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    Evolution of the Landscape and Spatial Distribution of Citrus Orchards in Jeju Island, Korea (1526-2019)
    Boki Hwang, Junfan Wu
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (5): 834-842.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003476
    Abstract1625)   HTML23)    PDF (1278KB)(143)      

    The citrus orchard landscape in Jeju Island, South Korea has important cultural heritage value. It is a unique agricultural landscape shaped by local people, using the special climate, hydrology, and vegetation environment of Jeju Island. The Joseon Dynasty in the 16th century established a tribute system for citrus. The Jeju government also set up a citrus garden. Since then, the regional distribution and geographic landscape of citrus groves on Jeju Island have experienced great changes. This paper combines natural factors, such as climate and water resources, with human factors, such as Korean citrus industry policies, the market, social changes, and technological progress to study the changes in the landscape and spatial distribution of citrus orchards in Jeju Island since the 15th century, and analyzes the driving forces behind the spatial changes in citrus production on Jeju Island. The results show the following. From the 16th century to 2019, citrus production on Jeju Island experienced development-historically significant ups and downs of decline and strong revival. A large migration of production space from north to south was found. The space for citrus production has expanded gradually, and the production of citrus orchards on Jeju Island has undergone a transformation from government orchards in the Joseon period to a modern experiential farm for tourism. The driving forces for citrus production space changes and geographic landscape changes are complex. Water resources were the main natural factor affecting the distribution of citrus groves during the Joseon Dynasty. The social system, transportation, and market were the main factors influencing the expansion of citrus orchard production space from the 16th century to modern times. During the development of and changes in citrus production space over the past five hundred years, human factors have continuously strengthened and influenced the optimization and adjustment of citrus space and the geographical landscape. Since the 1970s, advances in water resource development technology have changed the spatial distribution pattern of modern citrus orchards. Research on the long-term production space and geographic landscape changes in Jeju Island, and their mechanism of citrus orchards, can create a cultural landscape of citrus orchards with local characteristics for traditional citrus cultivation areas in China. It can also provides references for folk customs, cultural products, and the upgrading and development of China's citrus industry.

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    The Multi-Center Spatial Structure in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area Urban Agglomeration Based on Luojia1-01 Nighttime Light Data and POI Data
    Qiuying Zhi, Jieying Chen, Yingchun Fu, Biyun Guo
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (3): 444-456.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003455
    Abstract633)   HTML21)    PDF (2746KB)(125)      

    The Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (referred to as "GBA") is an important strategic deployment for China's current economic development. Clarifying the spatial structure characteristics of the GBA urban agglomeration is conducive to optimizing its spatial structure to develop into a multi-center network spatial structure and promoting coordinated regional development. This study uses the advantage of Luojia1-01 nighttime light data, which can distinguish the difference in urban night light intensity. Through multi-scale segmentation of nighttime light intensity, the potential center range is established. The point of interest (POI) data are used for spatial autocorrelation analysis and geographically weighted regression to identify the multi-center distribution of the GBA urban agglomeration, and to analyze its spatial structure characteristics from multiple perspectives such as functional structure identification, spatial correlation measurement, and main center service range. The following list illustrates what the results show. 1) The GBA has five main centers and 14 sub-centers, including the main centers of Guangfo, Shenguan, Hong Kong, Aozhu, and Zhongshan. The functional structures of the five main centers are mainly mixed functional areas, and 14 sub-centers (such as Huadu, Zengcheng, Conghua, Huicheng, Duanzhou, Xinhui, Shiqi) are distributed around the periphery of the main centers. 2) The correlation strength of the five main centers and nine cities plus two special administrative regions in the urban agglomeration, calculated based on the Luojia1-01 nighttime light data, shows characteristics of "strong in the east and weak in the west" and "strong inside and weak outside." 3) The study considered the distribution of the main centers of the urban agglomeration and their spatial correlation strength characteristics, as well as the three groups served by the main centers (Guangfozhao group, Gang-Shenguanhui group and Ao-Zhuzhongjiang group), combined with the planning requirements of the "Outline Development Plan for the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area" and "Guangdong Province Land and Space Planning (2020-2035)." The findings suggest that the GBA should build a regional spatial structure of "five centers, one area, three groups and four axes" to achieve pole-driven, axis-supported, and group cooperation and promote its coordinated development into a world-class urban agglomeration.

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    Spatiotemporal Evolution and Formation Mechanism of Missing-Person Incidents in the United States
    Zhe Lin, Gang Li, Junjun Zhou, Jinlong Shi, Feng Xu, Yingying Wang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (9): 1475-1487.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003545
    Abstract534)   HTML2)    PDF (2309KB)(150)      

    The problem of missing persons is a major global challenge, which causes serious harm to their families and societies. For this study, we collected 9,193 U.S. missing-persons records for the years 1996-2021 from the Doe Network platform. We used mathematical statistics and Moran's I index to analyze the socio-demographic characteristics, spatio-temporal distribution and its evolution patterns. Then the geodetector was applied to conduct an in-depth analysis of the influencing factors in socio-cultural, economic and demographic aspects. Based on above findings, a sociological theory of the formation mechanism of the missing-person phenomenon in the United States was proposed. Major findings included: (1) With age increasing, the number of missing persons initially increased and then dropped gradually. The highest missing rate was found among adolescents (13-18 years old) and adults (19-59 years old). Although more males than females were reported missing, the high-incidence period of males lagged slightly behind that of females. The high missing rate among adolescent females was linked to sexual crimes, including sex trafficking and rape, while that of adult men tended to be caused by family discord or debt problems. Among racial groups, black people faced the greatest risk of going missing. (2) From 1996, the number of missing-person incidents initially showed a wave upward trended and then fell sharply, after peaking in 2017, because of a series of immigration regulations. In 2020, it declined dramatically again, due to COVID-19. Influenced by the temperature, school holidays, and festivals, most people were reported missing during the months of June, August, and December. Only few missing incidents happened between February and April. (3) Spatially, at the state level, the missing population distribution decreased from the coastal border area to the inland area; over time, areas with a great number of missing-person incidents advanced simultaneously from the eastern and western coastal areas and the southern US-Mexico border to US inland areas. At the county level, they were concentrated on the edge and scattered internally. (4) Missing-person incidents were caused by the interaction of multiple factors; regional population mobility, fertility rate, and the number of vulnerable people had a positive impact on numbers of missing people, while per capital GDP had a negative impact. The power of population-based environmental factors was significantly enhanced after be interacted with social and economic factors, on explaining the missing-person spatial distribution, all of which were above 80%. (5) The underlying mechanism of missing-person incidents could be understood from the perspective of "social anomie". In other words, the disconnect between social goals and means led to social anomie, which then induced deviant behavior, including abduction, murder, and running away from home, increasing the likelihood of missing-person incidents. Finally, we offered suggestions for disappearance prevention and further study directions. The findings provided a basic understanding of the missing-person phenomenon, contributing to global scientific information, which could aid in preventing missing-person incidents.

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    Progress and Enlightment of Geography Research Themes in China, Britain and the United States: Comparison of Authoritative Journals of Geography in the Three Countries from 2010 to 2020
    Zhenjie Yuan, Huiyu Xie, Yingjun Zheng
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (3): 339-357.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003453
    Abstract484)   HTML19)    PDF (2665KB)(153)      

    Internationalization and localization are important issues in the development of contemporary Chinese geography. China's local geographical knowledge research has become a force that cannot be ignored in the world's geographical knowledge system. This paper hopes to reveal the heterogeneity, complexity and diversity of the development of geography in the three countries by comparing the development characteristics of geography in China, Britain and the United States. By the knowledge mapping tool CiteSpace, this paper analyzes the literature of Journal of Geographical Sciences, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers and Annals of the Association of American Geographers from 2010 to 2020, revealing the knowledge evolution, historical hot spots and thematic context of geography in the three countries in recent years. The findings are as follows: 1) American geography pays equal attention to both nature and humanity. In recent years, the comprehensive geographical research on the elements of "nature-environment-humanity-society" has been more active. It shows that American geography circle pays attention to the human-land contradiction and big politics of the world or other countries and regions on a large scale, as well as the human-land relationship and daily politics at the meso and micro scales. It pays attention to a wide range of topics, which are close to the hot spots and needs of American social development. 2) British geography is more "focused" on the study of human geography. In particular, the development of sociocultural geography is very characteristic, and the tradition of political geography is still distinct. There are common issues with the development of American geography, such as climate change, ethnic minorities and segregation. In addition, British geography has paid more and more attention to the research on the relationship between man and nature this year, and has gradually formed the voice of integrating natural and human geography research. 3) Chinese geography focuses on physical geography and regional research, which is different from the trend of American geography and British geography towards the research paradigm of "nature and human" integration. Human geography and geographic information science show rising trends, and the research area is mainly within China. Summarizing the development of geography research in the three countries is conducive to providing reference for the future research direction of Chinese geography and promoting the dialogue between China and world geography. Chinese geography needs to grasp the major demand traction of China's era change, deepen and strengthen the research of Chinese geography in theory and practice, and realize the diversified development of various branches and the transformation and integration of research paradigms.

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    Art Intervention in Rural Areas: Comparative Analysis of Multi-Level Benefits of Two Typical Modes in Rural Development Transformation
    Nuoya Zhuang, Ren Yang, Jinfeng Lu, Shixiu Weng
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (3): 396-408.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003451
    Abstract472)   HTML11)    PDF (1638KB)(137)      

    Under the background of rural revitalization strategy, art intervention in rural areas, as a new way of rural construction in China, is attracting more and more attention since various art practices have appeared in Chinese villages during the last decade. Art intervention in rural areas has multi-dimensional benefits such as improving rural landscape, promoting villagers' income, enhancing community connections, and promoting cultural inheritance. On the basis of clarifying the connotation and typical modes of art intervention in rural areas in China, this paper constructs and analyzes the benefit hierarchy of art intervention in rural areas based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, and selects Xiaozhou and Fenghe villages in Guangzhou as typical cases to identify the benefit characteristics and problems of two modes of artist-led and capital-led art intervention through field investigation. Although previous studies have focused more on specific cases of art intervention in rural areas, which have revealed the work procedure and achievements in detail, the comparison of their differences and a systematic construction of the influence are still worth discussing. The research results show that: (1) Art intervention in rural areas is a typical mode of rural revitalization in which the government, capital, artists and cultural groups realize multi-level benefits such as rural landscape beautification, tourism economic benefits, community creation and governance, and local cultural inheritance through art practice in the context of rural revitalization. According to different driving subjects, the art intervention in rural areas can be divided into two types: artist-led and capital-led. (2) Art intervention in rural areas has four levels of benefits: material, economic, social and cultural, showing the characteristics of progression by level. (3) The artist-led type plays a significant role in realizing high-level benefits, while the low-level benefits are lacking; the capital-led type plays a significant role in realizing low-level benefits, while the high-level benefits are lacking. (4) Building a multi-party cooperation model with the collaboration of capital and artists, government support, and villagers' participation can combine the advantages of the benefits of the two modes and make the rural practice of art intervention more replicable. In summary, this study divides the practices of art intervention in rural China into two types: artist-led and capital-led, constructs the four-level benefits hierarchy based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, compares the four-level benefits between Xiaozhou village and Fenghe village, and summarizes the benefit differences between the artist-led mode and the capital-led mode. For its contributions, it innovatively applies Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory into the study of art intervention from a theoretical perspective and enriches the case study of art intervention in rural China and explores the characteristics from a practical perspective.

