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    Evolution of Ecosystem Service Value of Typical Dike-Pond in the Pearl River Delta:A Case Study of Foshan
    Han Ran, Ye Changsheng
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (3): 562-574.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003249
    Abstract310)   HTML6)    PDF (2315KB)(752)      

    Dike-ponds are a type of ecological agricultural land formed by man-made depressions in ponds where silt is accumulated as dikes to farm fish and grow crops such as mulberry and sugarcane; they are mainly distributed in the Pearl River Delta. Ecosystem services refer to the living environment they provide for human beings, as well as the various types of ecosystem products and functions that are beneficial to human beings. In recent years, Ecosystem Service Value (ESV) has become a hot topic for scholars in China and abroad. Using the Pearl River Delta’s birthplace, Foshan City (FS), as a case study, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) framework, which combines the characteristics of a dike-pond ecosystem and the social and economic conditions of the study area, is used to adopt the market price method, replacement cost method, and shadow engineering method to estimate the ESV of dike-ponds in FS in 2000, 2009, and 2017. Additionally, Dike-pond’s ESV in FS law of change was discussed and the influencing factors of ESV changes in dike-ponds were analyzed. The results show that during the study period of 2000-2017: 1) a few towns (streets) such as Lubao Town and Hecheng Street in the west and north, respectively, of FS have increased their dike-pond area, while Beijiao Town and Lecong Town in the east and south, respectively, have significantly decreased their dike-pond area to 19,244.47 hm2, which have been mainly transferred to construction land. 2) In 2000, 2009, and 2017, the ESV of dike-ponds in FS first decreased and then increased to 1,661.91×108 and 978.60×108, and 1,166.37×108 yuan, respectively. The overall trend is a declining one, with a total decrease of 495.54×108 yuan. In the three years, the proportion of adjustment functions in the total ESV is higher than 86%, which is the core function. Among the individual functions, the value of tourism and leisure increases the most, with an average annual growth rate of 19.36%. The value of climate regulation decreases significantly, by 589.37×108 yuan. 3) The ESV of dike-ponds in the southeast of FS is the highest. The western and northern regions are less affected by human activities and the ecological environment is suitable in this region; thus, the ESV of the dike-ponds increases accordingly. While the high level of industrialization and urbanization in the eastern and southern regions, serious pollution in the dike-ponds, and shrinkage of the dike-ponds all caused the ESV to decline, the material production and tourism and leisure values of the dike-pond of each research unit generally increased. The value changes of the remaining individual functions show strong consistency in space, i.e., the value of the towns (streets) in the northwest and southwest has increased significantly and the value in the southeast has decreased. 4) The results of a Geodetector probe show that a change in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of primary industries is the principal factor affecting the spatial distribution of the ESV of dike-ponds in FS, followed by the change in GDP, population density, population, investment in fixed assets, GDP of the secondary industries as well, and impact of policy factors, none of which should be ignored. Measures such as controlling the scale of development, restoring green vegetation, and giving importance to the advantages of the dike-pond landscape to increase the ESV of the dike-pond are all recommended.

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    The Impact of COVID-19 on China’s Economy and Discussion of Policies‒Evidence from Listed Companies
    Zhang Kaihuang, Qian Qinglan
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (3): 396-407.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003252
    Abstract1366)   HTML49)    PDF (1011KB)(738)      

    The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has collapsed the world’s economy. A discussion of the reaction to structural and regional policies is imperative for the Chinese government because the implementation of policies is limited. As the state of the stock market indicates the direction of the economy, the financial reports of some enterprises from China’s Stock market for the first quarter of 2020 were collected and analyzed. This was the period in which the productivity of the enterprises were severely impacted by the coronavirus pandemic with respect to industry, actors’ scale, and region. The results show: 1) Except agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery, all other industries had lesser profit and limited operating cash flow, and their balance sheets had deteriorated. The services industry faced more challenges than the others. The behavioral decisions made by individuals, the governmental policies for lock-down, and the nature of industries were responsible for these detrimental changes; 2) The companies with small and medium market value were affected more than big enterprises. In Q1, big companies made more profits, optimized their operating cash flows, and stabilized their balance sheets. This is mainly because of the difference of operating ability among actors and the Matthew effect; 3) Owing to the differences in the population structure and land price in different regions, the manufacture, service, and building and estate industries faced greater challenges in the developed provinces than in the less developed regions. The pandemic adversely affected the finance industry in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangdong; however, it showed improvement in Jiangsu. It has been observed that the financial structure in regions, and operating ability of companies were the main reasons for the negative impact on the finance industry. The medical industry was affected but progressed in areas with better industrial basement. This was because the demand for certain medicines and devices peaked during the period and the areas with better industrial base played more important role in fighting the virus. In this context, the authors discussed the two approaches: “Adopting a more proactive fiscal policy and deeply optimizing financial environment of enterprises,” and “Choosing policies implements regionally.” It can be argued that unilateral expansion of demand will result in a larger gap between demand and supply. This is disadvantageous because the global production system mainly depends on the manufacturing industry in China. The government should not only focus on resumption, but also start investment of new or traditional infrastructures. Moreover, owing to the uncertainty of the market, the factors that improve the balance sheet are few. Therefore, helping more entities by financial market and making the social capital more active have become the priorities for the government. In order to improve the manufacturing and service industry, undeveloped regions are encouraged to expand job opportunities, and the residents in developed regions are encouraged to consume more services and decrease the operating costs of the service industry. This can positively contribute to restoring the economy. Some measures adopted to benefit financial and building and estate industries are encouraging local commercial banks in medium-sized and small cities to provide loans to Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs), boost infrastructure construction in developed regions, and loosen control of estate development. The policy makers of the medical industry were advised to focus on long-term development. Optimizing the financial environments for SMEs in medical industry and developing a multi-core, nation-wide distribution of industry are necessary for China.

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    Place and Placelessness: The Perception of Tourists' Local Food Taste in Hong Kong
    Tong Wen, Yulin Zhang, Yi Liang
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (5): 775-785.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003277
    Abstract231)   HTML5)    PDF (1248KB)(408)      

    Considering the debate between place and placelessness research brought about by globalization, scholars discuss their views around the simple relationship of "local-global" duality. However, existing research focusses on the powerful class characterized by wealth, ignoring the role of the general public as the disadvantaged group in the dual evolution of place and placelessness. In response to this problem, this study adopts a qualitative research method to conduct a content analysis on the online comments of Chinese and foreign tourists on local food in Hong Kong. The study's findings indicate the following. First, the experience evaluation of tourists shows that whether it is the innovation of food products, a diversified decoration of the dining environment, or the content and form of restaurant services, Hong Kong food culture reflects the integration of Chinese and Western cultures. Further, it has assimilated Western culture to adopt innovations while retaining traditional Chinese characteristics. The coexistence of place and placelessness shows that through globalization, tourists not only want to experience the new and exciting "place" of their target destination. They also need a standard "placelessness" that provides them with a sense of security and comfort. In this process, place and placelessness tolerate, transform, and promote each other and even generate new local products with global attributes. The counter-effects to globalization are reflected through such a process. That is, place and placelessness are not—as many scholars worry—being penetrated by globalization, but rather both can be transformed into each other, and then react to and redefine globalization. This is how a locality presents new cultural connotations in the process of constant internal and external interactions, thereby forming a "new locality," and global forces reconstruct the local meaning. Second, different from wealth, power, and culture, the influence of factors such as the community play a significant role in the process of globalization. People, particularly tourist groups, have a direct influence on wealth and power through consumer choice and the power of the culture subject gaze. The public's adherence to the place will have a direct impact on wealth and power through huge consumer demand, which will guide the protection and creation of local elements. This is the key to the formation of "global significance." On the contrary, globalization can produce a homogenized value identity that transcends the boundaries of the nation-state and then creates a universal standard space with placelessness. In this space, mass groups of different cultural backgrounds can quickly develop a sense of identity and comfort, which is relatively more helpful in ensuring the quality of consumer experience for such groups that rapidly travel worldwide. As previously mentioned, place and placelessness in the tourism space can be transformed into each other, and the process of transformation primarily depends on the value and meaning construction of the place by tourists in the subject's gaze. At the same time, different results will be produced due to differences in various social groups and cultural backgrounds. Nevertheless, globalization is reducing this cultural difference.

