaying national cartographic practices and power relations in this space. Combined with a previous discussion on territory and cartography, this study proposed a national cartographic analysis framework from the territory and applied it to the cartography of the South Sea of China. First, we performed a longitudinal comparison of cartographic evolution in the South Sea of China between China and the United States. Then, a longitudinal comparison of expressions between China and the United States was performed for three aspects of cartographic practice. The longitudinal comparison showed that the evolution of South Sea of China cartography resulted in a more complete sea area, standardized island names, and a sea boundary line that appears in China. In the United States, the South Sea of China showed enlarged sea areas, but the overall picture was incomplete. According to the longitudinal comparison, the United States differs from China in the following three aspects of the cartography of the South Sea of China: sea area, status of islands and reefs, and sea boundaries. In summary, we can draw three conclusions. 1) In China and the United States, the cartographic evolution of the sea areas of the South Sea of China, the names of islands and reefs, and the expression of sea boundaries reflect the influence of the country's power. 2) The difference in the cartography of the South Sea of China between China and the United States stems from the need to safeguard the core interests of the country. China, through the territorialization of cartography, has strengthened the maritime jurisdiction of the South Sea of China, increased awareness of national sea rights internally, and declared the sovereignty of the South Sea of China externally. However, the United States has emphasized the public seas and multinational attributes of the South Sea of China through cartographic territorialization. 3) As a territorial tool, a map presents the Chinese story of the South Sea of China on the international stage and may also clearly express China's consistent and clear position on the sovereignty of the islands and surrounding waters of the South Sea of China. The territorial expression of the South Sea of China should be strengthened from the following three aspects: map rights protection, map innovation, and map publicity. Thus, cartography may play a more important role in the governance of China's maritime territory in the South Sea of China.

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    Hainan Fishermen's Marine Belief Pedigree and Their Ritual Activities
    Jun Zhou
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (7): 1107-1117.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003516
    Abstract389)   HTML5)    PDF (919KB)(380)      

    This paper takes Hainan fishermen's Sea God belief as the research object, combines the archaeological discoveries of the South China Sea Islands, the local chronicles of Hainan Island and other documents, and the author's continuous field research data in Hainan from 2012 to 2020 and studies the Sea God belief pedigree and ritual activities of Hainan fishermen from the pedigree theory, using the methods of literature analysis and field investigation.The pedigree of the sea god family includes the sea water standard God, navigation protection God, fisherman professional (industry) God, sea god pilotage God, and others. These form the land-island-ship-spatial pedigree of immigrant societies in Southeast Asian countries; and the time pedigree of before going to sea-after returning home-before fishing-shipwreck-daily.These pedigrees have been incorporated in daily ritual activities in sea ceremonies in South China Sea Islands and daily practice. Based on the genealogical theory, the temporal and spatial genealogy of Hainan fishermen's belief and the social relations and order in ritual activities were analyzed, also by literature analysis and field investigation. The results showed that: 1) The captain has absolute authority. 2) Tradition that formed from those who first visit the island and worshiped the temple prioritized fishing. 3) Joint worship of gods is prominent, with the worship of 108 brothers being the most important and grand aspect of sacrificial ceremonies. 4) The local sea god belief of Hainan fishermen is an important symbol of identity and regional identity of overseas Chinese in Hainan.

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    Construction and Optimization of the Ecological Security Pattern of Xishuangbanna Based on Fragmentation Index
    Run Shen, Zhengtao Shi, Guangxiong He, Yanhua Lin, Rui Xu
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (8): 1363-1375.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003531
    Abstract362)   HTML8)    PDF (4307KB)(109)      

    Tropical forests are considered the most abundant source of biodiversity in the terrestrial ecosystem and the key to international biodiversity conservation. Due to the rapid process of urbanization and land conflicts, regional ecological security is under tremendous pressure, resulting in biological habitat destruction, ecosystem service degradation, biodiversity reduction, etc. Consequently, the construction and optimization of ecological security patterns can improve ecological environment stability, restore ecological function, and protect biodiversity, which is an important spatial way to solve regional ecological environment problems and improve regional ecological security. In this study of Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province of China, ecological sources were obtained through ecological system service and ecological sensitivity comprehensive superposition, followed by ecological source extraction through hot spot analysis. The resistance coefficient was modified on the basis of the land cover type through landscape fragmentation comprehensive index construction, and Linkage Mapper calculation was performed to calculate ecological corridors and nodes with the ArcGIS cost-distance analysis module to construct and optimize the ecological security pattern in the Xishuangbanna area. The main results are as follows: (1) Twenty important ecological source areas were extracted from the Xishuangbanna area, covering a total of 7,709.56 km2 and accounting for 40.33% of the study area. The coincidence rate with the existing nature reserves is 89.92%, which is mainly distributed in natural reserve areas, such as the northern part of Jinghong City, Central and southern parts of Mengla County, and the southern part of Menghai County. (2) Compared with the resistance surface corrected by night light data, the spatial differentiation of the landscape resistance surface corrected on the basis of landscape fragmentation is more significant. Among this, the identification of ecological corridors, the spatial distribution of the corridors, the reduction of conflict points of human activities, network connections, and optimal corridor verification delivered relatively better results. (3) The ecological corridor, which includes the key corridor and the potential corridor of 278.59 km and 631.73 km, respectively, shows a spatial pattern combined with the half ring and the small rings. Moreover, the ecological nodes include 20 resource strategic points, four ecological strategic points, 27 ecological temporary rest points, and 24 ecological fracture points. (4) By referring to the ecological security patterns of Xishuangbanna area, the layout of the ecological spatial structure was optimized as "one belt, one corridor, and four groups." "One belt" was the ecological river corridor belt with the Lancang River as the main axis and the tributaries on both sides. "One corridor" refers to the central corridor structure connecting the national nature reserves of Mengyang, Naban River, and the Mangao Nature Reserve. Based on the existing nature reserves, the four groups were divided into the Bulong-Mangao nature reserves, Menglun three sub-reserves, Mengla-Yiwu-Mengyang-Menglun nature reserves, and Mengla-Shangyong nature reserves. This study provides a practical case for formulating ecological and environmental protection in Xishuangbanna.

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    Temporal and Spatial Evolution and Prevention and Control Management of the "5·21" COVID-19 in Guangzhou
    Wenhui Li, Liru Chen, Chuying Xian, Caige Sun
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (10): 1713-1723.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003488
    Abstract357)   HTML14)    PDF (1940KB)(170)      

    The "5·21" epidemic in Guangzhou was the first local outbreak in China caused by the COVID-19 mutation (Delta). This study analyzed the statistical characteristics, diffusion network, and prevention and control management of the epidemic domestically and globally, using infected persons during the "5·21" epidemic in Guangzhou as an example. The research methods include statistical analysis, text analysis and social network analysis. The research conclusions showed: (1) that most infected people during the epidemic were older adults. The virus incubation period was short and spread quickly. Furthermore, nucleic acid detection and screening can accurately control the risk of virus transmission within a known range. The virus's travel path in Guangzhou helped clarify the transmission chain timeously and cut off the transmission route. (2) The infected persons in Guanzhou were distributed in fragments and distributed throughout the region, town streets, key areas, and designated prevention and control management areas. The infected persons were clustered in a few towns and streets in Guangzhou. The epidemic spread in Guangzhou is mainly due to interpersonal contact and has airborne spread characteristics. (3) The virus spread happened in "cluster" and "chain" formations. This network presents "small world" characteristics as a whole. In Guangzhou, nodes with high index values at the network node level have established extensive contact relations with other nodes and are on the key path of the epidemic contact diffusion network. They are the key objects of hierarchical and classified epidemic prevention and control management. (4) The "5·21" epidemic situation in Guangzhou shows the hierarchical and classified prevention and control management measures should include 10 aspects: access management, community control, home isolation, demand guarantee, domestic waste treatment, environment disinfection, health monitoring and services, nucleic acid detection, publicity and guidance, control lifting.