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    Exploring the Spatial Structure of Pearl River Delta: Based on "Space of Flows"
    Fengjue Huang, Tao Yang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (3): 422-430.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003461
    Abstract468)   HTML18)    PDF (1908KB)(161)      

    As China's reform enters deep water and the opening-up enters a new stage, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, an important spatial carrier of the national location policy, has become the focus of attention in terms of improving collaborative governance capabilities within the region and optimizing the spatial system structure of urban agglomerations. In this study, a "space of flows" network was developed based on the capital flow, constructed using the foreign investment behavior of A-share listed companies, traffic flow, constructed using population migration data, and information flow constructed using the search engine index. The social network analysis method was used to qualitatively describe and quantitatively analyze the spatial connection characteristics and evolution trend of the PRD cities. The study shows that the urban system of the PRD urban agglomeration has been developed into a "space of flows" network. Additionally, it shows that the spatial structure of the urban system of the PRD urban agglomeration is closely centered on the regional development corridor of Guangzhou, Florida, Dongguan, and Shenzhen, which is deep in the north-south direction. Capital, traffic, and information flows form a network structure with Guangzhou and Shenzhen as the regional extreme nuclei. The urban network shows a significant coresemi-edge-edge unbalanced structure, and the free flow of development factors among cities in the Bay Area is still hindered, with gradient development differences among cities. Overall, the factor flow network is mainly based on Guangzhou and Shenzhen as the dual cores, with spatial differentiation among capital, transportation, and information flows, forming a more apparent network power center on the east bank of the Pearl River. By measuring the degree of centrality of information, traffic, and capital flow of each city in the PRD, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen were found to significantly exceed other cities in terms of attraction and output of flow factors. In terms of investment flow, a narrow "N" structure is formed with Shenzhen as the core node which converges toward the Pearl River; in terms of traffic flow, a wide "N" structure is formed with Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Dongguan as the core, which undulates in the middle of the Bay Area; in terms of information flow, a narrow "N" structure is formed with Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Dongguan as the core. In terms of information flow, an inverse "y" structure is formed along the east bank of the Pearl River with Guangzhou and Shenzhen as the core. Based on the empirical study findings, the development planning of the PRD urban agglomeration is discussed in the light of its actual development. To promote the deep integration of urban agglomerations in the PRD region, it is necessary to avoid zero-sum competition caused by non-market factors through institutional innovation on the one hand, and through increasing the investment in infrastructure construction and accelerating the circulation of factors on the other. In addition, the rapid response of the Internet can help cities at the geographical periphery break free from the geographical constraints of physical distance to develop faster.

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    Left-Behind Children in Children's Geography: Literature Review and New Agendas
    Chun Chen, Runqi Xiao, Xiaorong Gu, Lewei Wu
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (3): 373-384.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003450
    Abstract443)   HTML11)    PDF (761KB)(142)      

    By critically reviewing 159 academic publications in English and Chinese from a range of academic platforms that focus on the study of left-behind children, we advance new theoretical turns in children's geography in future research of left-behind children: to explicate children's use of space in everyday life, to explore their subjectivities and agency, and to unpack the diversity of childhoods across spatial and social scales. We first review literature on left-behind children in the context of transnational/international migration: Scholars have written about how left-behind children participate in reconfiguring transnational family strategies and social ties with their parents across spaces; how they act out their roles in different periods of the migration process and in response to different social and cultural environments; and how they interact with multiple and multilevel social actors, factors and processes to form heterogeneous life strategies and meaning-making. We then conduct a thematic analysis of existing scholarship on left-behind children in the context of internal migration in China, revealing a dominant 'problem' frame due to the prevalent positivism and adult-centrism in the research paradigm and an emerging resiliency perspective. We identify three gaps in this literature: 1) scholars tend to build upon an abstract space of 'the rural' at the institutional level, leaving children's everyday spaces and their social practices in these spaces unexplored, including home, school campus, community centers and so on; 2) children's agency and subjectivity remain obscure, with scant empirical and theoretical discussions; and 3) the literature lacks methodological and epistemological diversity and could not bring children's experiences, voices, emotions and beliefs to the forefront of research. We conclude by outlining a new research agenda on rural left-behind children in the Chinese context. In terms of research themes, we advocate for more attention to three potential areas: 1) explicating the spatiality of left-behind children's daily life practices, especially the spatiality related to the mobility patterns of rural-urban migrants in China; 2) divulging children's experiences and subjectivities vis-à-vis their everyday practices, and 3) unpacking the complexity and heterogeneity of left-behind children's childhood experiences in different contexts. In terms of methodology, we encourage the creative uses of diverse research methods such as in-depths interviews, ethnography and Geographic Information System (GIS) that render left-behind children's voices, thoughts, feelings, cognition and actions more visible. This new research agenda could yield a richer and more balanced literature on the everyday lives and subjectivities of left-behind children, providing fresh perspectives for policy making and public debates.

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    Temporal and Spatial Evolution of Chinese Museums and Their Causes Analysis
    Hailong Liu, Meitong Liu, Xuhong Hu, Xiaojia Guo
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (3): 469-480.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003414
    Abstract440)   HTML6)    PDF (2083KB)(131)      

    With the transformation and development of China's economy and society, the state attaches great importance to the equalization of public services to meet the growing demand for a better life. Museums are not only one of the most important needs of people's spiritual culture but are also an important part of the public cultural service system. Their reasonable layout has an important impact on the equalization of basic public services. Therefore, research on the temporal and spatial evolution of museums has become one of the hotspots of related disciplines, and is of great significance to deepen the basic public service theory. This study selects a list of museums from 1990 to 2018 and uses a nuclear density analysis, standard deviation ellipse, spatial autocorrelation, and geographic detector model, to analyze the evolution trend of museum quantity, evolution characteristics of spatial distribution mode, law of spatial differentiation, and influencing factors of the temporal and spatial distribution of the museums. The results show that: 1) in terms of quantity evolution trend, there are significant differences in the number of museums from 1990-2000, 2000-2010, and 2010-2018, with a gradual increase in the number. Overall, the number of museums showed an accelerated growth trend from 1990-2018. The differences between the East and West are obvious. The number of museums in the eastern region is dense and the development is rapid; contrastingly, the number of museums in the central and western regions is sparse and development is relatively slow. 2) In terms of the evolution of spatial distribution mode, over time, Chinese museums continue to gather spatially and gradually evolve from "single center" distribution mode to "multi center" distribution mode, and the degree of agglomeration continues to improve. 3) The standard deviation ellipse analysis shows that from 1990-2018, the center of gravity of the Chinese museums was always located in the East; the center of gravity shifted slightly over time, and the moving track was about "Z." 4) In terms of the spatial differentiation law, there has been a significant spatial agglomeration process of Chinese museums since 1990, forming a pattern of "hot in the East and cold in the west". The middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River are the hotspots of Chinese museums, and Xinjiang and Tibet are always in the cold spots. Additionally, the scope of hotspots continues to expand annually, extending to the northwest inland, which is consistent with China's strategy of "equalization of public cultural services" in recent years; it is also conducive to breaking the layout of public cultural facilities that are "strong in the East and weak in the West." 5) In terms of influencing factors, museum spatial differentiation is the result of the comprehensive action of multiple factors, which is mainly affected by the economy, society, policy, culture, and education. Among them, policy, cultural, and educational factors are the main influencing factors of museum spatial differentiation, followed by social factors, and economic factors are the general factors affecting its distribution.

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    Determinants of Employment City Selection of Young Intellectual Migrants: A Case Study of Guangzhou University Graduates
    Yuanyuan Xie, Jinhao Li, Ling Ma
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (3): 385-395.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003458
    Abstract436)   HTML14)    PDF (1455KB)(145)      

    With the transformation of urban knowledge economy, cities pay more and more attention on efforts to attract knowledge talents, including young intellectuals. Taking college students in Guangzhou as an example, this research adopts a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to explore the mobility of young intellectual migrants, and the characteristics and influencing factors of their employment city selection. The research has found the following. First, young intellectual migrants generally tend to choose cities where their undergraduate or postgraduate studies are located and cities with higher grades than their household registration and place of study (i.e., first-tier and new first-tier cities), which reflects their willingness and motivation for upward spatial and social mobility. Second, their employment mobility is a process of the interaction between urban and individual factors. Its influencing factors mainly include urban environment, economy, policy and culture, as well as the type of household registration and the city level of household registration, among others. Third, urban economy development (job opportunities) is the most important factor for attracting young intellectual migrants, along with employment opportunities, wage levels, and others. At the same time, amenities such as cultural facilities and educational institutions, as well as physical features such as climate and natural environment and other living comforts (living opportunities) play an increasingly important role in the employment mobility of young intellectual migrants. Therefore, urban environmental construction needs to pay attention to public cultural facilities, social comfort, transportation convenience, health service facilities, and urban natural and living environment. The urban policies of high-level cities are more attractive to young intellectual migrants, including talent introduction, housing subsidies and urban development policies. Fourth, in terms of personal factors, the type of household registration and the city level of the source of youth intellectual migration have significant impact on their employment mobility decisions. There are differences in the mobility costs between the different types and city level of household registration, which further affects their employment mobility behavior. A detailed exploration of the employment mobility law of young intellectual migrants and its influencing factors is necessary to understand and construct a knowledge-based talent mobility theory based on Chinese context in the new era. It is also the key to talent policy formulation and the realization of the value of knowledge talents.

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    Temporal and Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Industrial Heritage in China: A Case Study of the Four Batches of Industrial Heritage Lists
    Can Zeng, Peilin Liu, Bohua Li, Xiaojie Huang, Yangyi Cao
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (5): 740-750.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003477
    Abstract424)   HTML15)    PDF (2301KB)(185)      

    With China's entry into the era of industry and information, an increasing number of industrial enterprises have withdrawn from the historical stage owing to technical bottlenecks, environmental pollution, and lack of resources. The Party and Government attach great importance to the protection, utilization, and research of industrial heritage. This study takes 164 national industrial heritage groups since 2020 published by the Ministry of Industry and Information as the research object. This paper discusses the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of national industrial heritage and analyzes its influencing factors using the spatial analysis methods of nuclear density and concentration trend evolution of the geographic information system platform. The main results of this study are as follows: 1) The spatial distribution of national industrial heritage shows remarkable positive spatial autocorrelation, and this correlation increases over time; There are more industrial heritages in the southeast and less in the northwest, and the spatial pattern of "three cores, two pairs, sheet distribution" is formed. 2) From the perspective of heritage types, light industry is mainly distributed in the Yangtze River Basin and coastal areas, while heavy industry is more dispersed. 3) The distribution of industrial heritage in the province is unbalanced, with three types of areas. Type I is in the northeast and first-tier areas, such as the southeast coastal areas in China. Type II is in third-class areas like northwest China, while the others are type III. 4) From the perspective of time evolution, the spatial distribution center of industrial heritage has four obvious turns. Before the founding of New China, the span of the Heritage Center in different periods was small, and the span became larger after that. 5) Most industries in ancient China were influenced by natural geography and the socioeconomic environment. Although the industries in modern China were influenced by the above factors, they were more influenced by historical and political factors such as nationalism, the Westernization Movement, and major national strategies. National industrial heritage is concentrated in the southeast coastal and middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River plain areas with good natural environment, high population density, high economic level and smooth information flow, while the number of distributions in Guangdong and northwestern areas is less, and areas such as Guangxi and Ningxia are even blank. On the one hand, due to the backward industrial development of Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet, and other provinces in the western region, only a few meet the requirements for the selection of national industrial heritage. On the other hand, "Renewal" has become the theme of the development and planning of times in the process of rapid urbanization in Guangdong Province, one of the birthplaces of modern industry in southern China. A large number of industrial heritage sites have been abandoned and demolished, and the protection and development of these sites are far backward. Therefore, each province should fully understand the importance of protecting and selecting national industrial heritage and take this as an opportunity to accelerate this process within their respective jurisdictions. Each province ought to reasonably link development and protection to better promote the organic renewal and activation of cities.

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    Land Value Increment Allocation in Land Redevelopment from the Perspective of Rescaling:A Case Study of the Haizhu Bay Hub Area in Guangzhou
    Donghua He, Jinying Du, Yuting Liu, Heng Yang, Nannan Zhao
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (4): 509-518.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003468
    Abstract420)   HTML22)    PDF (1747KB)(155)      

    The key factor that influences the progress and operational efficiency of a reserved land redevelopment program is the rationality of land value increment allocation. Scaling-up has become a type of spatial governance instrument. During land redevelopment, there are three types of scaling-up statuses: self-transformation as flexible scaling-up, land acquisition as rigid scaling-up, and land consolidation as medium scaling-up. This paper establishes a framework for research on land value increment allocation in land redevelopment from the perspective of rescaling, taking Guangzhou Haizhu Bay Transport Hub and its surroundings as a case study. Three redevelopment pattern types (self-transformation, land acquisition, and land consolidation) were observed based on the scope of scaling-up, the effectiveness of land value increment allocation, and progress of redevelopment programs under different scaling-up models. On a plot with single ownership, flexible scaling-up can be regarded as a financially oriented self-transformation. The non-transparent mechanism of land value increment allocation is likely to squeeze society-shared benefits derived from land appreciation of a "unit", which tends to make it difficult to promote self-transformation programs. Rigid scaling-up can be considered as land acquisition under government control. It focuses on land as a "unit" and financial balance, compiling land acquisition and banking proposals. The powers of multiple stakeholders are not equal during the processes of land acquisition. The non-transparent allocation mechanism of land value increments, led by the local government, is likely to induce new conflict from original landowners, leading to impediments of such programs. In medium scaling-up, land consolidation is based on interactions among the multiple stakeholders. It satisfies practical demands of land redevelopment programs by coordinating interrelationships between power and space. The "banking-transforming" land consolidation approach promotes cooperation on land redevelopment among the multiple stakeholders, and synergistic value-added effects can be attained. The establishment of transparent mechanisms aims to improve fairness and rationality in land value increment allocation, achieving balance between societal and financial benefits in a "unit", and guaranteeing its land supply. This paper proposes three rational paths for land value increment allocation in land redevelopment. From the point of power, it establishes a coordinated mechanism of land consolidation based on authoritativeness of upper governments. From the point of space, it constructs a carrier for a land consolidation "unit". On the aspect of land value increment allocation, it builds up a transparent mechanism with societal-financial benefit balance. In further study on land redevelopment, more attention should be paid to utilizing scaling-up instruments rationally, to transforming space reconstruction patterns, and to innovating transparent allocation mechanisms for land value increments. This application of rescaling theory provides a reference to practical programs for improving the efficiency of land redevelopment, and for promoting area integral high-quality development.