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    Strategic Thinking Regarding Building an International Science and Technology Innovation Center in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    Ye Yuyao, Wang Jingshi, Wu Kangmin, Du Zhiwei, Wang Yang, He Shuyi, Liu Zhengqian
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (1): 27-39.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003204
    Abstract1706)   HTML48)    PDF (6961KB)(329)      

    As capital’s pursuit of knowledge has become an increasingly significant global trend, scientific and technological innovations have gradually replaced the development mode of factor-driven and resource consumption, supporting as the driving force of economic development in the new era by influencing the industry transformation and promoting new formats, along with fundamentally guiding the transformation of the leading functions of cities or regions toward scientific and technological innovation. Furthermore, the economic competition among cities or regions around the world is more prominently manifested in the competition of science and technology. As the embodiment and core support of a country’s comprehensive scientific and technological strengths, a scientific and technological innovation center could play a significant value-added role by occupying a leading, dominant position in the global value grid. This is an important measure for many countries and regions to cope with the challenges of each new round of scientific and technological innovations. Moreover, it also enhances national competitiveness. Based on the discussion of global innovation patterns and trends, as well as the interpretation of the connotation and characteristics of international technology innovation centers, this paper analyzes the advantages and challenges that the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area might face in constructing a global technology innovation center, and some strategies are suggested for the future development. At present, the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area are in a period of entering knowledge economy as a whole, wherein innovation elements are highly concentrated geographically, and innovation ecological conditions are constantly improved. The impact of innovation globalization is emerging in this region, and the demand for innovation is as strong as the manufacturing industry foundation within this area. The basic conditions for the construction of an international science and technology innovation center are sufficient. However, owing to institutional obstacles in integrating Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area and the huge intra-regional gap, some practical challenges in innovation development of this region still exist, such as the disconnection of innovation elements, the unsmooth internal flow of innovation elements, the difficulty of system-mechanism transformation, and the dilemma of relying on importation of core technologies. To take benefit from the favorable characteristics of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao, and mitigate any inherent shortcoming, the construction should be based on the establishing of a hotbed of international industrial innovation. In the meantime, this region should choose the construction of an international industrial science and technology innovation center as its core priority. This will accelerate institutional innovation and consider the construction of collaborative innovation demonstration zone as the key to breakthrough. Boost industrial innovation by enhancing the ability of original innovation, promote collaborative innovation by institutional reform, and finally realize the coordinated and integrated development of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area’s innovation.

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    Strategic and Spatial Pattern Assessments of Spratly Islands Occupied by Foreign Countries
    Kaifu Min, Liang Cheng, Xiao Zhou, Nan Xia, Ning Li, Manchun Li
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (4): 684-693.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003243
    Abstract261)   HTML8)    PDF (2217KB)(327)      

    There are up to 44 islands and reefs illegally occupied by foreign countries in the Spratly Islands, that is a serious threat to China's national security. Therefore, the strategic value of the occupied islands and reefs in the Spratly Islands region should be evaluated. Previous studies concentrate on the period before large-scale construction in the region. Additionally, they lack consideration of the islands development potential. Considering this potential, radiation capacity, and carrying capacity, the present study investigated 26 influence factors, their respective assessment values were calculated. The subjective and objective integrated method was used to determine the weight of each factor. The linear weighting method was used to obtain the evaluation results of the strategic value of 44 islands and reefs occupied by Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, and Brunei. The results were spatially interpolated to identify their spatial pattern characteristics. The main results are as follows: 1) The strategic value evaluation of islands and reefs shows the gradient distribution characteristics. The Danwanjiao reef occupied by Malaysia, Nanweidao Island occupied by Vietnam, and Zhongyedao Island occupied by the Philippines are the ones with highest strategic value, and their evaluation values are 100, 98.42, and 97.09, respectively. The islands and reefs with lower strategic value were mainly sandbars and hidden shoals, such as the Orleana Shoal and Bombay Castle, with scores of less than 40. 2) The strategic value, radiation capacity, carrying capacity, and construction potential of islands and reefs all have a multi-core spatial distribution pattern, in which the spatial distribution pattern of their radiation capacity is the "NW-SE band", the areas of highest and high grades extend from northwest to southeast of the study area and decrease to both sides (northeast and southwest). There are two core regions and two secondary core regions in the pattern of radiation capacity. The spatial distribution pattern of carrying capacity shows a "horizontal strip", which decreases from north to south, in which there is one core region and two secondary core regions. There are three core regions and two secondary core regions in the spatial distribution pattern of island potential and strategic value of islands and reefs. 3) Vietnam occupies the most islands and reefs and has a wide spatial distribution. In the spatial distribution pattern of strategic value of islands and reefs, there is one core region and two secondary core regions closely related to Vietnam. Bishengjiao, Liumenjiao, Nanhuajiao, Wumiejiao, and West reefs are occupied by Vietnam and have a great potential for building islands and reefs, as their geographical location is of great strategic significance. Further construction would support the core areas of islands and reefs occupied by Vietnam, which could lead to a pincer attack on China's garrison islands and reefs, thereby requiring close attention.

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    Urban Villages' Redevelopment in Cities of Migration through the Lens of Cultural Identity: A Comparative Study of Singapore and Shenzhen
    Di Zeng, Jin Zhu, Shenjing He
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (3): 449-460.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003337
    Abstract547)   HTML30)    PDF (2934KB)(311)      

    With a strong emphasis on historical heritage and culture-making, culture-led redevelopment has become an important policy in many megacities to revitalize declining areas, such as urban villages. However, local governments have different understandings of cultural development and historic preservation and often take them at face value while ignoring the internal mechanisms. For cities of migration, cultural identity has richer connotations. The time-space nexus between the origins and destinations of migrants is highly significant for fostering a diverse and more inclusive urban culture. Taking three urban villages in Singapore and Shenzhen as empirical cases and using the theoretical perspective of cultural identity, this paper explores the culture-making process in the redevelopment of urban villages. We argue that the essence of cultural identity lies in social relations, not merely in visual symbols and images, and understanding cultural identity requires comprehending the relations between the global and the local, as well as between the past and the present embedded in places. The paper starts with an interpretation of the culture-led macro policy, followed by an analysis of urban redevelopment's internal political and economic driving forces. Based on data from participant observation and semi-structured interviews in both cities, a qualitative analysis on the modality, mechanism, and influences of identity-making in urban village redevelopment was conducted. Research findings include differences in the dominant stakeholders' attitudes toward cultural identity, especially migrants' identity, in the redevelopment modalities in the two aforementioned cities. These differences have led to different outcomes. The case of Singapore's Geylang Serai Village centered on the living needs and activities of Malay migrants, who were the main residents there, to conduct the regeneration. Further, the Housing and Development Board (HDB) issued a policy to ensure residents' housing rights. Therefore, the program maintained the continuity of the existing community by protecting the spontaneously formed identity while developing the showcase economy based on simultaneous market activities. Regarding Shenzhen, developers of Nantou Ancient City and Gankeng Hakka Town focused on specific historical periods and designated the architectural style as the local characteristic in order to develop the tourism economy. However, the top-down imposed identity had little to do with the migrants' community, which led to their exclusion and broke down their established social networks, indicating that the mere focus on beautifying the physical environment will lead to gentrification catering to middle-class aesthetics. The study findings point to the conclusion that the designation of the cultural identity of a place is, effectively, the use of cultural capital. The voice of identity in cultural discourses represents the social right of a community to urban spaces. Therefore, culture-led urban village redevelopment should focus more on local communities' social relations and actual needs in order to promote a more just, inclusive, and sustainable urban redevelopment.

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    Grain-Size Fractal Dimension of Aeolian Sand during the Last Glacial Period: The Houtian Section of Nanchang and Its Paleoenvironmental Significance
    Jiangzhen Zhan, Zhiwen Li, Zhigang Wang, Li Sun, Wubiao Li, Lan Du
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 1075-1084.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003288
    Abstract194)   HTML5)    PDF (2489KB)(285)      

    Fractal theory can be used to reveal the fractal features of many geographic phenomena, and the composition of sediment grain size has been successfully applied to the study of the evolution of geographic environments. The fractal dimension has widely been used as a new grain size index, which is consistent with the environmental changes reflected in the traditional analysis of grain size and composition; however, whether the fractal dimension can also reveal environmental changes in the Poyang Lake area in the mid-subtropics has not yet been determined. This study analyzes the fractal dimension characteristics of Houtian sandy land based on the results of grain size and the power of the exponential function relation method in fractal theory. A series of dune sand-sandy paleosol sequences were developed intermittently on the terraces of the lower reaches of the Ganjiang River. Based on multiple comprehensive investigations, the Houtian section, with rich sequences and a relatively continuous deposition, was selected in Houtian sandy land, Xinjian County, and Nanchang City. With the research carried out, Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) age and grain size tests were completed. A comparison of the fractal dimensions with clay, average grain size, winter and summer monsoon intensity-sensitive grain size, and the Nanjing Hulu Cave stalagmite oxygen isotope gave the following results: 1) Combined with the results of OSL dating and deep-sea oxygen isotope and stratigraphic characteristics, an age-depth framework was constructed based on the segmented sedimentation rate interpolation. The sand dune-sandy paleosol sequence of the Houtian section was mainly formed during the last glacial period (14.9-77.0 ka). The entire section has a good fractal structure, with the dune sand's fractal dimension at 2.04-2.62 (average 2.34) and the sandy paleosol at 2.24-2.70 (average 2.51). 2) The fractal dimension is positively correlated with the summer monsoon intensity-sensitive grain size, negatively correlated with the winter monsoon intensity-sensitive grain size, and closely related to the standard deviation (whereby the smaller the standard deviation, the smaller the fractal dimension). Medium silt, coarse sand, and winter monsoon intensity-sensitive grain size content are higher during the developmental period of the dune sand, and the average grain size is thicker. The standard deviation is smaller, the sorting is better, the degree of self-organization is higher, and the fractal dimension is smaller during the development period of the sandy paleosol. Due to the warm and humid climate, the weathering pedogenesis is stronger; the content of clay, fine silt, and summer monsoon intensity-sensitive grain size has increased significantly; the average grain size is finer; the standard deviation is larger; the sorting is worse; the self-organization is lower; and the fractal dimension is significantly larger. As a result, clay and fine silt formed by weathering sedimentation have the most significant impact on the fractal dimension. 3) The fractal dimension shows some alternating peak-valley cycles in the vertical direction. The peak values correspond to the early MIS2, MIS3c, and MIS3a stages, indicating a strong summer monsoon and a warm and humid climate; the valley values correspond to the late MIS2, MIS3b, and MIS4 stages, indicating that the winter monsoon is strong, and the climate is dry and cold. The results indicated that three climate warming cycles have occurred in the Houtian sandy land. At the same time, the fractal dimension reveals that the H5 and H6 events, which occurred in the HTS3b and HTS4 stages, show that the winter monsoon is the strongest and the summer monsoon is the weakest. Further, the sequence of aeolian sand deposition in the Poyang Lake area is practically synchronized with global climate change and extreme cold weather events.