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    Spatio-Temporal Changes and Linear Characteristics of Rubber Plantations in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China from 1987 to 2018
    Jiahao Zhai, Ying Liu, Chiwei Xiao
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (8): 1376-1385.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003530
    Abstract352)   HTML10)    PDF (1790KB)(131)      

    The expansion of rubber plantations is an important driving factor and main manifestation of land use/cover change in Xishuangbanna, which has extensive socio-economic and eco-environment effects locally. However, to our knowledge, the expansion trends of rubber plantations are still not clearly understood, such as the distribution characteristics and changes of rubber plantations in traffic corridors, along rivers, and along border regions. Based on the 30 m resolution rubber plantations dataset of Xishuangbanna from 1987 to 2018, we used GIS spatial analysis methods, such as overlay and buffer, to compare the spatial characteristics and regional differences of rubber plantations along roads, rivers, and boundary lines in the past 32 years. The results were as follows: Firstly, from 1987 to 2018, rubber plantations in Xishuangbanna expanded significantly in traffic corridors, along rivers, and along border regions. The planted area of rubber plantations increased by 1,874.6 km2 within 5 km along the roads, 1,484.6 km2 within 5 km along the rivers, and 1,393.1 km2 in the border regions (i.e., a buffer of 20 km). Secondly, roads have been affected by the accessibility of rubber farming and transportation. Over the past 32 years, the average proportion of rubber plantations within the 5 km buffer zone of the roads has exceeded 90%. Roads play an important guiding role in the location selection of rubber plantations. Rubber plantations are planted in areas close to roads, rather than areas far from roads with poor accessibility, because it is not convenient to pick rubber or undergo rubber plantation replacement otherwise, and this may reduce planting or result in a switch to other cash crops. Thirdly, rivers and water source irrigation are important conditions and limiting factors for rubber plantation expansion. In the past 32 years, the average proportion of rubber plantations in the 5 km buffer zone along the rivers has been 69.7%. It is worth noting that, as a result of natural rubber prices remaining low, urbanization, and ecological environmental protection, the planted area of rubber plantations along the river began to decline in the 2010s, especially within 2 km along the line. Finally, in border regions, the rubber plantations showed obvious characteristics of border-proneness in Xishuangbanna. Over the past 32 years, the average proportion has been 55.6% of rubber plantations in the border regions, and this increased from 35.4% in 1987 to 66.2% in 2018. In particular, the expansion area and rate of the Sino–Myanmar border are higher than those of the Sino-Laos border. This study is helpful for clarifying the spatial distribution and change trend of rubber plantations in Xishuangbanna. It provides support for future rubber plantation planting and cross-border cooperation.

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    The Development of the Hainan Free Trade Port and Hainan-South China Sea Regional Economic Integration
    Xingzhi Peng
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (7): 1158-1168.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003509
    Abstract350)   HTML1)    PDF (731KB)(65)      

    From the perspective of economic geography, the features, marine attributes, and offshore spatial characteristics of Hainan Island, as well as the special institutional arrangement of Hainan Free Trade Port, provide a new research perspective on the promotion of regional economic integration.Currently, the construction of Hainan Free Trade Port is in the key stage of building a new development pattern of domestic and international dual circulation.In its process of development, the free trade port is oriented to the ocean and to the world, contributing to a new economic geospatial pattern.Accordingly, a new concept of economic geography for Hainan and the South China Sea is put forth, and a new analytical framework is constructed, composed of spatial concept, spatial mechanism, and spatial behavior, to explore the path and prospects of the development of the Hainan Free Trade Port and promote the regional economic integration of Hainan and the South China Sea.The results indicate that the Hainan-South China Sea geospace is the spatial basis for the development of the Hainan Free Trade Port to promote regional economic integration.First, at the spatial concept level, the concept of marine community and the new development concept should be deeply implemented, and the cultural concept should be taken as the driving force to promote Hainan-South China Sea regional economic integration during port development.Second, at the spatial mechanism level, institutional innovation and marine governance of the Hainan Free Trade Port should be strengthened, and Hainan-South China Sea regional economic integration should be promoted with rules and systems as the driving force.At the spatial behavior level, a circular economy in Hainan-South China Sea should be built and the "21st Century Maritime Silk Road" should be consolidated with behavioral interests as the driving force to promote Hainan-South China Sea regional economic integration.Finally, regarding its contributions, in the face of international economic system transformation and trade protectionism, regional economic integration is crucial for China to build a world-class free trade port, integrate into economic globalization, and deeply participate in global economic governance.By putting forth the new economic and geographical concept of Hainan-South China Sea, and constructing a new analytical framework, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to grasp the internal logic, influence mechanisms, and practical path of development for Hainan Free Trade Port to promote the regional economic integration of Hainan-South China Sea.

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    Types, Differences, and Optimization of the Spatial Match of Supply and Demand of Elderly Canteens in Guangzhou
    Lin Lin, Wei Xiao, Minyu Gu, Yixin Fan, Zhiping Zhong
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (8): 1301-1313.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003504
    Abstract349)   HTML9)    PDF (3013KB)(72)      

    The mismatch between the supply and demand of community-service-oriented home care facilities severely restricts the effective promotion of elderly care services in communities. This study sought to accurately measure the mismatch between supply and demand in terms of accessibility and feasibility. The spatial relationship between the supply and demand of Guangzhou's elderly canteens was evaluated by a new two-step floating catchment area method—exchanging results with process variables, and based on multi-source data, including Baidu Map API and residential POI. The study found that: 1) The spatial matching score between supply and demand of Guangzhou's elderly canteens is qualified (60%) under the promotion of administrative-units-overall-coverage, identified as a "631" type structure of the balanced surplus and shortage. 2) A bias exists in terms of superiority, in that the acquisition advantage for the demand side is superior to the supply condition, and also in terms of spatial distribution, with a single-core supply structure of "depression center toward high margin" and a multi-level-core demand structure of "strong in south, weak in north". 3) Since competitive extrusion acts on the urban center, both centers in central districts and sub-centers in outer districts with travel advantage are polarized into surplus and shortage, which is mainly caused by different degrees of crowdedness. The inner-city core loses its advantage of resources and location, changing into an inner-city depression, while the Huangpu core benefiting from the rapid development of urban construction and fewer people, keeps itself at a peak. Regarding sub-centers, the central streets of Panyu and Huadu face severe insufficiency, but the situation in Conghua and Zengcheng is the opposite. For the precise allocation intervention and overall coverage of community elderly care and facilities, ideas such as stock promotion, integration in pairs of spatial correlation, and stock downsizing toward the mismatch are proposed. Priority should be given to the matching integration of surplus and shortage areas with a strong spatial correlation. Further, direct, active, and passive paths were provided for the promotion of the matched items, which provide a reference for the accurate and efficient allocation to other elderly care facilities.

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    Dynamic Evolution and Mechanism of Short-Term Economic Resilience from a Structure-Agency Framework: Based on In-Depth Interviews with Dongguan's Manufacturing Enterprises during COVID-19
    Zhiwei Du, Zhimin Wen, Lixia Jin
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (8): 1217-1227.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003523
    Abstract346)   HTML25)    PDF (1017KB)(152)      

    The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which spread all over the world at the beginning of 2020, exerted significant impacts on the substantial economic and social development in China, seriously affecting the production and operation of Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). As the COVID-19 pandemic was effectively controlled by the central government, China's economy manifested strong economic resilience during the process of recovery. Under these circumstances, it provided a valuable opportunity to examine the dynamic evolution and mechanism of economic resilience over a relatively short period. In economic geography research, structure and agency are the two main influencing factors for regional economic resilience; specifically, structural factors refer to the economic diversity and inherited structure of a regional economy in building resilience capacities, while agency factors focus on the role of agentsin a resilient economic system. However, the existing literature has focused heavily on structural factors, but the effect of agency factors has gained less attention. Based on interviews with 43 manufacturing SMEs in Dongguan in 2020, this study 1) investigates the dynamic evolution and characteristics of short-term economic resilience from an agency perspective and 2) demonstrates the micro-mechanism of reconstructing economic resilience at the enterprise level by constructing a structure-agency framework. The study derives several findings. First, economic resilience is not an inherent attribute of an economic agent. In the short term, the formation of economic resilience can be divided into a three stage process from cognition to adaptation, and then to reconstruction. Each stage manifests different agency characteristics. Second, the reconstruction of economic resilience is strongly influenced by the individual (entrepreneurs) and collective agency (supplies and customers) in the COVID-19 shock. For individual agencies, manufacturing SMEs are sensitive to perceiving and seizing the "opportunity space," which is technologically related to their primary products. For collective agency, many entrepreneurs actively offer financial support to their upper and lower reach enterprises to enhance economic resilience by forming collective networks. Third, structural factors (i.e., industrial structure, institutional arrangement, and infrastructure construction) also influence the formation of economic resilience in a short period. In the case of Dongguan, industrial structure and institutional arrangements contributed to enterprises' return to normal production during the COVID-19 crisis, while the imbalance of infrastructure structures (including basic social and public services) plays a constrained role in economic resilience. Moreover, three theoretical implications are proposed: emphasizing the transformation between short-term adaptation and long-term adaptability, concerning the shaping of structural factors caused by agency, and paying attention to the coupling between agents and external connections.