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    Reflections on and Progress in Social and Cultural Geography in China: Analysis of Chinese and English Literature during 2015-2020
    Zhenjie Yuan, Zhaocong He, Xiaomei Cai, Congying Chen
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (3): 358-372.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003454
    Abstract412)   HTML14)    PDF (1563KB)(206)      

    As a newly developed branch, social and cultural geography has gradually become an important research field within human geography. With fast-changing research topics, methods, and theories, social and cultural geography has been attracting increasing attention in Chinese mainland over the past six years (2015-2020). New trends and criticisms deserve further analysis, such as the diversity of topics, the intersectionality of research methods, and the reflection and questioning of scientific research. Thus, from the perspective of disciplinary introspection, it is necessary to examine the trend of Chinese social and cultural geography from the perspective of comparing China and the West, so as to locate the characteristics of the discipline and to provide certain directions and enlightenment for domestic social and cultural geography research. Drawing on CiteSpace, this article collects, analyzes, and visualizes publications related to social and cultural geography in both English and Chinese (for English publication, we focus on Social & Cultural Geography (N=418), focusing on five selected leading Chinese journals: Acta Geographica Sinca, Scientia Geographica Sinica, Progress in Geography, Geographical Research, and Human Geography (N=400). Furthermore, the Delphi method was employed to see how Chinese social and cultural geographers (N=20) would comment on the recent development of social and cultural geography in Chinese mainland. With qualitative and quantitative analysis, the topics of Western social and cultural geography are reflected in: (1) migration studies and mobility research, (2) cultural landscape and more-than-human geography, and (3) research on disadvantaged groups and caring geography. In contrast to the West, Chinese social and cultural geography research themes include 1) subject theory introduction and reflection, 2) urbanization, mobility, diverse immigration, 3) tourism and place, and 4) rural transformation and homesickness. Given the comparison of research topics of social and cultural geography between China and the West, the findings of this article include 1) Western countries (the U.K. in particular) currently play key, if not dominant, roles in producing, shaping and consuming theories and knowledge of social and cultural geography; 2) "Politics" and "politics" are the main research focuses in the West, while "tourism" and "rurality" are the dominant topics among Chinese publications. It presents a critical difference between the two bodies of literature and reflects the trends of China's social development. 3) Social and cultural geography research in Chinese mainland is undergoing a significant process of internationalization. However, common knowledge (e.g., publications and theories being cited and discussed) shared by both sides remains insignificant. The boundary of knowledge becomes increasingly flexible but still relatively fixed. On the other hand, researchers' opinions also exposed the issue according to which social cultural geography researchers' sense of discipline belonging is yet to be strengthened, as well as the fact that systemization and consensus of research paradigm are insufficient. To further promote interdisciplinary dialogues and knowledge exchanges, explore the role of space in theorization, and show the contributions of Chinese stories, experience and theories to the current literature on research on social and cultural geography deserve further exploration.

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    Review of the Landscape of Fear and Its Application in Tourism Geography
    Hua Li, Min Liu
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (4): 642-658.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003465
    Abstract408)   HTML6)    PDF (1105KB)(115)      

    As a landscape with special significance, the landscape of fear exists in nature and human society. It has a huge ecological effect in biological system, and also has a profound impact on all aspects of material landscape and collective memory in man-land system. Landscape perception, landscape attitude and the interaction between landscape and human are important topics in contemporary geography research, but the research on the landscape of fear is still weak. Based on this, the study systematically sorts out the concept and research content of the landscape of fear, and discusses its application in tourism geography. The main conclusions of the study include: Firstly, the landscape of fear has formed fear ecology in the research from the perspective of ecology, and it is still in the exploratory stage in other disciplines. Although Tuan Yifu first put forward and studied the landscape of fear thoroughly from the perspective of human geography, the research on humanity society, geography and other related aspects is scattered. On the contrary, it is currently applied to ecological research and has rich research results. This shows that in addition to the maturity of its research in ecology, the landscape of fear in other disciplines remains to be explored. Secondly, under different disciplinary perspectives, the definition and research content of the landscape of fear are different, but in essence, its formation cannot be separated from the influence of subjective fear and external environment. On the one hand, the definition and research content of the landscape of fear in ecology are relatively consistent, which are animal predation risk perception. On the other hand, in other research disciplines, the concept and research content are mainly studied from the presentation form and perception of the landscape of fear between people and place/space. There are some differences in the research of the landscape of fear from different perspectives, but the "fear" perception of it must have an objective object that causes its fear. The landscape of fear is formed by the combination of subjective psychology and objective external. Thirdly, from the relationship among the landscape of fear, tourists and emotion, this paper finds that the application of the landscape of fear in tourism geography mainly focuses on emotional geography, dark tourism and emotional characteristics. There is no clear definition and research on the landscape of fear in tourism geography, but it can reflect the significance of the landscape of fear from the research contents such as emotional experience, dark tourism and memory of the place. Finally, the future prospects of the landscape of fear can be studied in tourism geography are as follows: 1) Based on its particularity, the landscape of fear in tourism geography will be discussed more deeply from different perspectives. 2) The psychological changes and emotional experience of tourists facing the landscape of fear can be studied. The emotional connection between man and land is one of the focuses of tourism geography research, and the landscape of fear integrates the complex emotions between people and landscape. And the emotional expression of the landscape of fear and the psychological impact of the landscape of fear on tourists can be studied. 3) Take dark tourism as the starting point to explore the landscape of fear. Dark tourism inevitably involves the research of tourism geography, and there is a certain connection between dark tourism and the landscape of fear. From the perspective of dark tourism, we can deeply explore the association with the landscape of fear, so as to better integrate the research of the landscape of fear and emotional geography. Although there is still a lack of research on the landscape of fear in humanity society, it has great research space. This paper combs and analyzes the landscape of fear and explores its application in the research of tourism geography, in order to enhance more attention and deepen its research in the field of tourism geography.

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    Literature Review on Inland Ports: Based on Papers in SCI and SSCI Journals
    Huiming Zong, Ju Sun
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (4): 592-604.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003460
    Abstract397)   HTML10)    PDF (1162KB)(246)      

    The proposal of a national strategy for the "New Western Land Sea Corridor" will affect the reconstruction of the overall freight distribution pattern in western China. As the most important hub node for cargo distribution and transshipment in inland areas, the inland port (or dry port) is of great significance to regional economic development, logistics systems, and the construction of a new regional development pattern. Therefore, 111 papers on inland port research in international core journals have been selected in this study to systematically review the research status of inland ports and put forward the key directions and development trends for future research to serve the theoretical research and construction planning practice of inland ports in China, and globally. In this study, the literature metrology method is adopted to divide inland port research and development into three stages: the first stage is the initial stage (before 2005); the second stage is the slow fluctuating growth stage (2006-2017); the third stage is the rapid increase stage (2018-present). Scholars are interested in inland port research mainly from mainland China, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom, the United States, and other countries (regions). Related research topics on inland ports are mostly combined with transportation, logistics, and other fields, which indicates that inland ports have become an important part of transportation systems and supply chain transportation networks. Among specific related research topics, the concept of inland ports is an important research topic, mainly focusing on the differences in naming and function, facilities of inland ports under different geographical backgrounds, and additional functions extended with economic development; however, its concept has not yet been unified. Research on the spatial layout system of inland ports shows that the inland port site selection and layout can be roughly summed up as a supply chain-oriented pattern, and industrial cluster-oriented pattern; the former often near port cargo distribution of traffic nodes, while the latter is on the border between the end of the supply chain. The location and layout of inland ports are influenced by economic foundation, transportation infrastructure, and local policy factors. Inland ports have a profound impact on the region. In terms of spatial effects, they have an impact on urban spatial planning and land use; in terms of economic effects, they can promote regional economic development and employment; in terms of environmental effects, they can reduce energy consumption and emissions, and promote the realization of regional sustainable development. In the operation and control of inland ports, special attention should be paid to the relationship between port planning and each manager, as well as to the management system, to realize the efficient, sustainable, and healthy development of inland ports. Finally, based on the new trends of global inland port logistics research and the realistic demand of China, we put forward several suggestions for future research, including the redefinition of dry ports, spatial layout and planning of inland ports, their regional influence, the port-city relationship, risk of investment, and potential benefits of inland ports.

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    The Territorial Spatial Planning Transmission System of Guangzhou Comprising the Entire Area and All Elements
    Huiming Huang, Wenchao Han, Hong Zhu
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (4): 554-566.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003475
    Abstract396)   HTML4)    PDF (3602KB)(79)      

    Establishing a rational and clear territorial spatial planning implementation system is key to ensuring governance effectiveness. Following the formulation of territorial spatial planning at all levels, the planning system, from the perspective of formulation, has already been formed. However, from the perspective of implementation, neither holistic research nor empirical case studies have been discussed thoroughly. On the basis of Guangzhou's territorial spatial planning, this paper analyzes the problems underlying the existing planning system. To achieve the goals of all regions and elements that are covered by spatial planning, this paper puts forward suggestions for the implementation system based on the integration of duty, system, and content, which raises the targeting advices on Guangzhou's planning system,including four vertical transmission levels of "City-district-unit-plot", as well as the horizontal coordination of overall level planning, detailed level planning and special planning. It aims to provide a reference for other cities. The major conclusions of this paper are as follows. First, under the vertical implementation aspect among all levels of planning, integration with the "city-district-town" administrative system should be reinforced. To this end, the vertical planning implementation system of the "city-district-unit-lot" should be formed. Moreover, the contents of implementation should focus largely on objectives, control lines, land use, and public facilities. To be specific, the objectives from overarching strategies should be subdivided into sub-strategy indicators and action plans. In terms of control lines, categories of "big three control lines," including ecological protection line, permanent basic farmland protection line, urban growth boundary line; "small three control lines," including green space protection line, water system protection line, historical and cultural protection line; and other natural resource protection lines should have differentiated implementation and control methods. This paper argues that the following three methods should be followed: amount determination with boundary delineated, amount determination with boundary illustrated, and indicators determination with boundary of core elements illustrated. In land use management and control, this paper argues that the precision of land use control should be extended from functional policy area to dominant use zoning. Furthermore, development capacity zoning should be emphasized as the basis to promote the compatibility of land use, population, and total floorspace. Last but not the least, public facilities should be allocated according to the three-tier system: city-level, district-level, and community-level. Control guidelines must also be reinforced, which includes facility standards, land boundaries, allocation points, and facility scale. Second, using horizontal implementation, this paper suggests that a "connection-retroaction" mechanism should be established, including special, comprehensive, and detailed planning. Above all, the formulation of special planning should be synchronized with comprehensive planning in order to reach a consensus about planning lists, core planning elements, and collaboration mechanism. Thereafter, the rules to implement special planning among all planning levels should be clear. Detailed standards, indicators, directory, structure, and location implementation should be the major factors in rule setting. Although there are great differences in planning system, organization, and management mode among cities, Guangzhou still has representative significance. It can provide reference for the research and establishment of territorial spatial planning and implementation in China.