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    Karst Landscape Features of the Wumeng Mountains and Its Tourism Potential Analysis for Poverty Alleviation
    Wei Yuelong, Chen Weihai, Luo Shuwen, Pan Xiaodong, Li Chengzhan, Luo Qukan
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (1): 10-17.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003205
    Abstract1001)   HTML10)    PDF (591KB)(258)      

    Wumeng Mountains is a short term for the continuously and particularly impoverished area in the Wumeng Mountain region. More than 200 important and typical karst landscape resources, which are widely distributed in different karst areas, have been discovered to present in the Wumeng Mountains. There is a complete range of karst landscapes in their typical forms, including mountains (peak clusters, peak forests, cuestas, hills, pictographic mountains, dome mountains, etc.), gorges (including Difeng), mountain gorges, natural bridges, stone forests, pillar-like peaks, cliffs, platforms, denudation surfaces, depressions (valleys), dolines, plains, basins, poljes, caves and various speleothems, light-through caves, tiankeng, karst windows, shafts, underground rivers, waterfalls, lakes, springs, wetlands, forests, cultural landscapes, and more. This study analyzed and examined many factors of the Wumeng Mountains, including the social economy, poverty alleviation status, natural environment, and regional geological settings, as well as the karst features, to discuss the karst landscape types and distributions systematically, assess the karst tourism potential for poverty alleviation through an analysis of the resources potential, suitability for development, regional features, development conditions, and market potential, and finally define the correlation between karst tourism potential and karst features. The study reached the following conclusions: 1) The Wumeng Mountains region includes numerous karst landscapes, with typical forms, that cover all of the types of karst landscapes and comprise 118 individual karst landscapes or karst landscape areas with different levels of advantages (including 78 provincial-level and 32 national-level and international-level karst landscape areas and many county-level individual karst landscapes or karst landscape areas). These individual karst landscapes or karst landscape areas form a stable pyramidal resource structure and are distributed in county-karst areas with different characteristics of solubility (that is, strong, easy, and weak solution conditions) that are located in three karst districts of Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan Provinces and are classic concentration areas and outstanding representatives of plateau karst landscapes in the world. They present different types of landscapes and reflect obvious regional features and advantages. 2) In general, with gradual lowering of the karst landscape distribution density (from 39.13 to 19.58 and 4.91 items per ten thousand square kilometers), weakening of solubility (from strongly soluble to easily soluble and weakly soluble areas), and reduction of landscape area level (from international level to national level, provincial level, and county level), the three continuous karst areas in Guizhou, Yunnan, and Sichuan and each county-level karst region, as well as each individual karst landscape or landscape area, have progressively lower advantages, concentrations, scales, and popularities, which accordingly result in gradually diminishing tourism potential for poverty alleviation. 3) The most suitable and dominant tourism products with the greatest number of advantages and greatest development potential for the Wumeng Mountains are sightseeing and leisure, and the Wumeng Mountains could be established as a sightseeing and leisure tourist destination for caves, mountain gorges, Difeng, karst windows, natural bridges, tiankeng, waterfalls, and lakes, which has international-level advantages. 4) The regional features, development conditions, and market potential of the Wumeng Mountains are obviously inferior to those of other similar karst regions. Finally, the study proposed five karst tourism modes for poverty alleviation, i.e., sightseeing and leisure tourism, ecological tourism, scientific tourism, cultural tourism, and scientific exploration. Additionally, the study evaluated guaranteeing mechanisms of karst tourism for poverty alleviation through aspects such as government, infrastructure, regional tourism development, regional cooperation, and development concept.

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    Remote Sensing Image Segmentation Using Dual Attention Mechanism Deeplabv3+ Algorithm
    Liu Wenxiang, Shu Yuanzhong, Tang Xiaomin, Liu Jinmei
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (2): 303-313.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003229
    Abstract1108)   HTML13)    PDF (25841KB)(213)      

    Remote sensing image processing technology based on deep learning can prospectively be used to determine the characteristics of large numbers of remote sensing image data and complex scenes. However, deep-learning algorithms in remote sensing image processing have certain shortcomings, e.g., the popular DeepLabv3+ network has slow fitting speeds, inaccurate edge target segmentation, inconsistencies, and holes in large-scale target segmentation. We therefore proposed a method for introducing a Dual Attention Mechanism Module (DAMM) to DeepLabv3+ to address the above deficiencies. We designed two different network models that connected the DAMM structure to the Atous Spatial Pyramid Pooling (ASPP) layer in series or parallel. In the serial connection method, the feature map was first sent to the DAMM and then passed through the ASPP structure. Furthermore, the feature map was defused with middle-low layer feature information through the decoder layer and restored to the original image resolution. In the parallel connection method, the DAMM and ASPP layers processed the feature map extracted from the backbone network in parallel and subsequently fused the processed feature map information. The mixed feature map was restored to its original resolution by the decoder. The two improved methods were verified by the INRIA Aerial Image high-resolution remote sensing dataset. The results showed that both the series and parallel methods could effectively improve the shortcomings of Deeplabv3+. The experimental results showed that the parallel network had superior performance, and improvements in the original network defects were more obvious. The parallel method achieved a higher score [85.44% Mean Intersection Over Union (MIOU)] in the test dataset, which was 1.8% higher than Deeplabv3+. And the serial network increased by 1.12% compared to Deeplabv3+. The effects of the position and channel attention mechanisms in the DAMM structure were also determined. The ablation study results showed that the channel and position attention mechanisms improved the performance of the Deeplabv3+ model. In the test set, the channel and position attention mechanism mIoU increased by 0.95 and 1.32%, respectively. The experiments revealed that the position attention mechanism had a greater effect on edge target segmentation, the channel attention mechanism had a greater effect on large-scale hole phenomena, and the channel and position attention mechanism promoted network fitting speed in training. The proposed improved DeepLabv3+ algorithm can provide a scientific basis and reference for semantic segmentation of big data remote sensing images.

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    Spatial Distribution and Format difference of Large-Scale Retail Business Facilities: A Case Study of Guangzhou Based on POI Data
    Zhou Lina, Li Lixun
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (1): 88-100.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003164
    Abstract735)   HTML12)    PDF (5633KB)(210)      

    A study on the spatial distribution and the format difference of large-scale retail business facilities is always essential to the optimization of urban business resources, and using POI (Point of Interest) data instead of traditional survey data increases the preciseness and reliability of the results of such a study. Therefore, taking Guangzhou as an example, based on large-scale retail business facilities POI data and using spatial econometric methods, this paper analyzes spatial distribution characteristics and the influencing factors of the overall distribution and the different format distribution of large-scale retail business facilities to improve relative studies of large-scale retail business facilities and to promote the targeted planning of large-scale retail business facilities further. The results of the case study are as follows: 1) Regarding the spatial distribution characteristics, generally, large-scale retail business facilities in Guangzhou form a multi-central agglomeration, and the degree of agglomeration decreases from the downtown area to the periphery. In addition, large-scale retail business facilities are distributed along the main roads, connecting important business areas to each other. Moreover, they are obviously adjacent to the metro stations in the city center but are not so obvious in the whole city because the city metro system is incomplete. There are differences in the distribution of the three different retail formats. Large-scale shopping malls are distributed mainly in the city center and in the sub-centers of the city and are more adjacent to the metro stations than the other two formats are. The distribution of large-scale supermarkets diffuses from the downtown area to the periphery. Large-scale specialty stores are distributed mainly in the periphery of the downtown area and are more adjacent to the main roads than the other two formats are. 2) Regarding the influencing factors, population, economic development, and rent have a significant effect on the overall distribution and the distribution of the three retail formats. The factors influencing the different formats also have differences. Distance to the city center has a positive impact on both the distribution of large-scale supermarkets and large-scale specialty stores, meaning that their distribution prefers farther location from the city center. Rent has a positive effect on the overall distribution and the distribution of large-scale shopping malls. Road density and proximity to life centers have a positive influence on the distribution of large-scale supermarkets, while proximity to industrial parks and specialized wholesale markets has a positive effect on the distribution of large-scale specialty stores. According to these results, the planning of large-scale retail business facilities should make efforts to meet the different demands of the different retail formats. The efforts include building more large-scale shopping malls in the periphery area with a growing population and rich land resource, building more large-scale supermarkets in the neighborhood of new life centers, and building more specialty stores near relative industrial parks and specialized wholesale markets properly. Through these efforts, the planning of large-scale retail business facilities can be promoted in a more detailed and more effective way.