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    Difficulty Assessment of Maritime Search and Rescue in the South China Sea
    Xiaoyi Zuo, Liang Cheng, Sensen Chu, Jie Wu, Xuedong Zhang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (7): 1138-1147.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003512
    Abstract345)   HTML7)    PDF (1545KB)(115)      

    To ensure maritime search and rescue safety, this study combined a geographic information system and a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to map and evaluate the difficulties of maritime search and rescue in the South China Sea. To construct a maritime search and rescue difficulty index system, nine factors related to the natural environment and human power that may influence maritime search and rescue were selected, and difficulty indices were calculated according to the corresponding calculation method. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process was then used to determine the weight of each index, and the linear weighting method was used to obtain the maritime search and rescue difficulty value of the South China Sea. The difficulty values were divided into 10 levels and the spatial distribution characteristics were analyzed. The results show that: 1) under the influence of the natural environment, the difficulty of search and rescue in the sea area of the South China Sea had the characteristics of a V-shaped distribution, and the difficulty level gradually decreased from northeast to southwest. 2) Under the influence of humanistic search and rescue forces, the overall difficulty of search and rescue in the study area was the "NE-SW belt" type. The area with high difficulty levels was mainly located on the line connecting the northeast to the southwest of the study area, and the difficulty decreased in an irregular circle on both sides of the connecting line. 3) Considering these two factors, the difficulty of search and rescue was relatively high around some islands in the South China Sea, because of the influence of severe weather events, such as typhoons, and their large distance from the search and rescue base. The difficulty values in the far seas have "NE-SW decreasing" spatial distribution pattern, with the highest values in the areas extending from the northeast to the southwest of the study area, then decreasing to the northwest and southeast. According to statistics, approximately 21.1% of the sea areas in the South China Sea have search and rescue difficulties greater than level 6, and the construction of search and rescue forces should be optimized accordingly.

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    Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Formation Mechanism of Typical Demand-Front Places in Trafficking Crime: An Empirical Analysis of Offenders
    Jiahui Xu, Gang Li, Feng Xu, Junjun Zhou, Dandan Hong, Yushan Huang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (9): 1513-1522.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003544
    Abstract343)   HTML2)    PDF (3436KB)(75)      

    Trafficking crime has a long history, violating personal safety and disrupting social order. At present, most relevant studies focus on the places that supply victims of trafficking. Research on the places that create demand is insufficient. As a typical site of trafficking, Hebei Province has a relatively mature "buyers' market". Based on the China Judgment Documents and online interview data, this study focuses on trafficking criminals and analyzes the multidimensional characteristics and formation mechanism of trafficking in Hebei Province, using mathematical statistics, spatial analysis, case analysis and other methods. The findings are: 1) The proportion of male and female trafficking crime offenders is unbalanced and ranges from 30 to 45 years of age. These offenders have a low level of education, with more than half having no more than a primary- or junior-high-school education. The crime of trafficking in women and children accounts for 79.8% of all trafficking crimes; 67.5% of offenders have been imprisoned for correction, and 7.2% have been sentenced to more than 10 years. 2) The interannual change in the occurrence of trafficking crimes in Hebei Province presents an "inverted-spoon shape," which can be divided into three periods: increase, fluctuation, and decrease. Case trial times show a "single peak" in 2014. The average time interval between the occurrence of a trafficking crime and the trial is about 3 years. Between 2011 and 2020, about 23 cases of abduction and trafficking were tried each year on average. 3) Trafficking offenders in Hebei Province have formed a spatial pattern of "two hots and one cold" as they are concentrated in the southern Hebei region and on the border of Yunnan and Guangxi. The victims are also concentrated; trafficked children are concentrated in Southern Hebei, while trafficked women are concentrated in northern Hebei. In addition, major criminal paths have formed, such as internal flow in Handan City, Hengshui-Xingtai-Shijiazhuang, Southern Hebei-Western Shandong, Sichuan-Yunnan-Guangxi-Guizhou region. Finally, from the perspective of a multi-dimensional integration analysis, the present study finds that trafficking crimes in Hebei Province are formed in part by "push-pull" interactions. Differences in the natural, social, economic, and cultural elements in different regions provide the basic conditions for trafficking crimes to form, creating a "push-pull" effect on the populations between regions, and promoting the occurrence of abduction and trafficking crimes. At the same time, a special regional network of kidnapping crimes has developed, based on differences in the natural, social, economic, and cultural conditions in various regions within Hebei Province.

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    Evolution of the Geo-Relations between Major Countries around the South China Sea Based on Event Data Analysis
    Fei Peng, Shuqin Li
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (7): 1061-1072.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003521
    Abstract335)   HTML8)    PDF (2083KB)(152)      

    At present, the Sino-US strategic game, the dispute over national sovereignty and demarcation between China and the South China Sea, and the competition for regional maritime order are intertwined, resulting in complex geo-relations in the South China Sea. Combined with hot geopolitical events during the study period, the number of news events and the Avg Tone and Goldstein Score in the GDELT database were used to depict the evolution of the geopolitical characteristics of major countries around the South China Sea and visualize the evolution of the geopolitical network structure of the study area according to events of cooperation and conflict. The following results were found: 1) During the period from 1997 to 2020, the "Pivoting to the Asia-Pacific" proposed by the United States and the end of the "South China Sea Arbitration Case" became two landmark events in the whole period, taking 2009 and 2016 as the time node, the geo-relations of the major countries around the South China Sea are divided into three stages with significant differences in characteristics. 2) In the first stage, countries maintained stable concerns, peaceful development became the main theme, and geo-relations were relatively relaxed and stable. Subsequently, the factors of stability and uneasiness changed. Geo-relations became turbulent, and a negative trend was observed. In the third stage, the relationship between countries maintained a high level of concern; however, disputes and confrontations were rife, and geo-relations urgently needed to be maintained and eased. 3) China mainly played the role of the recipient of cooperation and conflict events in the first two stages. Since the third stage, the number of cooperation events increased significantly, and the node weighted in-out degree increased significantly. In addition, China, the United States, Vietnam, and the Philippines are relatively active in the network structure, especially in the conflict-average network that has experienced the "China-US-Vietnam" to "China-Philippines-US-Vietnam" to "China-Philippines-US" small group combination process. Indonesia and Malaysia have declined regional ties with other countries, and Brunei has mainly accepted cooperation or conflict events, and its geo-relations with other countries are stable. Therefore, China should focus on two main points to deal with changes in the situation in the South China Sea. First, they should accelerate the construction of a maritime power, enhance maritime power, enhance China's ability to safeguard rights and maintain stability in the South China Sea, use strong deterrents to contain US deployment in the South China Sea, and alleviate military and security pressure on China posed by the United States in the South China Sea. The second is to actively promote maritime cooperation in the South China Sea, ensure the stable development of China's comprehensive strategic partnership with the Philippines, Vietnam, and other ASEAN countries, and use friendly cooperation to hedge unilateral action.

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    Modern Deposition of Atmospheric Dust in the Northeast Indian Ocean
    Shuhuan Du, Dongfeng Niu, Jinping Huang, Zirui Pan, Rihui Huang, Bishan Chen
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (10): 1609-1616.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003560
    Abstract319)   HTML6)    PDF (1411KB)(142)      

    Atmospheric dust in the ocean is a bridge for air-sea interaction, which is an important basis for the study of this phenomenon due to extensive and observable space-time scales. The northeast Indian Ocean, located in the southern wing of the "roof of the world," the Tibetan Plateau, is among the seas with the strongest marine productivity and richest biodiversity in the world. However, there have been no relevant reports on the study of modern marine dust. This study discussed the modern process of atmospheric dust deposition in the northeast Indian Ocean for the first time, in terms of deposition flux, transport path simulation, scanning electron microscopy, and energy spectrum analysis based on atmospheric dust samples collected from September to November 2020 in the study area. The findings showed that the dust deposition flux in the northeast Indian Ocean varied between 221-1,221 mg/cm2/d. The maximum daily dust deposition fluxes appeared in the middle of November when winter monsoon conditions prevailed, and the minimum value appeared in late September under summer monsoon conditions; the former flux was approximately six times that of the latter. The dust deposition flux change was primarily affected by the distance of the dust source, whereas the dust particle size was related to wind intensity. The results of air particle simulation indicate that the dust transport process is controlled by seasonal and regional atmospheric circulation systems, and is specifically dominated by the Indian monsoon in the northeast Indian Ocean. The study area deposits more dust with nutrient elements from the Asian continent, which promotes the ocean's primary productivity and enhances its carbon sequestration capacity. Furthermore, the surface of quartz particles from modern atmospheric dust shows a unique structure in the aeolian environment, good quartz grain roundness, a meander ridge, and a U-shape. These characteristics are markedly different from those in a fluvial condition, such as poor roundness, conchoidal fracture, and a V-shape, which can be used as a reference to distinguish the different continental components in the sediments in the hope of establishing winter monsoon proxies in the northeast Indian Ocean to reconstruct the evolution of the Indian monsoon. This study not only fills a gap in the present-day dust deposition process in the northeast Indian Ocean but also provides new insight for dust research in the study area, with great scientific significance for the study of air-sea interaction and carbon sinks in the ocean, and ideal indicators for reconstructing the evolution of the paleo-Indian monsoon and changes in the paleo-ocean environment. Moreover, it offers important information for the reconstruction of the historical evolution and dynamic mechanism of the ancient Indian monsoon.