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    The Impact of the Internet on the Spatial Distribution and Industrial Network Linkages of Chinese Film Enterprises:Based on the Comparison of "Online Movies" and "Theatrical Movies"
    Hu Wen, Yingjun Tan
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (5): 693-705.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003481
    Abstract390)   HTML46)    PDF (1308KB)(110)      

    "Online movie" is a new film industry created by the Internet. The innate Internet gene of online movies makes its industrial and organizational structure more different from that of traditional theatrical movies. This study selected 305 "theatrical movies" and 1,025 "online movies" released in 2017 in China as samples and used social network analysis to compare and analyze the distribution and industrial network connections between the two types of movie enterprises from the city dimension. It also measured the impact of the Internet on the distribution of the two types of movie enterprises and industry network linkages using econometric and Quadratic Assignment Procedure (QAP) regression analysis. First, the Internet did not bring geographical endings. The spatial Gini coefficients of both types of film enterprises are above 0.9, both with a high degree of aggregation, but the spatial distribution of online movie enterprises is slightly dispersed. The reason is that the initial layout of cinema enterprises was more concentrated in the early years of the founding of China. The eight major film studios in the early years of the country were established only in a few developed cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Xi'an, and Changchun, where the economic base was better. With the progress of information technology and the popularization of the Internet, these developed cities with the initial layout of theatrical films still have excellent Internet infrastructure conditions. In addition, such cities also have economic, cultural, social, talent and capital advantages, which continue to attract new online movie enterprises. Therefore, the Internet does not bring the end of geography at this stage. Second, compared with theatrical films, the scale and average shortest path of network connections in the online movie industry are larger, and their degree of connectivity and central potential are smaller. The Internet is changing the inter-city industrial network connections of film enterprises in the following ways: 1) the long-tail effect and convenience of consumption brought about by the Internet have expanded consumer demand for online movies, and a large amount of capital is attracted by high profits to enter the online movie industry. Therefore, compared to theatrical movies, the scale of online movie production networks is larger. 2) The labor division in the online movie industry is simplified due to the fast consumption mode brought about by the Internet, and the industrial organization structure is increasingly flat, making online movie production networks connectivity smaller, the average shortest path larger, and nodes connection looser compared with that of theatrical movie production networks. 3) The Internet's promotion of knowledge diffusion, resource flow, and technological innovation has lowered technical barriers, resource barriers, and production costs, and increased market competition in the online movie industry. Compared to the production network of theatrical movies, the central potential of the online movie production network is smaller and its power distribution is more decentralized. Third, the results of the econometric regression analysis show that cities with better Internet development have more film production enterprises, which are especially attractive to online movie enterprises. Meanwhile, the results of the QAP regression analysis show that cities with better Internet development are more likely to establish industrial network linkages, especially for "online movie" production. The results of QAP regression analysis show that cities with better Internet development are more likely to establish industrial network links, especially the labor division for "online movie" production. In addition, the regression coefficients of economic development level, openness level, geographic proximity, administrative affiliation, and industrial structure difference are all significantly positive. The contributions of this study are as follows. First, it provides a dialogue on controversial academic views. In terms of spatial distribution characteristics, although that of online movie enterprises is slightly more dispersed than that of theatrical movie enterprises, both of them have a high spatial clustering trend. This further confirms the academic view that "the Internet does not bring the end of geography at this stage." Second, it breaks through the "individual" and "isolated" enterprise perspective of previous studies as we attempted to visualize the "node" and "linkage" industrial network perspective. We also tried to analyze the impact of the Internet on the network of urban film industry from the perspective of "nodes" and "links" of industrial networks.

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    Strategy and Control of Sea-Land Coordination Planning of Territorial Space: A Case Study of Guangdong Province
    Zhengbo Wei, Yan Luo, Ruiqin Xiao, Ge He
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (4): 544-553.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003472
    Abstract388)   HTML14)    PDF (1342KB)(286)      

    In the reform of the territorial spatial planning system, The strategy how to adhere to the overall planning of the land and the sea, and to realize the whole area and all elements is one of the key tasks of planning the reform of the territorial spatial planning system. In the new era, territorial spatial planning is primarily faced with problems such as differences in the preparation methods of land and sea overall planning, single land and sea resource evaluation methods, and imperfect coastal zone management systems. "Protective utilization characteristic," that is, three-in-one, land-ocean overall planning model, basic principles, and management and control ideas were put forward suggested, as well as land-ocean overall planning and space management and control systems were also proposed. Starting from the perspective of unifying the control of land and space use, taking Guangdong Province as an example, and based on a comprehensive review of the control objects, content, means, and implementation effects of land and sea coordinating key areas, it was proposed that ecological protection and bottom-line control should be given priority, and including innovative land management and control methods such as the management and control mechanism for the overall planning of the sea area, the marine ecological environmental protection system, the key coastal resource project library, and the three-dimensional layering of land and sea use rights be prioritized. It is expected that we seek a new path suitable for our country's characteristics on how to reflect the concept of land and sea overall planning in the preparation for land and space planning.

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    Spatial Evolution and Influencing Factors of the Manufacturing Industry on Metropolitan Areas: A Case Study of Changsha
    Chen Luo, Bohong Zheng, Linlin Liu
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (5): 773-787.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003484
    Abstract387)   HTML17)    PDF (2755KB)(174)      

    Manufacturing is an important engine of China's economy, driving urban economic growth and spatial transformation. Therefore, the spatial evolution of manufacturing is a research hotspot for academics. This study takes the Changsha metropolitan area as an example, based on the micro-data on manufacturing enterprises from 1978 to 2020. Using the standard deviational ellipse, kernel density analysis method, and explored negative binomial regression model, the spatial evolution characteristics and influencing factors of the manufacturing industry in the Changsha metropolitan area from the point-and-surface perspective are explored. The main conclusions are as follows. From 1978 to 2020, the number of manufacturing enterprises in the Changsha metropolitan area show an overall increasing trend, with labor-intensive and capital-intensive manufacturing gradually upgrading to a technology-intensive form. In terms of spatial distribution, all manufacturing industries show an apparent movement of suburbanization in spatial distribution. Development zones are progressively becoming the primary spatial carrier for manufacturing reorganization and concentration. The manufacturing industry mainly expands along the "northwest-southeast" direction, showing a "point-axis" development pattern. In the process of spatial evolution, the Changsha manufacturing space has experienced a cyclical change from agglomeration to dispersion and then to accumulation. The evolution pattern has changed from mosaic filling to outward diffusion. Influenced by the characteristics of the industry, different types of manufacturing industries show apparent differences in spatial distribution. Labor-intensive enterprises are mostly micro-enterprises with flexible site layout, mainly contact diffusion and hierarchical diffusion, and the spatial characteristics of "central concentration and decentralized layout." The large-scale demand for land and employees in capital-intensive manufacturing industries-mainly large enterprises-restricts their concentration in urban centers. Meanwhile, preferential policies, such as "policy rent" in the development parks in peripheral suburbs, attract enterprises to move in, prompting capital-intensive manufacturing industries to show the spatial characteristics of "large-scale diffusion and small-scale concentration." Technology-intensive manufacturing industries are mostly small and medium-sized enterprises, which are attracted by national development zones and have strong vocational orientations. In the spatial evolution process of the manufacturing industry, factors such as socioeconomics, production cost, and governmental behavior have significant influence. Different factors play different roles in different industries. Labor-intensive enterprises are mainly affected by socioeconomics, production costs, and government behavior. Technology-intensive enterprises pay more attention to regional economic benefits, innovation environment, and policy support, while socio-economic factors, production cost, built-up environment, governmental actions, and innovation capacity all have important impacts on them. Capital-intensive enterprises are highlighted by the role of the population base, transportation accessibility, land cost, and industrial park policies. Capital-intensive enterprises are highly dependent on population, production cost, transportation accessibility, and the number of industrial zones. It can be found that the spatial evolution of all three types of manufacturing industries is significantly influenced by governmental actions; among which, the level of fixed asset investment and number of industrial parks reflect the planning guidance and policy orientation of Changsha's municipal government on manufacturing development. In addition, the degree of opening up to the outside world negatively affects the layout of all three types of manufacturing enterprises, indicating that the large influx of foreign capital tends to form industrial monopolies. This study provides a reference for optimizing the layout and high-quality development of urban manufacturing space.

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    Species Biodiversity and Geographical Distribution of Terrestrial Mollusca in Guizhou Province
    Zhaofeng Li, Baizhu Li, Xiaoxin Tang, Yunhai Guo, Yin Yi
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (4): 685-692.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003463
    Abstract375)   HTML6)    PDF (901KB)(72)      

    There are many species of terrestrial Mollusca with rapid reproduction rates, a wide distribution range, and a large population. They are not only an important wildlife resource but also an important component of biodiversity. Previously, basic research has been conducted on the species diversity and distribution of terrestrial Mollusca in some nature reserves in Guizhou and Yunnan. The existing sample data of terrestrial Mollusca in Guizhou and survey results from Guiyang, Libo, and Xishui from July 2019 to December 2020 listed 316 species and subspecies (including 13 undefined species) belonging to two subclasses, four orders, 20 families, and 76 genera in Guizhou Province. From the perspective of species composition, the dominant family is Cyclophoridae, with 16 genera and 71 species; the second most dominant family is Bradybaenidae, with 15 genera and 61 species, followed by Helicinidae and Cochlicopidae with one genera and one species. The dominant species are Kaliella cavicola, Bradybaena similaris, Diplommatina herziana, Diplommatina consularis, Chamalycaeus nanus, and Plectotropis pseudopatula. From the perspective of geographical distribution, terrestrial Mollusca are the most abundant in the central region of Guizhou, with 17 families, 54 genera, and 170 species. The areas with the second greatest abundance of terrestrial Mollusca are the sub-subtropical humid areas in southern Guizhou and the sub-subtropical areas in southwestern Guizhou, with 18 families, 56 genera, and 152 species and 17 families, 57 genera, and 150 species, respectively. There are only 10 families, 18 genera, and 27 species in the eastern area of Guizhou. Similarity analysis of species in different regions of Guizhou Province showed that the species composition of terrestrial Mollusca in the southern area, northern area, and southwestern area of Guizhou is similar, whereas the species composition of terrestrial Mollusca in the eastern area of Guizhou is markedly different from that of other regions. This paper discusses the species and distribution pattern of terrestrial Mollusca in Guizhou Province and their resource characteristics to provide a scientific basis for the protection and rational utilization of terrestrial Mollusca resources and to further enrich the research data of terrestrial Mollusca in China.

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    Transformation of Regional Spatial Coordinative Development of the Guangdong- Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area in the Lens of Media Interaction Process
    Cheng-i Cheng, Bincheng Zeng, Qijun Li
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (3): 409-421.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003457
    Abstract375)   HTML11)    PDF (3866KB)(61)      

    The Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) is built across three different governance contexts; these three cities have different socio-political structures, legal systems, and cultural identities. From the perspective of media geography, this article proposes a framework with four dimensions and three categories, to explore how cross-border media communication affects the formation and accumulation of social capital, and thus influences regional coordination under the political structure of "one country, two systems" in the region. To fully understand the different characteristics of each development stage, the research further divides the synergic development process into five phases: economic bonding, policy-economic bonding, policy-economic bridging, policy-social linking, and policy-economic-social bridging. The study found that even though media interactions between Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao have intensified in frequency, social capital at the "socio-cultural" level is relatively weak. Owing to the lack of a widely accepted regional media platform that fits into the communication habits of people in all GBA cities, it is difficult to build an effective monitoring mechanism and feedback system that enables a detection and response to people's opinions on the ground. Consequently, disagreements and conflicts have led to high social costs for some cross-border infrastructure projects. By exploring the mechanisms of media interaction and social capital formation within the regional coordination process, this paper concludes with three strategies to achieve effective multilevel connection and coordination between GBA cities, especially in social and cultural aspects. 1) Governments in each city should work together to build up a regional platform and broaden media channels for the circulation of shared information, which fits various local situations and media usage habits. 2) There is a need for the GBA to establish an effective public opinion monitoring and feedback system on a regional scale, which penetrates people's daily lives, and is accessible to the wider public. Updating prompt information based on people's needs, views, and expectations helps strengthen the entire regional cooperation system and resilient governance structure. 3) Linking propagation is important for the stabilization of social development. Overall, there is a need for the GBA to build a more flexible multilevel dialogue mechanism that facilitates vertical communication to enhance non-institutional and effective bottom-level collaboration.