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    Spatial Pattern and Influencing Factors of the Consumer Service Industry in Shenzhen Based on Multisource Big Data
    Na Wang, Jiansheng Wu, Zifeng Peng
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (5): 956-967.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003381
    Abstract98)   HTML8)    PDF (1890KB)(200)      

    The consumer service industry directly provides residents with material and spiritual living consumption services and products to meet residents' consumption needs. The reasonable spatial layout of the consumer service industry is of great significance for improving residents' quality of living, optimizing the urban spatial structure, and alleviating urban problems. Based on consumer service point of interest (POI) data, mobile phone signaling data, and population data from Shenzhen, using the nearest neighbor index, kernel density, and entropy index methods, this study analyzes the spatial pattern of the overall and different types of consumer service industry as well as the spatial characteristics of the degree of mixing in the consumer service industry in Shenzhen. Using the Geodetector method, this study also detects the impacts of seven factors, including population, traffic, economy, and space dimensions, on the overall and different types of consumption service industry as well as analyzing the impacts of population age structure on the spatial pattern of this industry and its types. This study is expected to provide a theoretical and decision-making basis for urban planning and development in Shenzhen and other cities. The results show that: 1) The spatial distribution of the consumer service industry in Shenzhen is unbalanced and is concentrated in the central and western regions. The consumer service industry presents the spatial characteristics of two core areas and three belt areas. The two core areas are the Dongmen business area in Luohu District and the Huaqiangbei business area in Futian District. The three belt areas consist of the Luohu-Futian belt, Nanshan-Baoan belt, and Longhua belt. The spatial distribution of the consumer service industry has developed along strips and is mainly concentrated in the areas around the main roads and rail lines. 2) The spatial agglomeration characteristics of the overall and different types of consumer service industry are remarkable and differentiated in Shenzhen. The spatial distribution characteristics of most types of consumer services are similar to those of the overall consumer service industry. The development of industry in some areas has resulted in differences in the spatial distribution of certain categories. 3) The balance of the consumer service industry is better in the Luohu, Futian, Nanshan District and worse in the other Districts. The high balanced areas are the edge areas outside the two core areas, rather than the two core areas with the highest POI density. 4) Population density factors are the most important factors affecting the spatial pattern of the consumer service industry, followed by traffic factors. The influence of economic and spatial factors is relatively low. 5) The population of people aged 19-35 has the greatest impact on the density of the consumer service industry. Age groups have different impacts on the spatial distribution of different types of consumer service industries because of specific needs. These results are consistent with the spatial planning of urban functional zoning and industrial development layout in the Shenzhen Urban Master Plan (2010-2020). Combining these results and current urban development activities, this study provides suggestions for optimizing the spatial layout of the consumer service industry in Shenzhen.

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    Critical Theoretical Engagements and Methodological Innovation for China’s Human Geography in a Decentering and (Anti) Globalizing World
    George C S Lin
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (1): 1-9.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003175
    Abstract626)   HTML27)    PDF (486KB)(194)      

    This paper situates Chinese human geography in the context of a decentering and globalizing world in which China has been firmly integrated. It is believed that the recent disturbing interventions of protectionism and Sino-American disputes have had the effect of slowing down but not reversing the long-term trend of intellectual globalization. Chinese human geographers should never be discouraged from entering the world stage and should instead take on the new challenges and opportunities for critical theoretical engagements and research innovation. A comparative assessment of Chinese human geography and its Western counterparts has identified common traditions and shared heritage in terms of subject matter, research frameworks, and routes of explanation. Whereas Chinese human geography is found to be more disciplined, organized, coherent, and supportive of state developmental agenda, human geography in the West is characterized by individual freedom, greater diversity, blue-sky enquiry, and a critical perspective free from any mandate that serves the interests of governments. Three ideological positions are identified for Chinese human geographers to use as important perspectives to engage in theoretical critique. Other possible ways of theoretical engagements include situating the problem in a different time and space, reassessment using different data and methods, challenging the basic assumptions upon which the theory is built, questioning cause-effect relationships, and (re) examining the issue on a different scale. Research innovation can be facilitated by a better understanding of three different kinds of geographic knowledge; establishing a research assessment system conducive and sufficiently stimulating; working at international research frontiers and interdisciplinary interfaces; promoting comparative studies; and utilizing research methods of different fashions. Three possible scenarios are envisioned for Chinese human geographers to venture into a future filled with new challenges and opportunities.

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    Progress and Prospects in Rural Space Diversification, Reconstruction, and Governance from a Development Perspective
    Ren Yang, Xiuli Luo
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (4): 575-588.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003240
    Abstract256)   HTML12)    PDF (1532KB)(194)      

    With industrialization, urbanization, informatization, and economic globalization, there is significant diversification in rural areas, including the social and economic devolopment and rural landscape, land-use structure, urban—rural relationship, consumption structure, and governance pattern. Development and evolution are types of spatial transformation, and their differentiation is significant in rural areas. With changes in the relationship between human beings and the environment in rural areas, problems such as the gradual disappearance of traditional villages, loss of regional identity, precariousness of villagers’ development prospects, and loss of autonomy tend to arise. The renaissance and revitalization of rural areas have become the core target of regional and rural development in this new era. Development, together with the theoretical construction of rural geography, now faces a critical period of opportunity. The mechanism of interaction between the internal and external motivations of rural spatial differentiation needs to be clarified, and geographic parameters concerning the reconstruction of rural multidimensional space need to be examined carefully, as they take a scientific approach in exploring comprehensive rural governance. These are beneficial in strengthening both rural construction and the framework of governance theory. This paper systematically reviews the progress of research on rural spatial differentiation, reconstruction, and governance both at home and abroad. We found that, internationally, research on rural geography is more diverse, and theories and methods from the field of political economics and sociology are widely used. These research methods are mainly qualitative, focusing on the theoretical interpretation of the construction and translation of the actor-network of cognition, differentiation, and reconstruction of rural space. Further, the main body and framework of rural community governance are analyzed deeply. Domestic research, in contrast, focuses on the differentiation and reorganization of rural material space, but the content framework and methodology of rural spatial differentiation, reconstruction, and governance remain insufficient. Accordingly, this paper—guided by the theory of territorial system of human—environment interaction on a macro scale—systematically examines the spatial differentiation types and dynamic mechanism of rural development and transformation under multiple external environments in China. On a medium-micro scale, the comprehensive study of the rural human—environment relationship in a regional system is implemented, focusing on element structure, function change, element reconstruction, and space governance. We performed a space gradient analysis using urban—rural continuous spectrum geographic transects, which analyzed internal multidimensional space differentiation and reconstructed the scientific logic of governance in different locations and with different types of rural space. By integrating geography, sociology, politics, management, and other subjects, we constructed a unique theory framework for the transformation of rural space in China. Rural space governance is an important part of territorial space control and social governance, and is of interest across multiple academic disciplines. The collaborative mechanism between the governance of space and the participating community, as well as the approaches and models of village construction management and spatial governance used, needs an urgent conclusion and summary.

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    The Impacts of COVID-19 on the Connectivity of China's International Air Transport Network and the Spatial Differences
    Du Fangye, Wang Jiao'e, Wang Han
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (3): 386-395.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003248
    Abstract527)   HTML10)    PDF (2576KB)(188)      

    Air transportation plays an important role in connecting countries and promoting global economic development. Recently, China’s international air transport network expanded rapidly in terms of navigable countries and cities and the number of air routes and flights. In this context, the connectivity and stability of the air transportation network attracted significant attention, which could be threaten by many factors such as public health emergencies, poor weather conditions, policies, etc. Focusing on COVID-19, this paper depicted the spatial patterns of canceled flights after the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic across Chinese cities and the impact on connected countries and cities overseas. Next, this paper investigated the impacts of public health emergencies on the connectivity of China’s international air transportation network by comparing the changes of the average shortest path and weighted average shortest path before and after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results could be summarized as follows. First, the spread of this pandemic has significantly impacted the connectivity of China's international air transport networks. The number of navigable cities, routes and flights has substantially reduced, as has the efficiency of China's international air transportation. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has not significantly influenced the worldwide air transport network in this period. Additionally, the degree of effect of COVID-19 on air transportation connection was various across regions. For example, the air route suspension has the greatest impact on China's aviation network connectivity with Central Asia, West Asia and Oceania, while flight reduction has the greatest impact on China's aviation network connectivity with Northeast Asia, Central Asia and Southeast Asia. Second, there are no significant differences between the spatial patterns of the connectivity of China’s international air transportation network before and after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic; the connectivity between China and Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia, North America, and Europe remains better than other areas. The findings indicate that labor mobility, economic communication, and trade are vital in shaping the spatial pattern of the connectivity of China’ international air transport network. However, the flight aggregation degree for international flights has increased. The proportion of flights among the top 5 countries has increased from 58.1% to 67.2%, which is also closely related to factors such as the proximity and necessity of personnel, economy, and trade links. The international route networks in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou are more reliable than other cities. Thus, following the outbreak of COVID-19, the distribution of China’s international routes and flights has been concentrated in these major cities. The proportion of international air routes increased from 28.8% to 38.9%. Moreover, the concentration of international flights increased from 46.6% to 76.4%, which is a higher concentration than international air routes. While expanding its focus on the depth and breadth of international air transport links, China should focus on strengthening the reliability of international air transportation networks to cope with the impact of various emergencies and ensure basic connectivity and stable operation of international air transportation networks.