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    Motivation, Cost, Risk: Research on the Value Perception of Study Tourism Products from the Perspective of Parents
    Tong Wen, Simin Li, Haiyang Su, Kaijie Xiao
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (10): 1677-1689.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003562
    Abstract315)   HTML4)    PDF (909KB)(40)      

    Under the guidance of national education policy, the demand for study tourism has increased significantly, and it is worth paying attention to how parents, as the actual purchasing decision-makers of study tourism products, reflect their needs and attitudes. Taking nature education study tourism as the specific research context, questionnaires were distributed to parents of primary and secondary school students to investigate the causal relationship between study tourism motivation and value perception from the perspective of parents' perception and incorporated cost perception and risk perception into the research to analyze the internal mechanism and boundary conditions between study tourism motivation and value perception. A statistical analysis of data from 539 parents revealed that parents' perception of study tourism motivation significantly and positively affects value perception. Cost perception has a mediator role between study tourism motivation and value perception, and parents' perception of study tourism motivation has a positive impact on value perception through the path of weakening cost perception. Moreover, risk perception negatively affects value perception, but a positive effect was observed when exploring risk perception's interaction with study tourism motivation and cost perception, respectively. Risk perception significantly enhances the positive effect of study tourism motivation on value perception, while suppressing the negative effect of cost perception on risk perception. Specifically, compared to low-risk perceptions, parents with high-risk perceptions perceive a more significant positive effect of study tourism motivation on value perception and a lower negative effect of cost perception on value perception; that is, risk perception plays a moderating role in the relationship between tourism motivation and value perception and in the path of the relationship between cost perception and value perception. However, when risk perception reaches a high level, its moderating effect on the relationship between cost perception and value perception is not significant; that is, parents pay more attention to risk and safety issues than to cost issues. The main theoretical contribution of this study is that it forms a theoretical complement to the investigation of the relationship between motivation and value, thus revealing the importance of the value of education for the average non-only-child family in China and cost as an important consideration for such families in their educational investment. It verifies the positive role of risk perception in the context of study tourism, which promotes further understanding of risk in the academic community and enriches the theoretical research on study tourism. In addition, this study provides a valuable empirical basis and practical enlightenment for the development of study tourism. It is necessary to design study tourism products based on demand, highlight product value, increase publicity and marketing efforts, control the safety of activities, set reasonable prices, and gain the attention of parent groups, all of which will be important considerations in further expanding the study tourism market.

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    The Landscape Schema of Bayu Terraced Field Human Settlements Responding to Regional Natural Features
    Wenjing Liao, Huasong Mao, Ping Luo
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (1): 155-167.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003607
    Abstract310)   HTML15)    PDF (2935KB)(142)      

    The Bayu terraced human settlement is an on-site living cultural heritage site that responds to natural features such as mountainous landforms and seasonal hydrology. Research into the site selection, technology, and combination of Bayu terraced human settlements can provide historical insight for the construction of resilient urban and rural developments in the southwest mountainous areas and the simultaneous protection of small and micro wetlands. Complete and representative remote sensing images of terraced fields in the Bayu area, combined with historical data analysis and field investigation using the visual landscape schema language, this study analyzed the single-terraced water conservancy technology, the spatiotemporal combination model of this technology, and the three construction characteristics of the terraced human settlement environment. As a result, the landscape schema system of the Bayu-terraced human settlement system was constructed. First, the research found that, in response to the Bayu Mountain topography and the rainfall characteristics of "spring drought and summer flood," a series of in-terrain terraced water conservancy technologies have been formed, such as winter paddy field for the autumn and spring, flushing fields for flood discharge in the summer, and hoarding paddy fields for closing water in all seasons. Second, Bayu terraced water conservancy technology forms a water resource management model of "autumn storage, winter fertility, spring ploughing, summer drainage" adapted to "spring drought and summer flooding", and a combination of "high storage, low irrigation" that conforms to the geomorphology that is formed. Finally, the terraced human settlement responds to the difference in water safety under the influence of geomorphology, presenting an "organic dispersion type" terraced human settlement pattern in low-mountainous hilly areas where the intersecting terraced base and the conservation forest and the scattered residential patches nest occlusion. The conservation forest is a "large area concentration type" terraced human settlement pattern in low-mountainous hilly areas where the intersecting terraced base and the conservation forest and the scattered residential patch nest in occlusion. In summary, Bayu terraced water conservancy technology types, combination methods, and the construction mode of terraced human settlements in mountainous topography integrate with Bayu's unique geographical geomorphology and hydrological conditions. These are important for the current low-impact development and construction of urban and rural areas and the protection of traditional construction wisdom. There are also positive references.

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    Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Chinese Marine Tourism Safety Accidents
    Lu Wang, Changlin Pi, Xiangmin Zheng
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (7): 1148-1157.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003514
    Abstract309)   HTML5)    PDF (872KB)(154)      

    To prevent and decrease the number of marine tourism safety accidents, Chinese marine tourism safety accidents were studied using a chi-square contingency table analysis, residual test, time intensity index, geographic concentration index, and imbalance index. Accordingly, suggestions for marine tourism safety management were proposed. The types, characteristics, timing, and spatial distribution laws of Chinese marine tourism accidents from 2010 to 2021 were analyzed. We obtained the following results. 1) The type of Chinese marine tourism safety accidents included drowning, being trapped, traffic accidents, suicide, accidental injuries, animal bites, disease outbreaks, fires, and food poisoning. 2) There were differences in the leading causes of different types of accidents. Thus, tourists with different individual characteristics may experience different types of accidents, and different tourist activities may cause different types of accidents. 3) Chinese marine tourism safety accidents showed differences in the type and frequency in different years, months, and times of day. On a large time scale (annual), the number of accidents showed an increasing trend. On a medium time scale (month), accidents occurred most frequently in July-August, May-June and October followed, whereas on a micro time scale (hour), accidents occurred most frequently in the afternoon (T 14:00-18:00), the morning (T 08:00-12:00), and the evening (T 18:00-21:00) followed. 4) Chinese marine tourism accidents were aggregated and imbalanced in marine tourism circles, cities, and points. The large spatial scale was concentrated in regions across the West coast of Fujian and Taiwan Strait and the Bohai Rim; the small spatial scale was concentrated in Xiamen, Quanzhou, and Fuzhou; and the micro spatial scale was concentrated in the nodes of the beach, reef, and sea. Based on these findings, the management of high-incidence accidents should focus on precise and efficient safety management based on the leading causes, individual characteristics, and activities of tourists involved in accidents. Moreover, safety prevention and supervision should be carried out at important time and space nodes according to the timing and spatial distribution laws of accidents.

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    On the True and Future Intellectual: A Response to Cho-Yun Hsu and Beyond
    Chao Ye
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (8): 1396-1402.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003536
    Abstract308)   HTML5)    PDF (552KB)(37)      

    Facing a great era that promises unprecedented changes, intellectuals need to understand the relationship between time and space, society, and themselves. Intellectuals are broadly restricted and influenced by time, space, and social environments; however, it is also possible for them to transcend time, space, and society. Taking the historian Cho-yun Hsu as an example, this study elaborates and extends his viewpoints regarding intellectuals, and points out that unity of knowledge and practice is the spirit of intellectuals. True humanism is embodied in unbridled enthusiasm and sensitive insight into academics and life, with both values and depth of thought, and the conversion of knowledge into action to pass on and cultivate talents. Only by discovering and building upon real human nature and life can intellectuals achieve transcendence. To recognize the limits of the world and oneself, and to do everything possible to break or surpass these limits, is to face and create the future.