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    Change and Mechanism of Place Identity of Residents in Enterprise Community: A Case Study on Community of Northwest First Printing and Dyeing Factory, Xi'an
    Kun Huang, Wenheng Wu, Bihong Yang, Haijin Shi
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (5): 751-761.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003478
    Abstract370)   HTML13)    PDF (1103KB)(63)      

    "Place identity" is an important concept that measures personal place emotion and reflects the complicated dynamic relationship between personal identity and one's local environment. Enterprise communities (ECs) are a major type of gated, walled-off residential spaces. They were built and managed mostly by the state or collectively owned enterprises during the planning economy period, and many are still employed in urban China. Understanding the place identity of EC residents is of great significance for community renewal, neighborhood revitalization, and sustainable urban development. Using the Northwestern First Printing and Dyeing Factory community as a typical example, this paper uncovers the changes and mechanisms of personal place identity under the influence of social environment changes and community transformation using grounded theory, while discussing its policy implications. The main results are as follows: first, 13 open coding items, such as cognitive change of identity, reduced familiarity, weakened social interaction, and dilapidated housing construction were defined; further, four axial codings, including personal identity changes, emotional memory changes, identity change in social life, and physical environment identity, were set, and an analysis framework on the change of residents' place identity in the ECs (selective coding) was built. Second, the residents' personal awareness in ECs has changed from Danwei people in the era of planned economy to social people in the market economy period and to left-behind elderly groups in the future. Third, inherited collective memory maintains the residents' positive place identity. Alienation of social interaction and socialization of community management weaken place identity. The dilapidated material environment and backward support facilities cause the residents to experience negative identity. Fourth, residents build their own and local identity in the interaction between the EC environment and society that accompanies their life and growth, and the identity changes along with the variation of external social environment and internal individual characteristics. External factors such as state-owned enterprise reform and housing policies have led to enterprise transitions and changes in social space in the ECs, affecting residents' emotional experience and identity. Internal factors such as length of residence, individual characteristics, psychological factors, and individual experiences all have an effect on identity. These jointly shape the residents' place identity and can alter its processes. Finally, this work is helpful in providing insight into socialist work-unit communities for Chinese transformation and renewal, deepens the understanding of traditional residential space succession theory arising from residential suburbanization, residential segregation, inner-city renewal, gentrification, and polarization of living space, enriches the case types of place identity theory in view of the unique value and function of the ECs, and provides a reference to carry out the renewal of old communities more successfully.

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    Estimation Model and Spatial Pattern of Highway Carbon Emissions in Guangdong Province
    Yuanjun Li, Qitao Wu, Changjian Wang, Kangmin Wu, Hong'ou Zhang, Shuangquan Jin
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (6): 952-964.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003491
    Abstract369)   HTML27)    PDF (3316KB)(92)      

    The transportation sector has become one of the largest industrial emissions source of greenhouses gases, such as CO2. What's worse, carbon emissions from this industry has continued to grow in recent years, posing serious challenges to human survival and global environmental security. Among the various transport modes, road transportation yields the highest levels of energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Therefore, scientifically measuring highway carbon emissions and analyzing their spatial differences are of great significance for energy conservation and emission reduction in the transportation sector. Taking Guangdong Province as an example, this study constructs a full-samples and high-precision carbon emissions model, which encompasses Class I~IV passenger cars and Class I~VI freight vehicles based on origin-destination traffic flow data recorded by the highway networking toll system. Finally, the study explores the spatial difference in carbon emissions of highways in Guangdong Province by using geospatial methods. The conclusions are as follows.Firstly, carbon emissions from highways in Guangdong Province mainly came from trucks, which accounted for 57.1% of the total carbon emissions; passenger cars accounted for 42.9%. To be specific, the carbon emissions mainly originated from small and medium-sized vehicles, including Class I passenger vehicles (i.e., cars) and Class I and III freight vehicles. Secondly, the high carbon emissions road sections were spatially auto-correlated, with peak aggregations on national highways, near economically developed and densely populated areas, and adjacent to airports and ports. Road sections with high carbon emissions in Guangdong Province were concentrated along national highways (9,477 t; 61.9%); the carbon emissions of provincial road sections were relatively low (5,834 t; 38.1%). The high-emission sections of passenger vehicles were mainly concentrated in the Pearl River Delta and radially distributed outwards along Guangzhou City. The high-emission sections of freight vehicles were mainly distributed in national highways. The smaller volume of trucks, the more concentrated the spatial distribution of carbon emissions. Furthermore, at the city scale, the cities with higher carbon emissions were mostly concentrated in the Pearl River Delta urban agglomerations, and Guangzhou had a evident primary city effect. The cities with lower carbon emissions were mainly concentrated in coastal areas, such as Zhuhai. At the county scale, the spatial non-equilibrium characteristics of the carbon emissions were significant. The counties with higher carbon emissions were located in the northern part of Guangdong Province and the center and east coast of the Pearl River Delta.Finally, different types of vehicles had differentiated carbon emission characteristics and emission reduction paths. For example, based on the large quantity and significant carbon emissions of Class I passenger vehicles, we must optimize the energy structure to increase the proportion of vehicles using renewable energy sources. Owing to the high unit fuel consumption of Class VI freight vehicles, improving their operation efficiencies is crucial to avoid empty carriages (i.e., no cargo) and we must optimize their driving routes. This research improves the scientificity and spatial analytical accuracy of measuring traffic carbon emissions, thus enriching the sustainable development theory of the transportation, practically promoting the precise emission reduction and green development of the transportation industry, and providing technical and strategic support for attaining dual carbon targets in China.

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    Spatial Pattern and Evolution of Multi-Stage Migration in China: A Comparative Study Based on the First-Time and Current-Time Migration
    Jie Lin, Wenqian Ke, Liyue Lin, Yu Zhu, Baoyu Xiao
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (5): 824-833.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003464
    Abstract363)   HTML11)    PDF (1992KB)(76)      

    Extant studies examining the process of population migration in China are mostly based on the two front and back nodes of first-time migration and the final settlement (or return). However, less attention has been paid to the subsequent flow of the population and the overall flow process of multi-stage migration, which has caused problems. There are significant gaps in the understanding of the multi-stage process of population migration and flow in China, which also affect the expansion and deepening of the spatial pattern and law of population migration. Considering the above, this article is supported by the 2017 China Mobile Population Dynamic Monitoring Survey data; it used descriptive statistics and community discovery methods comprehensively to analyze the first-time migration of the floating population and the current-time migration between cities of different regions and scales and levels, as well as spaces between different cities. Thus, a comparative study on the spatial differentiation characteristics revealed the inherent laws of similarities and differences. The results show that (1) regarding regional differences, the pattern of outflows remains relatively stable in the two phases of mobility, while the changes in the pattern of inflows are mainly reflected in the decrease in the proportion of inflows to the central region and the increase in the proportion of inflows to the western region in the current-time migration. The proportion of inflows to megacities decreases significantly, while the proportion of inflows to Type I megacities, medium-sized cities, and Type I small cities increases; furthermore, the proportion of inflows to municipalities directly under the central government and municipalities with separate plans increases, and the proportion of people moving to sub-provincial and provincial capitals decreases. (2) The net migration pattern between cities and municipalities is stable, with net in-migration distributed in "blocks" in developed cities in the eastern coastal provinces and in "dots" in central and western provincial capitals and some resource-based and port cities, while net out-migration is distributed in blocks. Net in-migration is distributed in blocks in most cities in the central and western regions and inland cities in the coastal provinces, whereas net out-migration is distributed in blocks in most cities in the central and western regions. (3) The two stages of migration are dominated by the intertwined patterns of migration in the vicinity and long-distance migration, and the pattern of migration networks between cities and regions is thus characterized by the phenomenon of "dense east and sparse west," with the Hu Line being the boundary. However, there is also a decrease in the size of migration to Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei at the current-time migration stage of mobility, with the Yangtze River Delta replacing the Pearl River Delta as the preferred inflow region. (4) The livelihood strategies and spatial inertia of the mobile population are the main reasons for their similar spatial patterns in the first-time and current-time migration stages of mobility. The transformation and upgrading of the industrial structure and the gradient transfer between regions are important forces that lead to changes in the destination choices of the floating population. The main contribution of this study is an innovative comparative analysis and a description of the spatial pattern of the first-time and current-time migration of the floating population. Furthermore, it provides a feasible observation perspective for the cognition of the spatial characteristics and evolution rules of the multi-stage flows of the floating population.

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    A Study of Farmer' Livelihoods in "Azheke Plan": Based on the DFID Sustainable Livelihood Framework
    Yang Xu, Jigang Bao
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (6): 867-877.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003496
    Abstract360)   HTML144)    PDF (1311KB)(114)      

    Farmer' livelihoods are an important issue for rural revitalization and rural sustainable development. It has been proven in recent years that rural tourism influences farmers' livelihoods and its impacts vary based on different tourism development modes. The DFID sustainable livelihoods framework has been widely used in research on rural tourism development and farmer' livelihoods. It offers a comprehensive perspective that links elements from the external livelihood environment, to investigate farmer' livelihoods. This study developed an evaluation index for farmer' livelihood capital based on the DFID sustainable livelihoods framework. The evaluation index was used to analyze the farmer' livelihood capital. Azheke village, Yunnan Province was chosen as an example in the present study, which successfully launched a tourism poverty reduction program, the "Azheke Plan", in 2018. The data used in this study were collected through questionnaire survey from July 2020 to February 2021, during which the first author lived in Azheke Village. The findings of this study were summarized as follows: (1) Farmers in Azheke used to have only one livelihood mode: farming or working in cities. Now rural tourism development has allowed local villagers to work within local tourism businesses or operate their own tourism businesses in the village. thus, farmers has formed a diversified livelihood mode. (2) Families with different livelihood modes have manifested different features and livelihood capital. Ranking from high to low, the livelihood modes are: tourism-oriented, tourism involved + working in cities, tourism-involved, working in cities, and farming + working in cities. The sequence highly correlates with the degree of farmer' participation in tourism. (3) Farmers whose livelihoods are tourism-oriented, tourism involved + working in cities and tourism-involved have the highest degree of participation in tourism, their household labor and livelihood capacity has improved, it have created more livelihood outcomes for their households, and has a higher level of livelihood capital. Farmers who work in cities and farming + working in cities experienced the growth of physical capital and financial capital mainly throughout the "Azheke Plan", but their livelihood capital is lower than the other three livelihood modes relating to tourism. (4) From the institution perspective, this study explores the relationship between tourism development and changes in livelihood. Several notes are summarized on villagers' livelihoods through "Azheke Plan" from basic conditions, external support, internal factors, livelihood strategies and livelihood results. Finally, the future research direction of tourism development and farmer' livelihood, as well as the possibility of replicating the "Azheke plan" in other regions are discussed.

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    Identification of Spatial Development Types of Inter-City Border Towns in Guangdong Province, China
    Kaihuai Liao, Shuhui Chen
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (3): 431-443.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003429
    Abstract349)   HTML10)    PDF (1780KB)(155)      

    The identification of spatial development types of border areas is one of the research hotspots in human-economic geography. Current studies mostly focus on border areas affected by provincial boundaries, and limited studies have explored the spatial structure and development types of border towns affected by inter-city boundaries. Based on multiple types of data, such as China County Statistical Yearbook (villages and towns volume) and 1-kilometer grid GDP dataset of China, this study used quantitative methods of factor analysis, Moran's I, and GIS grouping analysis to explore the spatial development types of inter-city border towns in Guangdong Province. A total of 564 inter-city border towns were chosen for the study. The results show that: (1) the spatial structure of the inter-city border towns in Guangdong Province comprises five principal component factors: public service facilities and tourism resources, enterprises and population agglomeration, ecological background resources, people's living standards, and margin and poverty. Different principal component factors have different spatial correlation coefficients. The factors of ecological background resources and enterprises and population agglomeration have the strongest spatial autocorrelations, while the margin and poverty factor has the weakest spatial autocorrelation. (2) The spatial distribution pattern of the ecological background resources factor is consistent with the topographic distribution, indicating a trend of agglomeration in the plains of the Pearl River Delta, Chaozhou-Jieyang-Shantou area, and Zhanjiang-Maoming junction area. The spatial distribution pattern of the enterprises and population agglomeration factor shows a gradually decreasing distribution from the Pearl River Delta to eastern, western, and northern Guangdong. The spatial distribution pattern of the margin and poverty factor shows the characteristics of "small aggregation and large dispersion" outside the Pearl River Delta of Guangdong Province. (3) According to the strengths and weaknesses of the town and level of development, there are seven types of spatial development of inter-city border towns: strong development towns with a high standard of living, with industry and population agglomeration, with industry and public service support, with a lagging development in public service, and general towns with ecological development, ecological and tourism development, and remote and mountainous weak development towns. There is significant spatial heterogeneity between the different types of border towns. The inter-city border towns in Guangdong Province have outstanding characteristics of "core-periphery" from the perspective of the development level, and the barrier effect of the inter-city border is significant between the inside and outside of the Pearl River Delta. (4) The spatial heterogeneity of Guangdong's inter-city border towns can be attributed to five major factors: natural resource endowment and location, socio-economic development level and industrial structure, historical evolution, government policies and cultural differences. The research results can provide scientific support for countering the barrier effect of inter-city borders and formulating classification guidelines and policy measures for the development of border towns.