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    The Applicability of Street View Images to Identify Urban Poverty in the Central Urban Region of Guangzhou
    Ying Liu, Yuan Yuan, Hanfa Xing, Yuan Meng, Tong Niu
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (5): 919-929.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003272
    Abstract259)   HTML3)    PDF (3303KB)(188)      

    Taking Guangzhou as an example, Baidu street view images of 6670 sample points in the four central districts of the city were selected as test data to explore the possibility of urban poverty measurement in an urban built environment. Firstly, after training the street view picture-classified model based on FCN-8s deep neural network, the street view features were semantically divided into categories such as buildings, sky, trees, and so on. The street view indicators of communities were calculated by buffer analysis. Four street view main factors including building enclosure, vegetation enclosure, sky openness, and road openness, were extracted by principal component analysis; the correlation between them and multiple poverty index (IMD) was verified. Finally, the multi-linear regression model to estimate the poverty level, which is based on street view indicators, was constructed from 61 communities through a simple random sampling method. The prediction model was used for the remaining 60 communities in order to verify the accuracy of the street view measurement. It was found that IMD is positively correlated with building enclosure, and negatively correlated with vegetation enclosure, sky openness, and road openness. In addition, the measurement results from street view were basically consistent with the spatial patterns of traditional urban poverty measurement, which were usually higher than the poverty level in traditional poverty measurement. This is because the two methods produce different results that are affected by the measurement content, community type, street attributes, and other factors. For example, street view can depict the real living environment of the poor urban people, which is more suitable for poor communities that occupy terribly built environments, such as crowded and dilapidated old neighborhoods, urban villages with serious construction violations, rural homes, and under-construction industrial parks and so on. On the other hand, the traditional IMD measurement method is more suitable for those areas where the external and surrounding built environments are not very bad, such as redeveloped constructions that replaced decaying structures, affordable housing with pleasing environments, and so on. To a certain extent, the two methods can complement each other, and street view can provide timely monitoring of changes in urban built-up areas. It can also help poor communities put forward concrete proposals to effectively improve their living environment, in terms of physical amenities, such as roads, buildings, and green spaces. In this paper, a series of street view indicators related to urban poverty were extracted by analyzing the street view data of communities in the four central districts of Guangzhou. Based on these indicators, a model of urban poverty was successfully constructed. Findings about the characteristics of street view, factors influencing street view measurement, and the scope of application when compared with the traditional urban poverty method are presented. The use of an urban poverty measurement technology with high precision, wide coverage, fast updating, and information-rich streetscapes can benefit and refine urban poverty research and enrich the dimension of urban poverty measurement indicators. Such measurement also has practical significance for the redevelopment of decrepit structures and areas inhabited by poor communities.

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    Diffusion Characteristics of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in Guangdong Province
    Liu Yi, Li Yuan, Li Zhuoling, Han Fangfei
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (3): 367-374.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003217
    Abstract459)   HTML19)    PDF (2497KB)(187)      

    This report analyzes the spatiotemporal spread characteristics and the spatial variation of the coronavirus epidemic based on detailed information of confirmed COVID-19 cases released by the city health commissions in Guangdong Province. The report finds that: 1) the confirmed cases in Guangdong Province maintain certain age distribution characteristics. Middle-aged people represented the largest number of cases, followed by young people, and lastly, the elderly. These results are similar to national statistics; 2) the epidemic spread ratio in Guangdong is 0.198, which indicates that the anti-epidemic measures in Guangdong have effectively suppressed the spread of the epidemic; 3) the difference between the epidemic spread pattern and comprehensive risk pattern in Guangdong Province is significant. Medium-sized cities (third and fourth tier) have higher diffusion risk and medium comprehensive risk. Developed cities have lower diffusion risk but higher comprehensive risks, whereas undeveloped areas in eastern and western Guangdong are safer. Medium-sized cities are apparently weak areas that can be easily overlooked in anti-epidemic work; therefore the control of such areas should be strengthened; 4) the results of Guangdong's epidemic prevention measures can be actively promoted in the future to reduce public anxiety. The current priority should be the prevention of a second epidemic shock caused by returning workers and school students. In the middle-late stages of epidemic prevention, the implementation of risk management should be differentiated according to the epidemic risk levels among different cities for the sake of restoring social production and avoiding the negative impacts towards society stemming from the over use of anti-epidemic measures, especially for vulnerable and underdeveloped areas.

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    Evolution of Tourism Development Modes and the Themed- Converged Development of Karst Landscapes
    Yuelong Wei
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (5): 1073-1095.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003392
    Abstract66)   HTML0)    PDF (2575KB)(184)      

    Based on landscape characteristics, regional development level, location conditions, public awareness, and management level, and others, we categorized thousands of karst landscape areas in China into four subtypes. These types include the following: famous attractions of karst tourism, classical destinations of karst tourism, new destinations of karst tourism, and new development areas of karst tourism. Then, using time as our theme, we researched the development modes of the tourism of karst landscapes in China over the past 70 years. To do so, we used inductive and analogical analysis. Our study found three main results. First, the main tourism development modes that have been introduced and that have acquired different implementation effects since 1950 are divided into nine types and thirty-eight species. Each have different respective requirements, thereby matching with different characteristics of various karst landscapes. Second, both different and the same types of karst landscape resource communities or areas often have multifarious tourism development modes. Multifarious tourism development modes have immense differences regarding the degree of importance, exploitation benefit, development tendency, among others. Conversely, the same tourism development mode may have different implementation effects, exploitation benefits, and development tendencies in the development of various karst landscape resource communities or areas. Third, we summarized two main types of development models (i.e., the characteristic and benefit-driven themeless-separated development and the characteristic and science-driven themed-converged development) and considered them to be the result of the karst tourism in special phases of development. The characteristic and benefit-driven themeless-separated development has played an important role in the development and prosperity of karst tourism. The characteristic and science-driven themed-converged development is a new development model comprising the resource community, scientific research, development, protection, management, and feedback, and would be the main trend of karst tourism development under the new situations. Finally, we explored the basic flow of the themed-converged development by using the system dynamics method. For this system dynamics method, resource community and its characteristics are its intrinsic motivation, scientific research is its outside motivation, protection, management, research(the anaphase),feedback, and so on are its operation systems which are derived from the motivation with theme as the soul.

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    Spatio-Temporal Characteristics and Transmission Path of COVID-19 Cluster Cases in Zhuhai
    Liu Zhengqian, Ye Yuyao, Zhang Hong’ou, Guo Hongxu, Yang Ji, Wang Changjian
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (3): 422-431.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003228
    Abstract367)   HTML8)    PDF (1115KB)(177)      

    On the eve of the 2020 Spring Festival, an epidemic of COVID-19 broke out in Wuhan and spread quickly across the country through population movements, posing a serious threat to Zhuhai and other large cities. In this paper, epidemiological survey data for 98 cases of COVID-19 published by the Zhuhai Municipal Health Bureau were used to analyze the spatio-temporal characteristics of 26 epidemic clusters, conduct case analyses of four types of typical transmission routes, and determine the spatio-temporal patterns and transmission routes of the virusin Zhuhai, with three main results. 1) The epidemic’s spread in Zhuhai was affected by timely population management and control in Wuhan, which restricted it to a limited range. 2) There were four different transmission paths: imported family cluster units, imported non-family cluster units, imported and local family cluster units, and imported and local non-family cluster units. The first unit was most important, though the path of non-family cluster transmission was especially complex; epidemiological investigations should be strengthened along with prevention and control measures. 3) For imported cases, given the lag time from importation to onset and the longest time interval between the onset of cluster units, a small number of cases or carriers can break the 14-day isolation limit currently in use, such that caution should be exercised regarding possible risks associated with this measure. Based on these, three recommendations can be made for the prevention and control of COVID-19. 1) It is necessary to fully estimate the risk of future epidemic spread that may be brought about by the movement of people returning to work following initial quarantine, while strengthening epidemiological studies, actively exploring the spatio-temporal law of population flow and epidemic spread, and using science-based methods to prevent and control further viral spread. 2) It is necessary to persist in the prevention and control of population movements from Hubei and other high-risk epidemic areas. The 14-days quarantine currently in place throughout the country is effective for the vast majority of cases or carriers of the virus, but the results show that a few can break this limit, suggesting that the isolation time should be prolonged by up to 24 days. 3) The combined use of epidemiological investigation and geographic information technology should be strengthened to improve the timely tracking of epidemic occurrence and spread, accurately identify the activities of high-risk groups, and conduct accurate and effective source tracing, prevention, and control. In short, for a major public health crisis like the COVID-19 outbreak, emergency management and control should involve many scientific fields (including medicine, geographic & information technology, computer science, psychology, and behavioral science) in order to achieve timely and effective prevention and control measures that rely on such multi-disciplinary joint action.