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    Place Memory on the Movement: Mobility and Collective Memory Construction of Fishermen in the South China Sea
    Xuanyu Liu, Yungang Liu
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (7): 1128-1137.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003517
    Abstract305)   HTML7)    PDF (791KB)(433)      

    For a long time, the field of marine geography has been located at the edge of the discipline, strengthening the terrestrial bias of human geography. Fishermen, one of the few action actors in the ocean, have natural mobility characteristics. Existing research on fishermen pays more attention to the temporal and spatial regulations and distribution of their mobility than the social and cultural connotations generated in the process of their flow. From the perspective of mobility and collective memory, a typical fishing village in the east of Hainan Province was selected as a case study, and through participatory observation, semi-structured interviews, and text analysis, the construction of the local memory of fishermen in the process of mobility was comprehensively understood. In this study, the following points were found: First, according to research on the new paradigm of mobility, the world interact with each other through the flow of nodes and the space of flows, with emphasis on liquidity from the state of "flow, berthing, settled" in three different space-time conceptions to describe the world, thus inferring the Hainan fishermen's marine mobility, at least in the scope of time and space, material basis, and the paths of nodes. Second, collective memory is an important way for fishermen to interact with each other and construct emotions in the flow process. The core of this is fishing and hunting culture and the cross-border network. Three points should be made clear when discussing the collective memory of fishermen from the perspective of mobility: First, collective memory is essentially based on the "present" and a construction of the "past", and a change of subject will greatly affect the continuity and inheritance of memory. Second, memory is formed by personal emotions and objective environments. For fishermen, collective memory unfolds in a specific place, shifting with different spatial scales through a landscape of physical and symbolic memories. Third, geographical and social mobility complement each other, exacerbating the differences of fishermen and leading to the fragmentation or failing of collective memory. This paper makes two contributions to this concept: (1) Taking the phenomenon of the flow of fishermen as an example, the ocean is examined from the perspective of the ocean, emphasizing the importance of the connection between the ocean and land. It also goes beyond the land's perspective of the sea, indicating that the ocean is an equally important substrate for the integration of socio-cultural, political, and economic transformation processes and should not be regarded as a negative space of land. Instead, it is the center of the process of knowledge production, concrete experience, and understanding the transcendence of the present. (2) It responds to the attention of the new mobility paradigm to special space and compensates for the missing dimension of interaction between the marine environment and human activity.

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    Terrestrial Biodiversity Hotspots and Their Threats in Guangdong Province
    Shoubao Geng, Zhongyu Sun, Min Zhang, Wei Xu, Xia Zhou, Yuyao Ye, Jialing Dai, Zhengqian Liu
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (3): 359-371.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003636
    Abstract298)   HTML68)    PDF (1459KB)(108)      

    Biodiversity plays an important role in providing ecosystem services and maintaining ecosystem stability, which are closely related to human welfare. The identification of biodiversity hotspots and analysis of their threats provide effective ways for biodiversity conservation and restoration. Current studies generally combine species diversity and its threat situation to determine hotspots for priority protection. However, in-depth analysis of threats to biodiversity hotspots is still lacking. Guangdong Province is one of the key biodiversity areas in the world, but it faces great challenges in biodiversity preservation. To understand biodiversity hotspots and their threats in Guangdong Province more completely, this study developed a heat index for terrestrial biodiversity by considering plant species diversity, animal species diversity, and landscape diversity based on multi-source data of plant and animal species, ecosystem stand types, and land use. Then, the heat index was used to identify biodiversity hotspots, and their threat levels and controlling factors were analyzed according to the major threats to biodiversity. The results showed that areas with high values of terrestrial biodiversity heat index were mainly distributed in mountainous regions with relatively few human disturbances, whereas most areas with low values were concentrated in estuarine plains and intermontane basins with heavy human activities. Based on the zonation of the heat index, four biodiversity hotspots were identified, Yunwu Mountain, Nanling Mountain, Luofu Mountain, and Lianhua Mountain, with area percentages of 15.54%, 44.90%, 17.66%, and 21.90%, respectively. The area of biodiversity hotspots was 59,931.82 km2, accounting for 33.58% of the total land area of Guangdong Province. The 122 nature reserves within hotspots had an area of 6,594.39 km2, covering 61.33% of the whole area of the total 204 terrestrial nature reserves in Guangdong Province. This proportion gradually decreased with reduction of nature reserve grade, indicating that the nature reserves in hotspots were principally at a higher grade (nation and province levels) rather than at a lower grade (city and county levels). However, the area of these nature reserves in hotspots was only 11.00% of the whole area of hotspots, and most of the nature reserves that were not distributed in hotspots were located in the northeastern cities of Heyuan and Meizhou. Therefore, a large number of potential demands for biodiversity conservation still exist. For the four hotspots, the biodiversity in Yunwu Mountain was primarily under moderate to severe stress, with the intensity of economic development as the controlling factor. The biodiversity of the other three hotspots mainly underwent slight to moderate stress. The most important threat was the extensive economic development of the central part of Nanling Mountain and the southern parts of Luofu Mountain and Lianhua Mountain, whereas the periphery of Nanling Mountain and the northern parts of Luofu Mountain and Lianhua Mountain were more threatened by habitat quality or geological hazards. In addition, extreme stress on biodiversity occurred in all four hotspots, although within very small areas. Thus, more targeted management strategies for biodiversity should be proposed according to the stress levels and controlling threats. The results of this study provide a scientific reference for the comprehensive conservation and precise restoration of biodiversity hotspots in Guangdong Province.

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    Nation Branding Practices from the Perspective of Critical Geopolitics: A Case Study of the Hainan Free Trade Port
    Zhiwei Luo, Min Wang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (7): 1169-1179.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003505
    Abstract295)   HTML7)    PDF (892KB)(102)      

    Currently, the world is undergoing profound changes, and the rise of counter-globalization and trade protectionism is impacting global economic governance. The development of globalization faces major challenges. In this context, China proposed building the Hainan Free Trade Port in 2018, which was understood as both a necessity for China to deepen reform and open up and as an effort to actively reshape the geopolitical and economic environment in global governance. Taking the Hainan Free Trade Port and its geopolitical meaning as the research object, this study employed discourse analysis and netnography to explore geopolitical practices based on nation branding, examine how actors such as the government, media, and domestic and foreign audiences participate in the (re)production of the geo-meaning of the Hainan Free Trade Port, and discuss its geopolitical operational mechanisms in depth. The findings indicated the following: (1) The Chinese government utilized media tools for knowledge representation and production, disseminated grand narratives for domestic and foreign audiences, and worked to build national identity, emphasizing China’s role as a builder under regional and global systems. The audiences were not exclusively passive recipients of media messages, but participated in processing and reproducing them. (2) For domestic audiences, the national narrative inspired some audiences’ national awareness and legitimized Hainan's free trade port. Meanwhile, top-down meaning-making generated contradictory results in specific contexts and even triggered critical, bottom-up debates. For foreign audiences, owing to the political and cultural differences between China and the West, media messages were processed secondarily as a source of geographical imagination, which in turn shaped audiences’ subjective perceptions of the international geopolitical landscape. (3) Finally, the media played an important role in the brand construction process as an information “bridge.” On the one hand, the media served as a tool for the top-down and inside-out transmission of national narratives, creating a favorable public opinion environment for Hainan Free Trade Port’s construction. On the other hand, the media served as a medium for bottom-up and outside-in feedback of audience emotions. Nevertheless, it should be emphasized that the delivery and feedback paths still need to be negotiated for a positive nation branding operation. The contribution of this research is reflected in two aspects: Through the theoretical introduction and case analysis of the geopolitical meaning of nation branding, it provides an initial exploration of related research in China; and, in the context of China’s participation in global governance, it provides a realistic reference for the steady progress of the Hainan Free Trade Port.

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    A Comparative Study of Human Trafficking Governance in the United States and China
    Jinlong Shi, Gang Li, Junjun Zhou, Jiayu Wang, Yushan Huang, Mengjia Du, Xueyao Ma
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (9): 1443-1461.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003550
    Abstract290)   HTML14)    PDF (2269KB)(337)      

    The paper compares and discusses human trafficking from the perspective of state governance in these two countries; the five different aspect of strategies, laws and regulations, working institutions, police systems, and victim rescue and resettlement are examined. The strengths and weaknesses of the two countries in tackling human trafficking are also compared in this study. National strategies for human trafficking governance in China and the United States are formulated under the framework of "people-oriented, coordinated prevention, legal crackdown, active assistance, and proper resettlement". China is more concerned with combating the domestic trafficking of women and children, whereas the United States focuses on the governance of commercial, transnational human trafficking. China's governance is characterized by top-down management and bottom-up autonomy. Once strategies, laws, and regulations are formed, they can be quickly implemented across the entire country. In the United States, the federal government and state governments are cooperative rather than subordinate, and the separation of powers and two-party political system are other issues that indicate the need for further investigations regarding the national implementation and linkage of the governance of human trafficking. This paper concludes with several recommendations on how China should respond to and combat human trafficking crime, including escalating the implementation of China's Action Plan against Human Trafficking (2021-2030) and taking specific actions based on local conditions; enhancing the connection with the national laws and absorption from them and continuing to promote special legislations targeting human trafficking crimes; attaching greater importance to social construction and govemance of transnational human trafficking through strengthening international cooperation; refining anti-trafficking work organizations and setting up specialized working groups, special funds and smoother channels for suggestions; constructing and perfecting China's "Reunion System" supporting system.