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    Spatial Production of Post-Unit Community Based on Field Theory: A Case Study of the Xukuang Community
    Xiaojin Cao, Xigang Zhu, Siqi Yu, Yuanyuan Deng
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (4): 567-578.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003456
    Abstract347)   HTML8)    PDF (1284KB)(197)      

    The decline of community publicity in the post-unit era is the social feature of economic system transformation. Exploring the spatial evolution mechanism of post-unit community is of great significance to sustainable community governance. By bridging Lefebvre's ternary spatial structure and Bourdieu's four capital types, a research framework of space production is established based on field theory and practice. Taking Xukuang community as a typical case, the qualitative research methods of participatory observation and in-depth interview are used to analyze the multidimensional spatial production process from "unitary continuous network structure" to "multiple discrete group structure". The research shows that: 1) The spatial production difference mechanism of unit to post-unit community transformation is shaped by the institutional change from unit system to community system, on the other hand, it is affected by the factors such as the free flow of modernity and the adjustment of regulatory structure. 2) Post-unit community actors adjust their habits in the reorganization of residents' composition and power relations. The process of competing for community capital is accompanied by the reconstruction of institutional space, the transformation of material space, the alienation of social space and the awakening of subject consciousness. 3) The government discourse represented by the neighborhood committee adopts the discipline strategy to build an ideal community space in the space practice, and forms a connected but not integrated overall relationship with potential residents' resistance. Especially when the production of capital and power touches the boundary of the subject or the emergence of individual critical subject, it often leads to new space struggle, habit adjustment and the direction change of space practice. 4) The space production of post-unit community is jointly driven by the subject of right discourse and the subject of daily life. The promulgation and response of the old community transformation policy from the state to the local construct the expected vision of community governance from the macro level. The power game and inclination of actors mean the sinking and implimentation of the production strategy of the government power subject at the meso level. Under the background of the accumulation of unit path dependence, modernization and aging, the post-unit community as the undertaker encounters the lack of kinetic energy at the micro level, the deconstruction of acquaintance society and the reconstruction of stranger society, and the realistic context contrary to the concept of multiple governance produced by the top-down strong power transmission and the bottom-up weak residents' feedback. The research integrates the concepts of field capital and habitus into the ternary dialectical structure of space production, and the in-depth theoretical integration makes up for the cognitive limitations of the single theoretical perspective. It expands new ideas for the in-depth understanding of the spatial evolution and subject relationship of the old community represented by the post-unit community. And the consideration of people's subjective initiative and social culture to a certain extent broadens the logic of space production in the general sense, which is also a supplement to the existing literature on community governance. Finally, it is an important direction for future community governance to formulate governance goals and countermeasures with residents as the core and promote the common enjoyment of community power.

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    Review of Territorial Space Use Zoning Based on CiteSpace
    Peijuan Zhu, Yuxin Xie, Guohua Zhou, Yong Zhang, Nan Wang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (4): 519-532.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003473
    Abstract346)   HTML10)    PDF (1888KB)(116)      

    The paper reviews the current focus and future direction of China's research in the field of territorial space use zoning and aims to provide a scientific basis for China's spatial planning and territorial and spatial land management with the wider goal of improving the system of ecological civilization to promote the modernization of national governance systems and governance capacities. We use CiteSpace, a visualization software and method of bibliometric analysis, to create a knowledge map and systematically categorize the research trends and development context of territorial space use zoning research, based on 662 relevant papers published from 1979 to 2020 and cited on HowNet. Research on territorial space use zoning in China continues to emerge, and the number of published papers is increasing. The research was divided into three stages: the land use zoning stage (1992-2006), the natural ecological space use zoning stage (2007-2017), and the territorial space use zoning stage (2018-present). The main research keywords in the three periods show that scholars have consistently maintained an enthusiasm for the study of "land use". The keyword "land use" had a high centrality of 0.28. Close cooperation among authors formed a large-scale scientific research cluster. Colleges and universities published the most, followed by scientific research institutions and public institutions; the main outputs of public institutions such as China Land Surveying and Planning Institute are policy documents, the influence of which should not be underestimated. 2) The research on territorial space use zoning was national policy-oriented under the profound influence of the changing background of the times. Zoning theory developed from the theory of geographical differentiation and advantageous location into the concept of main functional zone regulation, and then to the present concept of sustainable development. Zoning systems were constantly optimized, and research focuses were diverse. Some provinces and cities conducted practical explorations based on local conditions because of "Three zones and three lines". "Three zones and three lines" refers to the areas corresponding to the three types of urban space, agricultural space, and ecological space, and the three control lines corresponding to the urban development boundary, the permanent basic farmland protection red line, and the ecological protection red line. In the face of the complexity and dynamics of territorial space, research methods have changed from qualitative or quantitative methods to focus on the application of modern science and technology. Most of the research on zoning control focuses on three aspects: discovery of existing problems, enlightenment from foreign experience, and research on zoning practice. Considering the existing problems, such as conventional research contents, shallow scientific validation studies, insufficient theoretical improvements, few applications of multidisciplinary integration and big data, future researches should focus on four directions as follows: carrying out the theoretical research related to territorial space use zoning; deepening use zoning research on ecological space, marine space and rural construction space; broadening the research perspective of territorial space use zoning based on the construction needs of territorial space use control system; implementing innovative methods and technologies for application based on multidisciplinary integration.

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    The Demographic Characteristics of Rohingya Refugees on the Myanmar-Bangladesh Border and Its Impact on Regional Geopolitical RelationsBased on Analysis of Refugee Camps in Palong Khali District
    Li Shi, Liran Xiong, Meiying Jiang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (3): 499-508.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003449
    Abstract343)   HTML6)    PDF (1118KB)(136)      

    In the 21st century, the refugees' situation is one of the key problematic issues in the international community, which not only affects the security and stability of border areas but also has a profound impact on neighboring countries and even the international community. In late August 2017, a new round of the Rohingya crisis broke out, and the "Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army" (ARSA) launched a series of attacks on Myanmar, resulting in a large-scale bloody conflict between the Rohingya and Rakhine. The outbreak of this incident led to hundreds of thousands of Rohingya people across the border between Myanmar and Bangladesh, fleeing to Cox's Bazar region of Bangladesh. The influx of refugees over a brief period of time brought excessive pressure to poor Bangladesh. The long-standing Rohingya refugee problem gradually evolved from Myanmar's domestic contradictions to the international community's intense issues. Based on the dynamic monitoring data of the UNHCR, this study analyzes the population scale and structure of Rohingya refugees on the Myanmar-Bangladesh border and its impact on regional geopolitical relations from January 2018 to September 2020 from the perspective of demographic geography and political geography. Given this background, this research shows : 1) Rohingya refugees in Palong Khali district on the Myanmar-Bangladesh borders are large and growing. There are more female refugees than men; the age structure of Rohingya refugees tends to be low, the main age is under 18 years old, and the proportion of young and middle-aged refugees in the total population is minor and grows rapidly; spatial structure shows a typical "law of distance decay from Myanmar-Bangladesh border,"that is, the refugee camps expand to the west, and the scale of refugees presents a spatial distribution law of decreasing from east to west. 2) The population scale and structure of Rohingya refugees have a significant impact on regional geopolitical relations. First, it has a profound affect on the democratization process of Myanmar; second, it poses a challenges to Myanmar-Bangladesh border security, which leads to tensions in Myanmar-Bangladesh relations; third, it arouses the intervention and attention of many geo-actors. This led to a geopolitical game surrounding the refugee issue, leading to divisions within ASEAN, as well as geopolitical spillover effects. 3) Compared with some western countries and international organizations, the "three-step" solution proposed by China is in line with the actual situation of Myanmar and Bangladesh. Under the mechanism of the China–Myanmar–Bangladesh Joint Working Group, the Rohingya refugee issue is moving toward cooperation and consultation. The study of the demographic characteristics of Rohingya refugees on the border between Myanmar and Bangladesh and their influence on regional geopolitical relations provides a reference for the solution of this complex issue.

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    Evolution of Urban Spatial Patterns in a Potential Growth City in the Middle Yangtze Urban Agglomeration
    Qingqing Wu, Yexi Zhong, Siyu Wu, Weisheng Mao
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (4): 605-615.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003462
    Abstract340)   HTML13)    PDF (1328KB)(113)      

    Since the Reform and Opening Up, urban agglomerations have developed rapidly. However, issues in the developmental process such as destruction of the ecological environment and uncoordinated internal development have hindered high-quality development, and the question of how to ensure the optimal development of urban agglomerations has received wide attention worldwide.The trend of development of urban agglomerations has been towards polycentric cities, with the middle reaches of the Yangtze River urban agglomeration comprising three city subgroups with obvious polycentric structure. However, Wuhan metropolitan area has an obvious centric structure; and the growth pole of Poyang Lake urban agglomeration is not prominent, the interactive development of peripheral cities of the Changzhutan urban agglomeration is insufficient, and the internal development of the urban agglomeration is uncoordinated. To promote the coordinated and sustainable development of the middle reaches of Yangtze River urban agglomeration, the gravity of the leading political and economic growth poles of the middle reaches of Yangtze River urban agglomeration was examined while improving the gravity model and geo-coefficient. The potential urban development of each prefecture-level city in the urban agglomeration was measured, the evolution of the spatial structure of the potential growth cities was explored, and the potential growth poles in the region were confirmed by combining the needs of coordinated development of the urban agglomeration. The study aimed to promote the regional economy to the level of high-quality development through optimizing the spatial structure of urban agglomerations, to provide explorative directions for promoting coordinated development of large, medium, and small cities. The study showed that 1) the potential development cities in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River urban agglomeration were unevenly distributed, with Hunan, Hubei, and Jiangxi provinces, respectively, having "high-value equalization", "double-core" and "single-core" network structures. 2) The absolute geopolitical coefficients had clear geographical differentiation. The geopolitical coefficients of cities outside Hubei were mostly smaller than the medians, meaning that the economic gravity was smaller than the political gravity, whereas the three urban subgroups had more internal connections while there were relatively few links between provinces. Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were characterized as "low center and high surroundings". The best geopolitical coefficients were of "bimodal" form and the development level of cities that were under the influence of political gravity was better than for those under the influence of economic gravity. (3) The potential growth cities had characteristics of "marginality" and were concentrated in the southwest and the periphery of urban clusters. In 2017, the overall potential development of Hunan Province was similar to that of its urban centers, tending to be "high-value balanced". It was the province with the greatest potential for cultivating potential growth cities. The "siphoning effect" of Wuhan City was obvious, and the cities with slight potential were the most "marginalized" in the Hubei Province owing to their geopolitical distance. Urban development in Jiangxi Province was more erratic, and its overall potential development was not outstanding. (4) Three primary growth poles in Zhuzhou, Xiangyang, and Jiujiang and three secondary potential growth poles with realistic needs in Hengyang, Yichang, and Xinyu were identified by combining the potential and coordinated development of urban clusters.

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    Streamflow Recession and Dominant Factors in the Nanling Mountain Forest Catchment
    Zehua Li, Ping Zhou, Yuanyang Huang, Wei Xu, Zhaowei Tan
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (3): 481-489.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003452
    Abstract338)   HTML30)    PDF (2377KB)(133)      

    Little attention has been paid to dry season streamflow and groundwater recharge dynamics compared to the systematic focus on measuring total annual streamflow changes associated with forest. However, in the tropics and subtropics, especially in regions with uneven seasonal distribution of precipitation, dry season streamflow and groundwater recharge are of great importance for the riverine ecosystem stability and downstream water supply safety. Recession analysis of -dQ/dt~Q is widely used for determining the catchment storage-discharge relationship and predicting dry season streamflow processes. When dQ/dt~Q plots of streamflow recession are constructed for individual events, the slopes of the curves are near constant in log space, but the intercepts vary with time. Previous studies used event-based analysis to hypothesize that the shifts in intercept in dQ/dt~Q curves were due to variations in concurrent evapotranspiration (ET), which is consistent with the dominant belief regarding controls on streamflow recession. On the contrary, increasing evidence suggests the possibility that other factors such as soil moisture, groundwater recharge, or active drainage network may play a role in dQ/dt variations. However, no consensus has been reached on the determinants of the shift. By using an event-based recession analysis, an experimental catchment with long-term hydrometeorological observations was selected to investigate the streamflow recession in the Nanling mountain forest. Our results showed that 1) faster recession rates were more likely to occur under dry conditions than those under wet conditions; 2) groundwater depth varied consistently with soil moisture in response to precipitation, indicating high soil infiltrability; 3) a significant correlation between the intercept a and concurrent groundwater depth demonstrated its potential role as explanatory variable of streamflow recession; 4) as a losing stream (groundwater depth always larger than 5.0 m near the catchment outlet), water loss to groundwater recharge appears to be the dominant factor affecting streamflow recession.