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    Remote Sensing Analysis of Coastline Changes in Hainan Island during 1987-2017
    Li Zhang, Jingjuan Liao, Xin Yuan, Xiaodong Mu, Xixi Song, Jingpeng Bi
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (4): 659-674.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003260
    Abstract270)   HTML16)    PDF (5757KB)(166)      

    Coastal zone of Hainan is one of the most valuable areas of natural resources and also forms a good ecological environment. Based on a 30-years coastal data derived from satellite imagery, which includes coastline, mangrove, nearshore aquaculture ponds, artificial islands, and ports, this study analyzed the coastline changes and other spatial elements in the coastal zone of Hainan Island. The human activities that impacted on the coasts of Hainan were also evaluated. The indices used for the analysis were: Length Change Intensity (LCI), Index of Coastline Type Diversity (ICTD), and Index of Coastline Utilization Degree (ICUD). In this study, we found that: 1) the length of the coastline increased steadily from 1,655 km (in 1987) to 1,890 km (in 2017). In contrast, the natural coastline length decreased continuously from 1,565 km (in late 1980s) to 1,140 km (in 2017), with a proportion drop from 94.6% to 60.3%. The length and proportion of artificial shoreline increased remarkably, from 90 km (in late 1980s) up to 750 km (in 2017) and a proportion changed from 5.40% to 39.7%. 2) The diversity of coastline types decreased while the coastline utilization degree increased. From 1987 to 2017, the ICUD increased continuously from 237.34 to 285.03, indicating that human activities had an increasing effect on coastline changes. 3) Land and sea pattern changes were complicated, with the coastline expanding into the sea. Overall, the coastal land area increased by 107.49 km. A variety of human factors contribute for the continuous changes of the coastline. The change in the biotic coastline is mainly the result of competition between mangroves and aquaculture ponds, and the construction of ports and offshore artificial islands, which are also responsible for the land sea pattern reform. Since 2000, the length of the coastline of Hainan Island has increased largely due to the coastal construction projects that have augmented the artificial shoreline. Currently, it is still necessary to strengthen the protection and control of coastlines and promote their sustainable utilization. With the increase in general awareness about environmental protection laws and the implementation of coastal zone management and ecological restoration protocols, the coastal ecological environment will be largely protected and restored. This study contributes to a better understanding of the ecological environmental changes in the coastal zone of Hainan and provides scientific basis for the protection and restoration of its ecological environment. The study provides a scientific application paradigm for the effective use of coastal datasets to conduct research on the coastal environment.

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    Spatial Relationship between Epidemic Spread and Population Outflow of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) That Impacted Chinese Urban Public Health Classification
    Xiang Yunbo, Wang Shengyun
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (3): 408-421.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003247
    Abstract660)   HTML10)    PDF (2337KB)(163)      

    Population mobility affects the spread of the new coronavirus and of risk. Based on Baidu migration big data and provinces and municipalities’ health committee data, combined with geographic information technology, this paper studies the spatial relationship between the spread of Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19) in 136 cities from January 1st to March 5th, 2020, and the outflow of population in Wuhan, which impacted urban public health management in China. The following results were obtained. The spread of COVID-19 in China has the following stages and characteristics: occurrence and recessive spread, rapid spread and outbreak, diffusion containment, and diffusion attenuation. From January 1st to March 5th, 2020, it was observed that the population flow of Wuhan City mainly extends to the Hubei Province and its surrounding provinces and cities, as well as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and other first-tier cities, with geographical proximity and characteristics similar to regional central city population inflow. Influenced by geographical distance, time cost, social and economic connection, overseas input, and so on, the spatial distribution of COVID-19 is evidently unbalanced. The urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration, the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area, and the Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomeration have become key areas for the concentrated distribution of COVID-19. Additionally, some key entry and exit port cities present a higher risk of spreading. A strong positive grade correlation between epidemic spread and population outflow is observed with COVID-19. The spatial relationship between the two can be divided into eight regulation types. Nearly 90% of cities have the characteristics of large population inflow, high numbers of confirmed cases or small population inflow, and low numbers of confirmed cases. Among these, cities with large population inflow and high numbers of confirmed cases are mainly concentrated in the Hubei Province and central cities of key urban agglomerations in China. The pressure of prevention and control stems from the risk of epidemic spread, caused by a large population inflow and high number of confirmed cases. The urban distribution, with a small population inflow and low number of confirmed cases, is scattered, and the difficulty involved in prevention and control is the improvement of the precision of such countermeasures. Although China’s strategies for epidemic prevention and control have achieved remarkable results, considering the evolution of the global epidemic situation, rebound uncertainty still exists, and external defense input as well as internal defense rebound pressure are still very heavy. Currently, and in the future, the prevention and control of the epidemic situation will become the “new normal” with the economic and social development of our country. Improving the capacity for urban public health management is necessary for the prevention and control of the epidemic situation in China, especially in the future. Chinese epidemic prevention and control should still consider local conditions and formulate targeted prevention and control strategies. In particular, it is necessary to consider the relationship between the spread of COVID-19 and population flow, economic ties, transportation costs, international exchanges and other factors, and set specific classifications and control plans. To facilitate the joint prevention and control strategy to formulate full coverage, and “Not One Less,” we should not only approach the current epidemic prevention and control it from a dynamic perspective, but also consider epidemic prevention and control work in specific types of cities. Urban agglomeration areas and port cities often have a large population inflow, frequent economic ties, high economic development pressure, and high-risk epidemic prevention and control. They bear the dual responsibility of economic and social development, stability, epidemic prevention, and control and management. In the context of resuming production, work, and economic and social recovery, special attention should be paid to the regular prevention and control of the epidemic situation as well as the improvement of urban public health management capacities.

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    The Bibliometric Analysis on the 40 th Anniversary of Tropical Geography Based on CiteSpace
    Kai Liu, Minying Lu, Xiaoling Li
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 957-969.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003285
    Abstract467)   HTML16)    PDF (3067KB)(157)      

    On the 40th anniversary of Tropical Geography, a Bibliometric analysis based on CiteSpace was made on 2 938 articles published in tropical geography during1980-2019. At the interval of every 10 years, this paper conducted keyword co-occurrence analysis, keyword emergent detection, author co-occurrence analysis and institution co-occurrence analysis, aiming to explore the trends of the themes, historical burst terms, the core author partnerships and the core institutions partnerships in Tropical Geography. As a result, in the first 20 years, the research topics and areas of Tropical Geography were concentrated, mostly focusing on south China and the development and utilization of its resources. The cooperation among the core authors was weak and overall dispersed. Besides, it mainly reported the research results of Guangzhou institute of Geography and the cooperation among the core institutions was less. Since 2000, the number of research themes has increased significantly and has formed diversified research hotspots. The research area has been expanded, but it is still concentrated in southern China. More cooperative teams were formed among the core authors, and the inter-team cooperation and communication were significantly enhanced. The proportion of research results of universities and other institutes has increased greatly, and cooperation between institutions has been strengthened also.

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    Spatio-Temporal Evolution of Shawan Ancient Town in Guangzhou from the Perspective of Spatial Syntax
    Wei Tao, Kefeng Lin, Hengyu Gu, Chaoming Liao, Shiying Liu, Qianyi Ou
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 970-980.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003282
    Abstract293)   HTML11)    PDF (3912KB)(155)      

    Against the background of the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, the development of ancient towns is faced with new challenges, such as the expansion of urban scale, the weakening of traditional cultural values, the lack of continuity between new and old urban areas, and the inconsistent pattern of old urban areas. This research takes the Shawan Ancient Town, Panyu District, Guangzhou City, as its research object and conducts a spatial syntactic analysis of urban morphology in 2002, 2008, and 2017, based on the axis model. The research shows that: 1) Shawan Ancient Town has experienced three stages of development in terms of overall shape, from "single nucleus cohesion" to "axis growth" and then to "divergence and spread." The town's core has been expanding and its shape has been perfected. 2) The direction of expansion of the ancient town's spatial form is consistent with expansion in the direction of the integrated nuclear center, with which the town's new business is in line. The central transfer is synchronized with the evolution of the spatial form. 3) The phenomenon that the integration core of ancient towns and the development of commercial centers are out of sync is related to modern cities' orthogonal grid form and traditional ancient towns' relatively dense and complex spatial texture. This study reveals the law of development of the traditional village spatial form in the process of rapid urbanization and provides a useful reference for the traditional village's new spatial design and the inheritance and reconstruction of the spatial development structure and order. Finally, the research proposes the following suggestions for the spatial protection of ancient towns: 1) The development of ancient towns should extract the spatial rhythm from the traditional space and follow similar rules to update and develop the town, so as to protect the sense of scale and the traditional daily living space. 2) Good traffic planning can ensure that the original space is only minimally affected. At the same time, the use of transit rail to connect the ancient towns old and new districts can improve continuity between the spaces and ensure efficient operation. 3) Demonstrating the need for the rational control of tourism development., Shawan Ancient Town is in the stage of high tourism development, which makes residents' living space overlap with tourists' visiting space, often resulting in the occupation and destruction of the original settlement space to meet the needs of "others." As a characteristic element of traditional ancient towns, their protection and continuation need to be respected during tourism development. Planning should fully analyze ancient towns' spatial rules and development needs to avoid excessive transformation of the space due to commercial development and the timely restoration of some places worth preserving" if applicable..