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    Evolution of the Spatial Structure of Coastal Port Logistics Network and Its Influencing Factors in China
    Jianke Guo, Shuoqi Yu
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (10): 1640-1650.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003567
    Abstract289)   HTML12)    PDF (1557KB)(92)      

    As the connection point between sea and land, coastal ports are constantly extending and innovating logistical operations, which paves the way for rapid development of the coastal port logistics industry. In recent years, with increasing economic globalization and the development of production and trade networks in various countries, integrated logistics services have steadily replaced the conventional loading and unloading services provided by ports. These services now play a significant part in the worldwide network of cargo commerce. The primary function of port logistics firms, as a significant provider of port logistics activities, is the cross-regional organization of these activities. The earliest version of the port logistics network may be seen in the concentration of port logistics businesses inside the city and their dispersion between cities. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of studies on the coastal port logistics organization network. At the same time, there is notable variation in the infrastructure of coastal ports and coastal cities' economic development, with fierce competition between domestic and provincial ports. To evaluate the evolution of the geographical features of China's port logistics network from 2009 to 2019, this paper utilizes world city network analysis and social network theory analysis, using the years 2009, 2014, and 2019 as time nodes. This paper aims to serve as a guide for improving the physical architecture and network design of Chinese coastal port logistics, to further advance the effective arrangement and configuration of social resources in the port logistics sector, and to offer a more favorable environment for the sector's development. The findings indicate that: 1) from 2009 to 2019, China's coastal ports' logistics network structures tended to mature. The network's geographic area was increased with the installation of additional city nodes, which also reduced the typical distance between cities and enhanced connectivity. However, from the perspective of network development as a whole, the overall network density was low, and the majority of cities still experienced weak connections. 2) The network connection space upholds the core-edge structure, in which Tianjin, Dalian, Qingdao, Ningbo, Shenzhen, and Xiamen radiate from Shanghai to form the core network, whereas the marginal cities primarily join the network by connecting to the core city, and the interaction between the marginal cities is weak. 3) The coastal port logistics network's hierarchical structure is clear. The core-subcore-general-edge four-level circle layer structure is presented in accordance with the different urban statuses in the network and the intensity of inter-circle connection steadily declines with the drop in circle level. 4) Balanced development of information basis level has a negative impact on the development of the port logistics network. However, differentiated development of coastal port logistics market scale, port infrastructure, urban economic development level, and headquarters scale of port logistics enterprises has a positive impact on development.

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    Roles and Paths of Hainan in Building the Shared Future of the South China Sea Maritime Community
    Tao Yu, Xiangmiao Chen
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (7): 1180-1189.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003522
    Abstract286)   HTML2)    PDF (685KB)(150)      

    Hainan is entitled to govern the waters and islands claimed by China in the South China Sea and is surrounded by the sea and nine Southeast Asian countries. Hainan plays an extremely special role in the systematic building of a maritime community with a shared future between China and ASEAN countries. Although the roles of Hainan in the implementation of such a maritime community are not decided, the present study clearly discusses the concept of a maritime community with a shared future from multiple perspectives, and provides a framework for Hainan's role in the community. Hainan has a three dimensional role in the systematic cooperation between China and Southeast countries to build a maritime community: a forward base, an important strategic fulcrum, and a pioneer officer. The special policy advantages of building a free trade port with Chinese characteristics will provide impetus for Hainan to transform these advantages into practical effects. However, objective factors such as the South China Sea disputes, the small scale of the Hainan marine industry, and deficiency of marine research capability have caused a "containment effect" to some extent. This paper argues that Hainan can optimize its spatial and industrial layout by scientifically planning the development of marine industry, relying on the top-level design of the government and guided by the special policy arrangements of free trade port with Chinese characteristics, in order to cope with the challenges posed by politics and relatively lagging development. Certainly, two aspects still need to be further discussed: Hainan overcoming the effects of maritime disputes, and competing for leadership in the renewal of the regional marine industrial system.

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    Temporal and Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Driving Factors of China's Time Banking from 1998 to 2020: Based on Baidu Information
    Long Song, Xueping Xiong
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (12): 1964-1979.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003573
    Abstract286)   HTML15)    PDF (3775KB)(72)      

    Combining the development history of mutual assistance and old-age care of Time Banking under the background of aging in China has important reference significance for addressing the Time Banking development dilemma. Using news reports on the establishment of Time Banking in Baidu from 1998 to 2020, this study extracts the time and place of its establishment through manual interpretation, and analyzes the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of Time Banking. Additionally, it discusses the driving factors and differentiation mechanism to restore the development history of Time Banking from the perspective of social attention and provide a useful reference for its current status from the perspective of geography. It was found that: 1) Time Banking has experienced three periods of development in China, and the number of branches has shown an overall upward trend, among which the third period had the largest increase. 2) In terms of urban and rural distribution, Time Banking was mostly concentrated in urban areas and gradually spread to rural areas. In the provincial distribution, most provinces had already explored Time Banking, among which Jiangsu, Hubei, Zhejiang, Guangxi, and four other provinces (regions) had the largest number. 3) The spatial distribution of Time Banking initially showed a small sporadic distribution, which then gradually developed into a double-center distribution pattern in the Central Plains of the Yangtze River Delta. These were concentrated south of the Hu Huanyong line and was generally "dense in the southeast-sparse in the northwest". 4) In terms of the spatial relationship, Time Banking develops gradually from the initial spatial divergence to a spatial agglomeration. The degree of agglomeration is constantly strengthened, tends to be stable, the spatial homogeneity is gradually enhanced, and the heterogeneity is gradually weakened. 5) The driving factors of Time Banking development include population structure, old-age construction level, economic development level, government support, volunteer team construction, and digital technology level. Among them, the old-age construction level is more important in the first period, while the government support level and economic development level are more important in the second and third periods. Finally, it is suggested to increase the exploration of Time Banking and reduce the dependence on social and economic development indicators to provide a feasible path for their balanced development in underdeveloped areas, such as the northwest and northeast rural areas. Additionally, government support should be strengthened and multi-stakeholder participation guided to guarantee the sustainable development of Time Banking.

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    Accessibility and Structural Characteristics of Leisure Tourism Resources in Guangzhou
    Yayue Li, Dazhuan Ge, Bo Niu, Jie Li
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (10): 1701-1712.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003569
    Abstract286)   HTML7)    PDF (2051KB)(114)      

    Leisure tourism has become a new hotspot of tourism consumption and promotes the upgrading of tourism industry structure. Moreover, the examination of the spatial accessibility of leisure tourism resources is conducive to improving the tourism flow system. This study takes 3,612 leisure tourism resource points in Guangzhou as the research object. These resource points are classified into natural leisure, recreational leisure, cultural leisure, and special leisure types according to their nature. The study uses the nearest neighbor index and kernel density to analyze the spatial characteristics of different types of leisure tourism resources in Guangzhou. Based on the 500 m×500 m raster division, it employs the raster analysis method to calculate the accessibility of different types of leisure tourism resources in Guangzhou and further investigates the formation mechanism of the accessibility spatial pattern. The conclusions are as follow: (1) The spatial distribution of leisure tourism resources in Guangzhou shows a general characteristic of "dense in the central city and sparse in the peripheral areas". (2) The spatial distribution characteristics of different types of leisure tourism resources varied significantly, with the highest degree of concentration in the cultural leisure type and the closest random distribution in the special leisure type. In terms of the clustering pattern, the natural and recreation leisure types are clustered in the main city and its surrounding areas, the cultural leisure type is a single cluster in the old town, and special leisure type is clustered in a polycentric manner. (3) The spatial pattern of the accessibility of leisure tourism resources in Guangzhou reveals clear traffic directionality, and the distribution pattern of high-accessibility areas is consistent with the direction of expressways, and forms a multi-well structure in space. High-accessibility areas are concentrated in the main urban and suburban areas, which are rich in leisure and tourism resources, and the spatial pattern of accessibility is characterized by a gradual decline along the traffic arteries with the central urban area as the core, reaching its lowest point in the northern part of Conghua District. (4) The high-accessibility centers for the natural leisure type are primarily distributed in the main urban area and the area with dense resources; the high-accessibility areas for the recreation leisure type are distributed in a row and its overall accessibility level is high; the high-accessibility areas for the cultural leisure type essentially cover the three old districts and the southern portion of Tianhe District, with a low accessibility level in Conghua District. The special leisure type shows an obvious circular structure in the accessibility-related spatial pattern. (5) Based on the comprehensive effect of the "resource-transportation-population-administration" system, the accessibility pattern of leisure tourism resources in Guangzhou was gradually formed through the combined influence of the spatial concentration characteristics of leisure tourism resources, regional accessibility, leisure tourism market demand, and infrastructure construction.