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    The Target Price Subsidy Policy and Its Sensitivity in the Main Rubber Producing Areas in China Based on an Evolutionary Game: A Case Study of Xishuangbanna
    Da Li, Shaowen Zhang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (3): 490-498.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003415
    Abstract334)   HTML7)    PDF (1253KB)(40)      

    At present, rubber income is insufficient to encourage farmers to continue to plant rubber. Rubber farmers' forced cutting, abandonment, and malicious destruction of rubber trees have destroyed a large number of rubber forests, causing rubber production to drop sharply; natural rubber incentive policies such as seedling subsidies have not been effective in addressing this. If short-term policies remain weak, it is very likely that rubber production will reach a crisis in the next five to eight years. Policies are thus needed to ensure the safety of the national rubber strategy and to formulate the target subsidy price for natural rubber scientifically, as well as to slow down the rate of labor transfer from the rubber industry to other industries, while gaining trial time for the application and promotion of new technologies. Based on 947 pieces of cross-sectional data and regional statistical bulletins of 18 sample villages in Xishuangbanna in 2019, this study analyzes the validity boundary of the target price subsidy policy using an evolutionary game model and investigates the sensitivity of factors that affect the target price subsidy policy. 1) This study tests the effectiveness of the target price subsidy policy by establishing an evolutionary game model of "subsidy policy-farmer behavior." When the subsidy amount is less than 4.8, there is no evolutionary stable point in the game system, based on the 2019 data. Thus, the target price should be 12.8 yuan/kg when the rubber price is 8 yuan/kg, and farmers will then be expected to fully adopt the strategy of planting rubber. This target price can stabilize the expectations of farmers in rubber production areas and restrain farmers from reducing the scale of rubber planting. Based on this preliminary estimate, the unit cost of the target price subsidy policy is 5,400 yuan/(hm2·a-1), and Xishuangbanna thus needs about 1,485 million yuan/a to maintain the target of 275,000 hm2. 2) A single factor analysis method is adopted to calculate the sensitivity coefficient. Through the sensitivity analysis of the four factors of per capita disposable income of rural residents, rubber tree yield, planting cost, and dry rubber price in the game model, it is found that the corresponding financial subsidy cost will also decrease when the rubber price rises. Among the four factors that affect the target subsidy price, the sensitivity coefficient of the rubber tree yield is the largest, constituting a sensitive factor. When the planting cost and dry rubber price remain unchanged, as the yield of rubber trees increases from 2.5 kg to 2.75 kg, the target subsidy price amount drops from 5.7 yuan/kg to 4.4 yuan/kg, and the subsidy amount drops by 22.81%. The promotion of the target price subsidy policy may lead to greater financial pressure, thus, increasing the yield of rubber trees is a necessary coordinated measure.,and the natural rubber futures price insurance project will also help reduce fiscal costs while achieving policy goals. This study answers the question of how to determine the target subsidy price of natural rubber scientifically, and provides a basis for decision-making and significant guidelines for formulating scientific and effective rubber industry incentive policies.

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    The Spatial Relationship between Employed and Residential Populations in a Mountainous City: A Case Study of the Chongqing Main Area
    Yubing Lei, Geng Lin, Ren Yang, Ying Wang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (4): 616-628.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003466
    Abstract334)   HTML5)    PDF (6099KB)(148)      

    The coordinated development of jobs and housing spaces is of great importance for the rational allocation of urban functions and residents' quality of life. We focus on the measurement of the spatial relationship between working and living space in a mountainous city and the impact of industrial and topographic factors, with the main city of Chongqing as the study area. Using the employed population and residential population as identified by Baidu Huiyan, this paper analyzes the relationship between jobs and housing spaces in the central city of Chongqing by calculating the degree of job-housing deviation, dividing the study area into three groups: the Employment-Dominant Area (EDA), the Balanced Area (BA), and the Residential-Dominant Area (RDA). Factor analysis and window analysis are then applied to explore the impact of industrial and topographic factors on job-housing space based on the Fourth National Economic Census. We find that, first, the spatial distributions of employment and the residential population in the central city of Chongqing are basically the same, showing the characteristics of "high in the middle and low around" and a polycentric spatial structure; there is spatial overlap between the areas with the densest employment and residential population, such as Jiefangbei, Qixinggang, and Nanping. Second, the job-housing space in Chongqing is basically balanced; the deviation of work and residence in most suburban districts is not obvious. The sub-districts with the highest Standard Deviation (SD) are mainly concentrated in the employment-dominant areas within the outer ring, while a few are distributed in the residential-dominant areas. The multi-center structure shows a low job-housing balance in the main center (Jiefangbei) and a high job-housing balance in the four sub-centers. Third, industrial factors and relief amplitude have a great impact on job-housing balance in Chongqing's main urban area. Using SD as the dependent variable can better explain the influencing factors. The integrated service industry factor and the production service industry factor exacerbate the separation of jobs and residences because of their ability to attract the employment population. In the meantime, the social service industry factor, manufacturing factor, and relief amplitude reduce the difference between jobs and residences. In addition, urban spatial structure, traffic patterns, government planning, and residents' attributes are important factors shaping the job-housing space in the Chongqing main area.

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    Visualization Analysis of Research Hotspots and Frontiers of Flexible Space and Future Prospects
    Yanhua Luo, Pingxing Li
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (4): 533-543.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003470
    Abstract328)   HTML5)    PDF (1904KB)(123)      

    The proposal and delineation of flexible space is an effective approach to promote innovation in territorial management, improve the scientificity of spatial planning, and meet practical demands in the context of significant economic and social transformation. However, existing research focuses on preliminary theoretical exploration and case studies on individual cities/regions and is inadequate from the perspective of systematic and integrated research. We used visualization analysis software (CiteSpace5.6) to develop a knowledge graph of flexible space research based on more than 800 articles published between 1990 and 2020 on the topic of "Flexible Space" and "Flexible Planning", retrieved from two databases ("Web of Science" and "China National Knowledge Infrastructure"). The research drew the following conclusions: 1) The quantity of English literature had a significant upward trend, but the amount of Chinese literature increased first and then decreased. Most research focused on eco-environmental and engineering perspectives, and ecosystem services and land use suitability evaluation became the novel direction. 2) The cooperative network density of scientific research institutions related to flexible space research was 0.0042, indicating a relatively low degree of cooperation. The segmented cooperative network centered on several institutions including the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the University of Queensland in Australia, etc. 3) The most common knowledge groups included the concept and connotation of flexible space, flexible planning methods, and regulation measures. Features such as land reservation, mixed utilization, and space replacement were emphasized in the descriptive terms, while the use of spatial and quantitative analysis models for spatial optimization and evaluation of suitability were technical focuses,and the most widely adopted methods included decision support systems and agent-based models. Various regulation measures were proposed, with the "rigid-flexible combination" approach being amongst the most widely used. To promote theoretical and systematic research on flexible space, the theoretical framework should be built first as a general guide to related research. The theoretical basis and technical methodology should be improved with the support of multidisciplinary integration to enhance the scientificity and feasibility. Moreover, more case studies on various research areas should be carried out to improve the practicability.

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    Emotional Reconstruction of Farmers in Poverty-Alleviated Villages from the Perspective of Emotional Geography: A Case Study of Shibadong Village in Hunan Province
    Chirui Chen, Feng He, Fanghua Tang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (4): 579-591.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003459
    Abstract322)   HTML12)    PDF (1331KB)(73)      

    The aim of rural revitalization is to improve the prosperity of farmers. However, farmers are not purely "economics-driven people." In fact, their behavioral logic is driven by internal emotions, which can affect the external environment. At the same time, changes in the external environment can alter a farmer's emotions toward the place. Therefore, research on the emotional reconstruction of farmers in villages where poverty has been alleviated is not only conducive to guiding the direction of construction and governance of such villages and maintaining their harmonious and stable development but also helpful for retaining "returning" farmers. These farmers make up for the absence of the "main body" of the economic development of the village, all of which is significant for the smooth realization of effective connections between poverty alleviation and rural revitalization. For this article, Shibadong Village in Huayuan County, Hunan Province was chosen as the case study, with the "left behind" farmers and "returning" farmers in the village as the research subjects. From the perspective of emotional geography, we used in-depth interviews and participatory observation methods to explore the emotional reconstruction of the farmers and the related mechanism involved under the influence of the targeted poverty alleviation policy. The research showed that 1) the emotional reconstruction of farmers in poverty-alleviated villages mainly includes the reconstruction of five perceptions sense of belonging, sense of happiness, sense of risk aversion, sense of relative deprivation, and sense of loss. 2) The implementation of the targeted poverty alleviation policy has optimized or improved the material space, industrial structure, economic income, and governance services of poverty-alleviated villages, resulting in increases in the farmers' senses of local belonging and happiness and a decrease in their sense of risk aversion. However, an imbalance in poverty alleviation efforts leads to an enhancement of their sense of relative deprivation. The dissolution of traditional cultures and the reconstruction of social relationships result in the farmers feeling lost. These five senses of emotions affect and restrict one another. 3) In the process of emotional reconstruction of farmers in poverty-alleviated villages, the cognition of the individuals is the core force of the process. However, farmers find it difficult to make long-term and wise decisions because of their low cognitive level, which is not conducive to the positive development of emotions. As the leading force driving the emotional reconstruction of farmers, the government—through various poverty alleviation measures—coordinates the order of other individuals participating in poverty alleviation governance, optimizes the rural regional system in the poverty relief village, and improves the farmers' cognition to reshape their local emotions. Enterprises play an auxiliary role in this process, participating in poverty alleviation in various ways. In addition, they facilitate the market economy in optimizing the allocation of resources and improving both the efficiency of poverty alleviation and the resilience of poverty-alleviated villages to resist risks. To consolidate the achievements of poverty alleviation and realize rural revitalization, poverty-alleviated villages should take relevant measures based on the characteristics of emotional space, time, sociality, and hierarchy to cultivate positive emotions, and reduce negative ones, in the farmers. Use of the "place-emotion-behavior" analysis model is helpful for elucidating the interactive processes between the emotions, behaviors, and social material environments of farmers and the significance of those individuals in the reconstruction of the rural regional system in the context of macro policies. This article provides a useful reference for promoting the effective connection between targeted poverty alleviation and rural revitalization.

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    Effects of the Establishment of Fangcheng Camellia National Nature Reserve on Regional Land Use Dynamics
    Qiuxia Huang, Nanyan Liao, Yuanzheng Yang, Jiaxing Zu, Jiali Wang, Wenhua Cai, Jian Yang, Hongxin Su, Ting Yang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (6): 973-984.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003490
    Abstract321)   HTML14)    PDF (3243KB)(74)      

    The establishment of nature reserves is an important measure to protect rare wild animals and plants and their habitats. This plays a positive role in alleviating the ill effects of change in land use and protecting ecological diversity. Since the establishment of the first nature reserve in China, there has been notable development in the construction and infrastructure industry. Owing to this development, understanding whether nature reserves can effectively achieve the purpose of protection has gradually become a hot topic. An in-depth understanding of the evolution of land use types in nature reserves and their adjacent areas can evaluate the effectiveness of the construction of nature reserves, provide decision support for land resource planning, and help maintaining the balance of the ecosystem and sustainable development. Understanding the spatio-temporal evolution pattern of land use is important to create and preserve ecological security in protected areas. In this research, we studied the land use dynamics in Guangxi Golden Camellia national nature reserve and its adjacent two-kilometer buffer zone. Land use information was extracted from seven Landsat TM/OLI images from 1986, 1994, 1999, 2004, 2009, 2014, and 2019. The spatio-temporal dynamics of land use over the past 35 years were studied using decision tree analysis and a transition matrix. The results showed that the land use in the reserve is mainly dominated by forestland, and the adjacent areas of the reserve is mainly dominated by forestland and arable land. Although the proportion of construction land is small, it has increased annually over the past 35 years. It was observed from the studies that the dynamic degree of construction land was always relatively high in the non-core region of the reserve and the adjacent areas, whereas the dynamic degrees of other land types fluctuated more gently, and the integrated land use dynamic degree of the adjacent areas was less. The core area changed more drastically, the change in the trend of the comprehensive land use dynamic degree in the adjacent areas and the non-core area was similar. After the establishment of the reserve, human disturbance was reduced in this region, and the land-use pattern became more stable. Furthermore, the conversion of land use types in the adjacent areas was frequent, of which the transfer and exchange between cultivated land and forest land was the most drastic, the conversion of land use in the non-core region was less. This shows that the establishment and management of the reserve effectively protects the local ecological environment. Additionally, the studies showed that the migration of the land use center of gravity had a certain direction. The center of gravity of all land use types in the non-core area of the reserve generally migrated to the northeast, and the center of gravity of construction land and cultivated land in the adjacent area of the reserve generally migrated to the west, indicating that the expansion of the original construction land had a strong influence on land use dynamics. The management of the reserve has achieved relatively remarkable effects and the ecological environment inside the reserve has been improved, but the slow increase of land for internal construction and resources exploitation still have a negative impact on the habitat quality of the reserve. This study provides data to support the dynamic monitoring of land use and further improvement of protection and restoration measures in subtropical natural reserves.