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    The Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Risks of COVID-19 Pandemic Based on the Effects of Traffic Control
    Fangqu Niu, Zhongling Xin, Fang Wang
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003312
    Abstract309)   HTML17)    PDF (2024KB)(152)      

    On December 31st, 2019, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission issued the first report of the pneumonia epidemic of novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19). Studies regarding the relationships between traffic and the epidemic situation are far from systematic. When the epidemic broke out in Wuhan, Hubei province, an important transportation hub of China, it occurred at the peak of Spring Festival-related travel. Therefore, the relationships between the spread of the epidemic and the impact of traffic have remained underexplored. This paper systematically analyzes the spatiotemporal characteristics, hazards, and the growth trend of COVID-19 spread from a macroscopic and full sample perspective, to provide a comprehensive understanding toward epidemic prevention and control in China and abroad. The analysis performed in this article is based on the publicly available data, using the basic reproductive number measure and complex network method. This study found the following. First, the overall growth of the epidemic is exponential, and the outbreak of Hubei province in China has a strong spread in the eastern and southern directions. Provinces such as Jiangsu, Hunan, and Fujian have seen rapid day-to-day growth rates, and the epidemic situation is generally more serious in the capital or the developed city in each province. Based on analyzing the disturbance of the spread of the epidemic through traffic control, the average incubation period of COVID-19 was approximately found to be four days and the number of basic regenerations showed a downward trend in fluctuation. As of April 8th, the R0 in all regions of China tended to be one. The ratio of cure to death outside Hubei province is much higher than that within Hubei province, indicating that with sufficient medical resources, the risk of the epidemic can be greatly reduced, and it is not to be feared. Second, the quarantine policy of Hubei has a greater impact on cities with higher centrality. From the perspective of changes in centrality, most cities in the northern region have increased their centrality, indicating that the region's connection with Hubei Province is relatively weak. The cities with decreasing centrality are mainly located in the Beijing-Guangzhou line and the Yangtze River Delta. Similarly, the changes in the bottom 20 cities on the centrality ranking are also analyzed. Except for a slight change in the ranking, the cities have been not affected. Additionally, before and after the "closing of the Hubei province", the number of edges of China's railway network, Beta and gamma indicators all declined, but the decline was not significant. Thus, although Hubei plays an important role in China's railway network, in general, the " quarantine of the Hubei province" does not have a particularly large impact on China's entire railway network.

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    Spatio-Temporal Evolution and Risk Profiling of the COVID-19 Epidemic in Shaanxi Province
    Wang Jiaobei, Li Gang, Wang Jianpo, Qiang Jingqi, Zhu Dandan
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (3): 432-445.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003246
    Abstract414)   HTML6)    PDF (3501KB)(149)      

    The sudden outbreak and spread of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed great challenges to the society as well as the academia of not only China but the whole world. The occurrence of epidemic has obvious time and space attributes. Analysis of the spatiotemporal diffusion pattern and process of the epidemic reflects the dynamics of the interaction between humans and the COVID-19, it is worth discussing from the perspective of geography, which is very important for measures for prevention and control of this public health emergency. Based on the confirmed COVID-19 cases’ details manually extracted from the official reports and the relevant Point Of Interest (POI) data, this study aims to reveal the spatiotemporal evolution and risk profiling of the COVID-19 epidemic in Shaanxi province. The results are as follows: Firstly, the age-gender structure of the confirmed cases was diamond-shaped, where more males than females are confirmed, and the overall age trended to be medium-old aged, especially the age group of 40-49. Both non-local and local infections were dominantly caused by the flows of people between cities. Most of the infections belonged to small clusters of core families due to imported cases from Wuhan City, while other large mixed cluster infections in special places may have a deep influence. Secondly, the epidemic evolution process can be roughly divided into three stages, namely wave development stage (Jan.23rd-Feb.6th, 2020), low-speed recession stage (Feb.7th-20th), and stable clearance stage (Feb.21st-Mar.15th). There were lag periods between the cases’ confirmed dates and the onset or initial diagnosis dates. Moreover, the initial reporting dates of confirmed populations were synchronized with the overall evolution of the epidemic. Thirdly, the spatial flow of the epidemic to Shaanxi province was different from that to other provinces around Hubei. That is, it had a unique spatial pattern of only a single cluster center. The overall spatial distribution of the epidemic presented an inverted T-type pattern concentrated in central and southern Shaanxi with significant spatial differentiation. The spatial evolution at the city level was three-pronged. Here, the Wuhan-Xi'an path was the most frequent flow path, exhibiting the flow pattern of "from one source to many sinks, and from Wuhan to central and southern Shaanxi". Finally, the high risk areas were these key cities, for example Xi'an, as shown by the "one big cluster with three small collections" pattern, with the risk level in urban areas being higher than that in the surrounding counties.

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    Spatial-Temporal Distribution and Influence Mechanism of Internet Public Attention on COVID-19: A Case Study on the Baidu Searching Index
    Sun Yuting, Xiao Fan, Zhou Yong, Tian Guangzeng
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (3): 375-385.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003244
    Abstract409)   HTML14)    PDF (1613KB)(149)      

    The rapid spatial spread of the Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) in China during the Spring Festival has seriously endangered human health and garnered tremendous public attention via the Internet and social media. Although public attention plays a critical role in risk surveillance and epidemic prevention, there is a lack of comprehensive discussion related to its spatial-temporal differences and influence mechanism. This study focused on Internet public attention on COVID-19 using spatial analysis, spatial-temporal visualization, regression analysis of panel data, and other methods to investigate provincial spatial-temporal differences and possible influence factors of public attention in China from January 9 to March 2, 2020. In terms of data collection, the Baidu Index (BDI) was used as the measurement of public attention, disease-related data were recorded from the National Health Commission of PRC, and the population movement of Wuhan was based on geographic services of Baidu Qianxi. As per the findings 1) The spatial distribution pattern of public attention can be described as “large differences between east and west regions, higher in coastal areas than inland areas, and consistent with the areas of epidemic distribution.” In terms of temporal characteristics, there was a significant increase in the daily average of public attention in all provinces after the “Wuhan Lockdown,” and the same distribution pattern of overall levels of public attention was observed before and after the “Wuhan Lockdown.” Public attention reached its peak during the Spring festival and subsequently experienced a fluctuating decline with the periodic routine (incubation-outbreak) of the development of the epidemic. The themes of public attention moved from “searching information on related viruses in the early stage”, to “focusing on clinical diagnosis” and “the recent status of the development of the epidemic.” 2) Public attention is influenced by daily dynamic levels, including disease factor and population movement related to Wuhan, and economic/social development levels with fixed regional features. 3) Different phases of the issue—attention cycle receive different levels of attention. The effect of influence mechanisms on public attention before and after the virus outbreak is significantly different. Prior to the outbreak, information disease-related factors of confirmed cases and deaths could increase the public’s awareness and satisfy their fact exploration. After the outbreak, public attention was focused on population outflows from Wuhan. Compared to the first stage, the effect of regional factors on public attention increased after the outbreak, indicating that as the epidemic becomes gradually controlled, regional factor may have a sustainable and stable impact on public attention. 4) Media technology indirectly affects the public’s searching behavior during the epidemic. Higher amounts of available online information correspond to less searching behavior as the public becomes more informed. 5) The announcement of the “Wuhan Lockdown” did not cause a massive population movement as compared to the travel rush (Chunyun) during the Spring Festival. This indicates that the role of the incubation period may have had a negative impact of population movement on public attention before the epidemic outbreak, and that the media agenda and intervention from state authorities could arouse public attention on population outflow from Wuhan after the outbreak. Based on the findings, it is suggested that the government should focus on public searching volumes and enforce timely measures to surpass the speed of epidemic spread.