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    Political Interpretation of Building a Maritime Power: An Analysis Based on Attention Allocation
    Chao Ma
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (7): 1201-1213.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003510
    Abstract279)   HTML3)    PDF (703KB)(69)      

    In 2012, with the claimant countries of the South China Sea dispute stepping up their occupation of marine resources and the deep involvement of foreign powers in the South China Sea issue, the surrounding maritime situation became increasingly complex and there were multiple conflicts of interest caused by the continuous erosion of China's maritime rights. In order to effectively exercise sovereign rights and jurisdiction over the exclusive economic zones and continental shelf in various sea areas, including the South China Sea, and shape a peaceful and stable maritime security environment, China has launched a national maritime strategy with the theme of "building maritime power." Current research on the building of maritime power has paid greater attention to the concept analysis, development goals, and implementation path of maritime power, mainly focusing on the "ought" aspect of maritime power, with little attention to the "actual" aspect. Based on the attention analysis framework of leaders in attention politics, this study analyzes the launch and implementation of the national marine strategy of building maritime power after 2012 and explains the mechanism of building maritime power. Given this background, this research shows the following: (1) The limited attention of leaders and governments is the mediating variable between changes in the international system structure and the generation of state behavior. (2) Changes in the international situation, local government competition, emergency stimulation, and previous political experience are the trigger factors for building maritime power, causing the attention of leaders and governments to shift. (3) Leaders promote policy implementation through speeches, instructions, inspections, and other activities, which are the basis for measuring the attention of leaders and governments for building a maritime power. Research on the mechanism of building a maritime power shows: (1) Following the reconfiguration of the national maritime strategy, the attention of the leaders and governments continues to play a role in the implementation process of the new maritime strategy. (2) Leaders accelerate the operation of maritime strategies through their own activities such as inspections and instructions. (3) Building maritime power has been promoted to a high level through the establishment of high-level institutions. (4) Public and social attention should be fixed through the continuous agenda-setting of maritime affairs by the state media. This mechanism has effectively guided and locked the focus of China's attention on maritime affairs, thus effectively reshaping the traditional strategic culture and social cognition that China values land over the sea.

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    Relationship of Surface Pollen with Climate and Vertical Vegetation Communities in Subtropical Mountainous in Southern China
    Xiaowen Quan, Kangyou Huang, Kunchun Shui, Hongwei Li, Dehao Xie, Jintang Zuo, Caifeng Cen, Zhuo Zheng
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (10): 1597-1608.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003503
    Abstract279)   HTML18)    PDF (3844KB)(122)      

    Pollen analysis is one of the environmental proxies useful for quantitative reconstruction of paleoecology and paleoclimate, and the establishment of a quantitative relationship between surface pollen and vegetation is crucial for accurate interpretation of paleoecology and paleoclimate from fossil pollen. In this study, to explore the relationships between surface pollen assemblages and vegetation and altitude, 113 samples of modern surface pollen and moss were collected from the vertical vegetation zones in central south subtropical China. Based on the results of Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA), the study revealed the connections between the distribution of pollen taxa at different elevations and with various climate factors. The main results are as follows: 1) Castanopsis, Quercus-evergreen, Pinus, Cunninghamia and Euphorbiaceae were the dominant pollen taxa of the arbors, and Poaceae, Artemisia, Compositae, and Cyperaceae were the main components of the herbs. Trilete, Dicranopteris, Polypodiaceae and Monolete accounted for a high percentage of the fern pollen. 2) The relationships between pollen taxa and altitude could be divided into three patterns: Castanopsis, Quercus-evergreen, Pinus, Mallotus, Liquidambar, Rubiaceae,and Poaceae were common at the low altitudes (0-702 m). In the medium altitude area (703-1,299 m), there were significant pollen contents in Castanopsis, Cunninghamia,Pinus, Quercus-evergreen, Ericaceae and Pinus. The higher altitude area, at around 1,300-1,600 m, was dominanted by Castanopsis, Quercus-evergreen, and Fagus. Therefore, the distribution of surface pollen is consistent with that of modern vegetation. 3) The results of CCA showed that the climate factors controlling the distribution of surface pollen were Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP), Mean precipitation of warmest season (Mpwa), and Mean temperature of warmest season (Mtwa). It was obvious that the climate characteristics corresponded to high percentage values of various pollen, such as Pinus, Cunninghamia, Castanopsis, Quercus-evergreen, Theaceae, Fagus, and Quercus-deciduous. 4) The significant taxa of Castanopsis, Quercus-evergreen at lower elevations and Pinus, Cunninghamia and Fagus where grow at relatively high area can reflect the effects of climate factors on the spatial distribution of vegetation. Therefore, the results of this study indicated that the surface pollen assemblage varies significantly through the vertical vegetation zones in central south subtropical China. The characteristics of surface pollen dispersal were greatly influenced by the vegetation composition in the region, the habitat, pollen morphology, and the pollen transmission process, which provides a crucial reference for quantitative reconstruction of paleoecology and paleoclimate from fossil pollen data in a subtropical region.

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    Spatial and Temporal Patterns, Influencing Factors, and Prevention and Control Measures of Human Trafficking in Southwest China
    Hai Xia, Gang Li, Junjun Zhou, Yue Yu, Mengjia Du, Chenxi Feng
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (9): 1534-1546.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003556
    Abstract277)   HTML8)    PDF (2821KB)(162)      

    The crime of trafficking has a long history of causing serious harm to the victims, their families, and social stability, which has aroused widespread concern from the public and academic circles. Studies have shown that the southwest region of China has the highest incidence of trafficking crimes; thus, this study examines the trial data of Chinese judgment documents of the southwestern regions (Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, and Chongqing) from 2008 to 2020. The study comprehensively uses text analysis, mathematical statistics, spatial analysis, and negative binomial regression test to explore spatial and temporal variation patterns and the factors influencing them. The study then proposes countermeasures for prevention, control, and management. The research shows that: (1) The overall high incidence of trafficking crimes occurred in the period 2009-2014, showing a wavy pattern of "three peaks and two valleys." The "three peaks" occurred in 2009, 2012, and 2014, whereas the "two valleys" occurred in 2010 and 2013. The highest incidence was in December, with the next highest incidences concentrated in May, June, July, and September for women, and May, July, August and September for children. On the whole, trafficking crimes occurred mostly in the summer months. The four provinces have had different degrees of inter-year and inter-month variations in the trafficking of women and children. (2) The overall spatial distribution is in the shape of a significant "southeast-northwest" axis, which is highly consistent with the boundary line between Sichuan and Chongqing, Yunnan, and Guizhou, and the inter-provincial border area is a hotspot for trafficking crimes. The provincial spatial distribution is the highest in Yunnan Province and the lowest in Chongqing. Trafficking mostly occurs at medical care institutions, stations, and rural residences with a large flow of people. (3) Negative binomial regression analysis of the random effects panel shows the incidence of trafficking crimes as influenced by the gender ratio of the population and the number of urban and rural residents' minimum living standards, while the per capita disposable income of rural residents, the registered urban unemployment rate, the child dependency ratio,and the volume of passenger transport have negative effects; whereas the population sex ratio, passenger traffic, and the number of urban and rural residents on the minimum subsistence allowance have a greater impact on the crime of trafficking of women. Finally, based on the analysis of the influencing factors, the three aspects of strengthening social construction, innovating prevention mechanisms, and strengthening combating mechanisms are proposed as the prevention and control countermeasures, with a view to dismantle the breeding ground for the crime of trafficking of women and children.