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    Knowledge Visualization Analysis of International Economic Geography Research
    Yarong Zhan, Renxu Gu
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (5): 706-715.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003482
    Abstract317)   HTML32)    PDF (1444KB)(96)      

    Economic geography is a subject whose research field and direction are changing. Its development track and research topics are influenced by the social development environment in which scholars live. The global economy is in a period of dramatic change, and the research perspectives and topics of economic geography have been changing particularly rapidly, with the constant emergence of new research results and new research characteristics and development trends. Therefore, it is necessary to sort out and analyze the research achievements of international economic geography and explore its development context and latest research frontiers. This paper takes 7,260 studies in the Web of Science core collection, from 1982 to 2020, as the sample literature, visualizing the intellectually-based research hotspots and frontiers of international economic geography with the help of the Citespace tool. It is expected to provide scientific reference for constructing the theory of economic geography with Chinese characteristics and promoting the international influence of Chinese economic geography. Our findings reflect the following. First, over the past 40 years, economics and economic geography have been the main knowledge sources of international economic geography. In addition, they have absorbed the research content of political economy, ecology, and other disciplines, which reflects their increasingly strong interdisciplinary nature. The intellectual base reflects changes in the economic geography research trend, basically following new regionalism, social turn, cultural turn, relational turn, and mobility turn. Since the 21st century, classical literature, under the context of relational and evolutionary economic geography, has been the main source of knowledge. Second, innovation and growth have always been the two core areas of research; hot issues such as globalization, cities, clusters, networks, the labor force, and policy have also attracted scholarly attention. Recent research points to hot keywords including resilience, global production networks, financial geography, global cities, inequality, and entrepreneurship. To some extent, these research hotspots represent the problems faced in the current stage of social development. Third, this research frontier is strongly problem-oriented, which is mainly based on the industrial development practice of western developed countries. In the era of global urbanization in the 21st century, urban issues and governance, industrial clusters, and knowledge have become research hotspots. Since 2010, the spatial evolution process of economic activities has attracted more attention, and research on its driving mechanism has been increasingly in-depth. Finally, the international economic geography research space is extremely uneven, which is closely related to the process of global social and economic development. The UK and US have always occupied a hegemonic position in the field of economic geography, even if the tentacles of mainstream economic geography begin to extend beyond Europe and America, most countries are still on the fringes of academic discussion. In general, international economic geography shows an obvious trend toward digital and sustainable transformation, and the COVID-19 pandemic has also had a certain impact on the direction of the discipline. Drawing on the international research experience, China's economic geography should strengthen theoretical innovation and put forward a theoretical system with Chinese practical characteristics, promote the cross and integration of various disciplines, and strengthen the interpretation of the geographical significance of social economic activities from the perspective of sociology.

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    The Image of Corridor Tourism Destination Based on Internet-Text: A Case Study of Southern Anhui "Sichuan-Tibet Line"
    Qingqing Yang, Xiaozhong Yang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (4): 674-684.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003474
    Abstract307)   HTML8)    PDF (1544KB)(171)      

    The image of tourist destination is an important field in the study of tourism geography. The cognitive results of tourists' subject experience embodied image play an important role in the loyalty, satisfaction and development of tourist resources. In order to further explore the constitutive dimensions of tourists' images of corridor tourist destinations, this paper uses the Internet travel notes containing tourists' memory and narrative information to construct five dimensions of images of corridor tourist destinations,using qualitative analysis and GIS research methods. Finally, the following conclusions are drawn: 1) The image of corridor tourism destination is a complex dynamic process, which is the synthesis of cognition, imagination and emotion in the process of tourists' corridor experience. The construction of tourist destination image is of great significance to the construction of destination planning. Therefore, this paper deconstructs tourist image dimension with the help of grounded theory coding method, and finds that the image dimension of corridor tourism destination is constructed from five dimensions:linear image, color image, aesthetic image, local image and emotional image; 2) In order to deeply analyze the emotional results of tourists during corridor tourism, and to explore the emotional tendency of tourists by relying on emotion analysis tools, it is found that in the presence experience of tourists from "Sichuan-Tibet Line" in southern Anhui, positive emotions dominate, while negative emotions account for a relatively small proportion; 3) Through the analysis of key word frequency of travel notes, it is found that the perception features of the image elements of "Sichuan-Tibet Line" in southern Anhui show two levels: dynamic and static combination, linear experience and perception; 4) Relying on the spatial analysis function of GIS, the hot spots of tourists' perception of image elements are extracted, and finally it is found that the image cognition hot spot of "Sichuan-Tibet Line" in southern Anhui is presented in four dimensions: linear corridor, color, aesthetics and local.

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    Spatial Evolution and Underlying Factors of the Urban Financial Network in China
    Jie Zhang, Kerong Sheng, Chuanyang Wang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (6): 928-938.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003489
    Abstract305)   HTML16)    PDF (1263KB)(120)      

    Since the implementation of the reform and opening-up policy, China has experienced rapid development of the financial industry, with a large number of financial enterprise groups being established over the past 40 years. Meanwhile, the distribution of branches of financial enterprises has expanded rapidly, which has accelerated the integration of the financial market in China. Against this background, financial service relationships have played important roles in strengthening the linkages between cities, providing an important perspective for the study of city networks. This study aimed to analyze the spatial patterns, influencing factors, and mechanisms of the key factors in the financial network in China. First, data on the headquarter and branch locations of financial enterprises in China were subjected to the interlocking network model to approximate the financial network, resulting in a 285 × 285 valued urban network, and its spatial patterns were described from the three aspects of centrality, linkages, and core-periphery structure. Then, by using the Quadratic Assignment Procedure, an econometric analysis was conducted to identify the influencing factors, and the micro processes in the spatial growth of the urban network were examined. Finally, by combining theories of information hinterland and resource dependence, a conceptual framework for comprehensively understanding the mechanisms driving financial network growth in China was suggested for further discussion. This study has three main findings: First, the financial network presents a significant concentrated multi-dimensional core-periphery structure. The spatial distribution of centrality exhibits obvious spatial orientation and path dependence characteristics. The cities well-positioned in the network are mainly the core cities in China's major metropolises, such as Beijing and Tianjin in the Beijing-Tianjin area; Shanghai, Suzhou, and Hangzhou in the Yangtze Delta area; and Shenzhen, Guangzhou, and Foshan in the Pearl Delta area. The connectivity of city linkage exhibits enhanced relevance and hierarchical structure characteristics, which promotes the emergence of a "core-periphery" mode in financial network structure. Second, vital resources possessed by cities, such as market potential, political rank, knowledge base, and economic openness, are important factors underlying the formation of China's financial network. Links are more likely to occur between cities with large market potential, abundant political resources, intensive knowledge capital, and high economic openness. Geographical distance, location condition, and historical basis also have a profound influence on the spatial patterns of the financial network. Third, preferred linkage, geographical proximity, and spatial agglomeration are the dynamic mechanisms underlying the development of the financial network. Preferred linkage and geographical proximity can be interpreted as the observable results of sharing vital resources and reducing transportation costs in accessing valuable information flows. The spatial agglomeration mechanism, stemming from the agglomeration economy in the location selection of financial enterprises, tends to strengthen the financial network structure formed historically. In the network environment, the policy of urbanization in China needs to be adjusted accordingly. The Chinese government should support cities to choose differentiated development paths in the financial network, give full play to the supply and guidance function of the financial network to urban economic growth, and promote network cooperation between cities on a larger spatial scale.

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    Visualization Analysis of Peri-Urbanization in China Based on CiteSpace and VOSviewer
    Hanhan Liu, Jing Ye, Wenwen Wang
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (5): 788-798.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003480
    Abstract304)   HTML14)    PDF (1761KB)(122)      

    With the advancement of new urbanization and territorial and spatial planning, the scientific development and governance of peri-urbanization areas have become an important link in the development of urban-rural integration. This study identifies the research hotspots and evolving process in this field and discusses the existing deficiencies and future development trends in current research, aiming to provide a reference for the development of peri-urbanization areas in China. Based on the bibliometric analysis method and using the visualization tools of CiteSpace and VOSviewer, a knowledge map analysis of domestic peri-urbanization research results over the past 30 years was conducted from the aspects of research strength, research hotspots, research topics, and evolutionary context, among others. The results show the following. 1) The research strength of the authors and institutions is scattered, the geographical distribution characteristics are obvious, and the research ability is positively correlated with the level of social and economic development. 2) Research hotspots focused on developed cities such as Beijing, Guangzhou, and Shanghai in the early stages, later expanding to central and western cities or urban agglomerations such as Wuhan, Chengdu, Chongqing, and Zhengzhou. Land use research, landscape pattern analysis, landless peasant research, and analysis of their influencing factors are the research hotspots; their respective themes can be clustered into four categories: morphological characteristics, spatial definition, driving mechanism, and coordinated development. 3) The development of peri-urbanization research can be divided into three stages: the rising stage (1992-2002), rapid growth stage (2003-2014), and stable development stage (2015-2019). The research area has shifted from the southeast coast to the inland areas, the research content has transformed from qualitative theoretical analysis to quantitative empirical discussion, and the research data have changed from traditional social and economic statistical data to spatial data and network open data. The research perspective has also changed from an analysis of natural characteristics to research on social development, reflecting more humanistic care. However, in terms of research subjects, the cooperation between authors and institutions is limited by groups and regions, and the intensity of cooperation needs to be strengthened. Regarding research content, the theoretical framework and research paradigm of peri-urbanization research are not sufficiently clear, especially in terms of conceptual connotation and space definition standards, concerning which there is still no unified approach. Regarding research perspective, the transitional path of peri-urbanization, population urbanization, ecological environment protection, construction of human settlements, and other issues should also be deeply analyzed. Finally, the prospects are constructed from four aspects: multi-scale dynamic monitoring of the spatial scope of the peri-urbanization area, creating a green and livable living environment, exploring the path of agricultural transfer population urbanization, and implementing the equalization of basic public services. The aim is to provide practical guidance for population management, resource allocation, and policy formulation in the peri-urbanization area.

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    Coordinated Development of the Competitiveness System of Urban Exhibition Industry: A Case of Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Dongguan, and Zhongshan Cities
    Yilu Chen, Lixun Li, Tianlan Fu
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (4): 629-641.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003467
    Abstract301)   HTML6)    PDF (1306KB)(198)      

    The exhibition industry is characterized by high efficiency and high economic relevance, making it one of the most active components of China's modern service industry. Previous studies have revealed that the competitiveness of the urban exhibition industry results from multiple factors, such as the scale of the exhibition industry, the level of economic development, related facilities, and the service industry in cities. However, a few cities in China have ignored their functional positioning and resource constraints in recent years, thus blindly constructing super large-scale venues that far exceed demand. This abnormal phenomenon shows that the level of coordinated development among elements significantly impacts the urban exhibition industry. Therefore, this study focuses on the coordination of the key supporting elements for the exhibition industry. First, we constructed a comprehensive index system to evaluate the competitiveness of the urban exhibition industry, which consisted of exhibition industry vitality, economic strength, and reception capacity subsystems. Second, we used the coupling coordination model of physics to calculate the coupling coordination degree among these three subsystems in Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Dongguan, and Zhongshan. The exhibition industry of these four cities develops most prosperously among the mainland cities in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay area. By comparing the results between these four cities from 2013 to 2019, we aimed to explore the constraints of the coordinated development of the urban exhibition industry's competitiveness system and the interactive mechanism between subsystems. These results show a significant hierarchical difference among the four cities in the level of coordinated development of the exhibition industry's competitiveness. Guangzhou and Shenzhen have already reached the premium coupling coordination stage, where subsystems resonate benignantly, and the degree of coupling coordination is relatively high. In contrast, the degree of coupling coordination is still low for Dongguan and Zhongshan, indicating that the exhibition industry is developing extensively in these two cities. The coordination mechanism is a process wherein the exhibition industry vitality, economic strength, and reception capacity subsystems are synchronized and closely integrated toward the same direction. In this situation, the subsystems develop to a certain level, and the mutual forces between them form a loop that circulates both clockwise and counterclockwise, with the exhibition vitality acting as the core, the reception capacity as the foundation, and the economic strength as the development element. Different cities have diverse main constraints on the coordinated development of the exhibition industry's competitiveness. For first-tier cities, their comprehensive service capability is more crucial than their economic strength, which is related to the market size of the city's exhibition industry. For non-first-tier cities, their economic strength often determines whether the urban exhibition industry that serves the local area can have an impetus for sustained growth because the overall service industry is underdeveloped.

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