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    Rafting Tourism Experience from the Perspective of Rhythm Analysis: A Case Study of Qingyuan City, Guangdong Province
    Xiaorong He, Haichao Xu, Xueting Liu
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (10): 1665-1676.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003537
    Abstract274)   HTML1)    PDF (1105KB)(96)      

    Rafting has recently emerged as one of the most popular tourist activities in China and is a relatively mature form of adventure sport. Based on Lefebvre's rhythmanalysis theory, we constructed a tourism research framework of embodied rhythm, selected tourists in Qingyuan and Guangdong as samples, and used qualitative methods to explore the role of participants' bodies as "rhythm reflectors" in the actual daily and tourism worlds. This study also examined the rhythmic state of transition between the aforementioned two worlds, focusing on the analysis of the individuals' embodied rhythm cycle and influencing factors in the tourism context. The main conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) We discovered that the motivation driving rafting tourists is rooted in the imbalance between social and natural rhythms. Typically, an individual who participates in rafting experiences multiple rhythms within their body and develops their own embodied rhythm in interaction with the other rhythms. (2) This embodied rhythm is cyclical and can be subdivided into adaptation, immersion, pain, and retention periods. The factors affecting the embodied rhythm of rafting tourists include natural and artificial environmental elements, elements of the individual functions of tourists, and elements of the tourist community. Unlike other slow-paced, relaxed, and leisurely tourist activities, rafting instills a sense of "self-control" among participants in the process of overcoming fear, anxiety, and other negative emotions through intimate contact with nature under a rapid flow. (3) By creating a heterogeneous spatial mirror image, rafting allows individuals to overcome anxiety and other negative emotions, thus achieving a balance between internal and external rhythm, as well as enhancing self-perception. This paper suggests that scenic spots for rafting should satisfy and stimulate tourists' individual perceptions in various ways and assist in the development of quality products that satisfy the needs of different groups to enhance the competitiveness among scenic spots. The findings of this study provide suggestions to localize the practice of rhythmanalysis in Chinese tourism research and compensate for the lack of research pertaining to rafting tourism in China. The study further expands the application of the rhythmanalysis theory in the field of tourism embodiment research on the microscopic scale and explores different context types from the perspective of embodiment.

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    Estimation of Mangrove Aboveground Biomass in China Using Forest Canopy Height through an Allometric Equation
    Xin Wen, Kai Liu, Jingjing Cao, Yuanhui Zhu, Ziyu Wang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003616
    Abstract274)   HTML27)    PDF (1934KB)(159)      

    Mangroves, which have extremely high primary productivity, are efficient coastal blue carbon ecosystems. Aboveground biomass (AGB) is an important component of vegetation carbon pools. Thus, accurate estimation of mangrove AGB is critical for studying carbon cycle and climate change. While the practical significance and application of information obtained on mangrove AGB in China is apparent, studies of this nature in China at a national scale have rarely been reported. Remote sensing technology is convenient, efficient, has a wide observational range, and can be used for large-scale ecosystem monitoring. Canopy height is a structural parameter that is positively correlated with the AGB of vegetation. The Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) spaceborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) satellite, launched in recent years, is able to obtain vegetation canopy height. This study employed forest canopy height derived from GEDI satellite-based LiDAR and an allometric equation based on the allometric theory to estimate mangrove AGB in China in 2019, and the quantitative and spatial distribution of mangrove biomass and their main influencing factors were analyzed. The results showed that the total and mean AGB of mangroves in China in 2019 were about 1,974,827 t and 73.0 t/hm2, respectively. Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao area showed the largest total mangrove AGB, reaching 843,836 t. The mean values of AGB in each province (region) with mangrove ecosystems nationwide ranged from 53.3 to 92.1 t/hm2, of which the largest was found in Hainan Province, reaching 92.1 t/hm2. In Hainan, Taiwan, and Fujian provinces, mean mangrove AGB was higher than the national mean. Considering nature reserves, the mean AGBs of mangroves in Neilingdingdao-Futian and Mai Po mangrove nature reserves in Shenzhen Bay in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao area and Dongzhaigang mangrove nature reserve in Hainan province were relatively high, with values greater than 110 t/hm2. The accumulation and distribution of mangrove AGB in China are affected by latitude and anthropogenic factors. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of mangrove AGB in China based on remote sensing and an allometric equation and can provide a database and technical reference for estimating carbon storage in mangrove ecosystems. It will also contribute to the implementation of ecological restoration and protection measures for coastal mangroves, as well as carbon emission control in China.

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    Intelligent Planning of Village Roads for Rural Revitalization: A Case Study of Gangtou Village, Huadu District, Guangzhou
    Yina Liu, Shitai Bao, Meixuan She, Shunqing Chen
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (2): 226-233.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003625
    Abstract268)   HTML19)    PDF (1668KB)(69)      

    A rural revitalization strategy has been proposed, and more attention has been paid to village planning, which has become an important measure to adjust to local conditions, implement policies accurately, and build a beautiful countryside. The core of rural revitalization involves planning first, promoting industry, serving the countryside, and planning the village as the unit. An important aspect of village planning is road planning and design, which is essential to further connect agricultural production, country living, and ecological space of the village; promote production; serve life; and strengthen traffic between the village and the external region. Owing to the differences in geographical and natural conditions and the level of economic development between urban and rural areas in China, village road planning cannot copy the previous methods of road route selection and urban road planning. Instead, it is necessary to explore a universal, efficient, and intelligent village road planning method that considers the actual situation of rural development by considering agricultural production, villagers' lives, industrial development, historical and cultural protection, and other factors. In the context of rural revitalization, this study takes the village as the planning unit, considers the natural environment, current layout, and development needs of the village, uses the qualitative and quantitative fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to analyze and quantify the natural, social, demographic and other factors of the village road planning and their weights, and uses the weighted superposition analysis method to form a comprehensive cost grid of the village with multiple elements. A process-based village road planning GIS tool is constructed, and the minimum cost path algorithm was used to automatically generate the village road network with the minimum comprehensive cost. Taking Gangtou Village in Huadu District of Guangzhou City as an example, the feasibility of the above methods, technical processes, and GIS tools was verified, and a village-wide comprehensive cost grid was efficiently generated. According to the five elements of residential areas, cultivated land, historical monuments, public facilities, and entrances and exits of external roads, five categories, seven starting points, and 16 ending points of village planning roads were automatically extracted, and a four-level village road from multiple starting points to multiple ending points was automatically generated, including four main roads with a width of 5-8 meters, two secondary main roads with a width of 3-5 meters, nine productive branch roads with a width of 2-3 meters, 13 living branch roads, and one village road. The results show that the village road planning method proposed here can efficiently generate multi-type and multi-level village roads, and the planned road network not only has a minimum construction cost but also good connectivity and practicability. The village road-planning method proposed in this study integrates natural, social, demographic, and industrial development factors and their characteristics, providing systematic ideas and automated methods for village road planning. This is helpful for promoting the intelligence of village road planning.

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    Carbon Transfer and Responsibility Sharing of Chinese Urban Agglomerations
    Chuanlong Chen, Zehao Li
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (11): 1855-1865.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003582
    Abstract266)   HTML7)    PDF (1059KB)(69)      

    Clearly defining the responsibility for carbon emissions can help urban agglomerations achieve their carbon peak and facilitate the construction of a low-carbon society. With the regional professional division of labor and intricate economic and trade links, the phenomenon of carbon transfer between urban agglomerations has become increasingly obvious, making it difficult to scientifically divide carbon emission responsibility based solely on producer or consumer responsibility. Based on the constructed multi-regional input-output model of cities in China, we calculated the scale and direction of carbon emissions and net carbon transfer on the production and consumption sides of each urban agglomeration. Considering the asymmetry of producer and consumer responsibility and the proportion of value-added trade of urban agglomeration outflow as the responsibility sharing factor, we propose a scheme for the power and responsibility distribution of net carbon transfer of urban agglomeration. The results show that (1) Under the accounting method of shifting from production-side responsibility to consumer responsibility, significant differences are observed in carbon emissions among urban agglomerations in China. Among them, the Hubao Eyu and Pearl River Delta urban agglomerations have changed significantly. The inflow and outflow of intermediate products and the demand for end products from other urban agglomerations are the main reasons for the carbon transfer of urban agglomerations. 2) Some differences are observed in the responsibility-sharing factors among urban agglomerations. These factors are the largest on the West Bank of the Strait, followed by the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, central and southern Liaoning, and Changsha Zhuzhou Xiangtan Urban Agglomeration. The net carbon transfer of urban agglomerations occurs not only between economically developed coastal urban agglomerations but also between less developed inland urban agglomerations and coastal urban agglomerations. 3) The carbon emission scale of each urban agglomeration changed significantly under the carbon accounting scheme of "shared responsibility." Compared with the consumer side responsibility, the "responsibility sharing" carbon emissions of 12 urban agglomerations such as Hubao Eyu were relatively increased, which shows that these urban agglomerations bear more carbon emission responsibilities than those based on consumer responsibility when excluding the carbon transfer from responsibility sharing; Compared with the production side responsibility, the "responsibility sharing" carbon emissions of 9 urban agglomerations such as the Pearl River Delta were relatively increased, which shows that these urban agglomerations bear more carbon emission responsibilities than those based on producer responsibility when including the carbon transfer into responsibility sharing. The carbon emission responsibility determined according to the "benefit principle" considers the asymmetry of the carbon transfer responsibilities of producers and consumers. Sharing carbon responsibility according to the proportion of regional trade benefits reflects fairness and can better promote the implementation of carbon emission reduction measures.

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