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    Rural Spatial Restructuring: Theoretical Research Progress and Framework Construction
    Lixia Jin, Zhimin Wen, Jianhong Fan, Zhiwei Du
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (5): 765-774.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003278
    Abstract342)   HTML13)    PDF (1365KB)(148)      

    Against the background of urban-rural integration and the increasingly complex human-land relationship in rural areas, rural spatial restructuring has emerged as an important subject in rural geography. This article preliminarily defines the connotation of rural spatial restructuring. It examines and reviews the theoretical research progress in the field of western post-productionism, domestic rural territorial system, and political economy. In addition, the article also constructs a multi-perspective, multi-element, multi-theoretical framework of rural spatial restructuring. The research shows that first, in the context of western "post-productivism," as the study of the rural spatial restructuring begins to demonstrate the consumption, social-cultural and post-modern turns, the research on multi-function, global rural transformation, and spatial reconstructing becomes the focus area. Second, based on the territorial system of human-environment interaction of rural geography, domestic research emphasizes the process-mechanism-regulation of rural spatial reconstructing and farmers' economic spatial behavior from the micro perspective. Third, accompanied by land capitalization and the increasing importance of rural labor mobility, rural spatial reconstructing presents the Chinese characteristics of top-down political and economic transformation and focuses on the space-power relationship between rural collective organizations and other subjects, such as governments, enterprises, individuals, etc. This has become an important perspective of rural spatial reconstructing. Fourth, the political and economic geography and "social-spatial" dual dialectics provide good research paradigms and methods. Moreover, the theoretical study of rural space reconstructing should systematically integrate political and economic theories (spatial production, subject initiative, land capitalization, social relation network, the territorial system of human-land interaction, and peasant household geography) and strengthen the studies on multi-factor interactions and their spatial response mechanisms (nature, economy, society, and culture). To achieve this, the formation and evolution of rural spatial pattern with multi elements and multi dimensions, rural social spatial reproduction, rural labor spatial production from the perspective of initiative, government policy system, and finally, the innovation of urban and rural spatial governance system should be emphasized.

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    Profiles and Mechanisms of Return Migration in Post-Reform Urban China:A Case Study of Four Cities
    Cheng Hanbei, Liu Yuqi, Gou Feicui, Chen Hongshen, Li Zhigang
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (1): 63-73.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003166
    Abstract551)   HTML12)    PDF (276KB)(146)      

    With the deepening of urbanization, new-generation migrants are returning, leading to backflow population. Few studies have explored this emerging phenomenon in urban China. However, majority of the researchers have focused on return behavior based on the “pull-push forces” theory defined by national and urban macro-factors. Less attention has been paid to the individual factors that cause migrants’ return, e.g., social ties and capital, perceived discrimination and exclusion, social integration, and place attachment. To fill this gap, this study examines the determinants of the new-generation migrants’ return intentions and location choices based on the following two micro-level aspects: “objective attributes” and “subjective perceptions.” Using the data collected from the 2014 National Floating Population Dynamic Monitoring Survey and binary and multiple nominal logistic regression models, this study focused on three types of new-generation migrants (born after 1980): skilled migrants, business migrants, and labor migrants in four cities (Beijing, Shenzhen, Chengdu, and Zhongshan). The results can be given as follows. 1) New-generation migrants in urban China exhibited a strong intention to return, and their location choices differed based on their types. Further, 40% of migrants returned to their household region. Labor migrants exhibited the strongest intention (43.7%), followed by business migrants (36.0%) and skilled migrants (27.9%). Proportionately more skilled migrants planned to return to provincial capitals or prefectural cities when compared with the other two cohorts. 2) Binary logistic models identified return determinants; new-generation migrants’ returning intentions were influenced by both the “objective attributes” (demographical and economic condition) and “subjective perceptions” (economic position perception and sociopsychological perception). Males exhibited a greater probability of returning when compared with that exhibited by females. Age, education level, monthly income, and years of leaving hometowns were negatively related with the migrants’ return intentions. Long working hours per day contributed to their return. No evidence has shown that the marital status, number of children under the age of 18, or contract form were significantly related. As for the subjective factors, migrants with high family-related mental burdens and strong native cultural identification were increasingly likely to return. Strong social acculturation caused new-generation migrants to settle down in their destination cities. Importantly, there was no direct link between the migrants’ return intentions and perception of economic position. 3) Regarding determinants in local choices, education level was the most significant factor associated with migrants’ backflow to provincial capitals. Sociopsychological perceptions strongly influenced their backflow to prefectural cities. Demographic factors, such as gender, age, and years of leaving hometowns, exhibited a close relation with returning to counties or townships. Notably, migrants with high monthly incomes exhibited a greater probability of returning to urban settlements when compared with rural areas. This study confirmed that individual factors, particularly sociopsychological perceptions, have an important effect on the new-generation migrants’ return behaviors in urban China. Therefore, we initially call for the government to articulate the significance of social acculturation and integration, targeting the new-generation migrants to avoid “reverse culture shock” in backflow settlements, notably in prefectural cities. Second, the improvement of public services, such as medical care, pension, and children enrollment opportunities, as well as favorable policies and practices should be considered in urban development and planning and established to relieve the migrants’ family burden.

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    Theoretical Analysis of a Community with Shared Future for Mankind and Its Applications in Anti-COVID-19 Practice
    Dongping Long, Zaiqi Chen, Ming'en Xu, Danhong Liu
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (4): 694-707.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003366
    Abstract328)   HTML68)    PDF (1811KB)(143)      

    China is the advocator and builder of the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind. The international dissemination of its discourse requires more solid theoretical supporting research. Hence, the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind is China's intelligent contribution to the world and has been instrumental in solving major regional and global problems. Consequently, the Chinese academic community has the responsibility and obligation to convey the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind to the world in an understandable, objective, and authentic discourse. Further, it is responsible for continuously enhancing the scientific aspect and feasibility of the thought through academic achievements and excellence, thus establishing a leading research system. Currently, COVID-19 jeopardizes global public health security, including in political, economic, and social arenas. However, countries across the world are already in a state of close ties and destiny. Amid global public security incidents, the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind is connected by common interests, values, and responsibilities. Through the value resonance of its theoretical connotation, contacts and cooperation between countries are promptly promoted to form a close community of interests, health, destiny, and responsibilities to jointly respond to global crises and disasters. Therefore, amid the critical global fight against COVID-19, society urgently needs to forge an international consensus for fighting against this virus and maintaining global public health and safety with the thought of a community of a shared future for mankind. Accordingly, based on the perspectives of geopolitics and community, this paper first attempts to explore a theoretical analysis of the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind regarding scientific connotation, historical evolution, and contemporary values. Then, we examine specific cases to explain the practical applications of the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind in the fight against COVID-19 from the perspective of domestic practice, the Chinese program, and Western practice. Further, in doing so, we aim to demonstrate its dual value in spread and practice as well as its plight. Finally, we propose that governance and responsibility in the post-COVID-19 era, based on the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind, should be implemented by countries globally. Doing so involves playing a significant role in promoting global cooperation, maintaining world public health security, preventing a global recession, eliminating secondary disasters arising from COVID-19, transforming global governance, and reshaping international geopolitical relations. Therefore, this article may contribute to human society in fully and objectively understanding the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind, thus leading it to play a greater role in solving major global issues such as public health emergencies.

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    Progress of Western Scale Research: Conceptualization Framework, Practice Approach and Enlightenment
    Xuefeng Hou, Wei Tao
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (5): 881-891.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003389
    Abstract191)   HTML17)    PDF (739KB)(140)      

    Scale is an important concept in geography. The evolution of scale connotation is closely related to the spatial organizational change in Western capitalist economic activities. With the scale shift of Western human geography, it has changed from being static and bounded by spatial entities to one characterized by process, evolution, dynamic social practices, and discourse representation. The Western scale has led to rapid developments in theory and practical applications. The conclusion of the Western scale is conducive to the dialog with Western scale research and is also of certain significance to formulating Chinese scale research . Taking Web of Science core data sets and Google academic literature as data sources, we retrieve keywords such as "scale" and "politics of scale," download relevant literature, and analyze and summarize it to obtain the background, focus, evolution process, and development direction of Western scale research. By clarifying the connotation and main content of Western scale research, it is found that 1) scale includes three main elements: theorizing scale, rhetoric of scale, and scales of praxis. The ontology of scale holds that it is a static hierarchical structure. The metaphor of scale is embodied in the fact that it can be deconstructed and expressed in a variety of ways through discourse. "Scales of praxis" means that scale is constructed in society through the interaction between different actors to re-create it. 2) There is unity and opposition between the three elements of the measure. In terms of unity, the theorizing scale creates the premise for the rhetoric of scale and the scales of praxis, and the rhetoric of scale and the scales of praxis develop the theorizing scale. In terms of opposites, the theorizing scale is the realist standpoint, while the rhetoric of scale and the scales of praxis are the products of constructivism. 3) The core of scale practice is scale politics, which focuses on the political game between different individuals or groups and emphasizes interests and efficiency, and easily causes negative social externalities and imbalances in resource allocation. It is necessary to introduce a third party to intervene, or regulate politics of scale, to realize the political economy of scale. Western scale research has experienced two typical stages, which have been fiercely debated: A. To materialize the scale into a fixed spatial entity; B. Different actors use scale to carry out social practice or discourse expression. In essence, the two stages are not completely separated in terms of time and main viewpoints. They mainly concentrate on the difference in focus, and there is a relationship between inheritance and complementarity. This indicates that the scale research of Sinicization needs to combine the two—to not only recognize the role of material space entities, but also accept the initiative of actors—and to regard scale as the relationship network of human and material interaction. In the specific application of scale, we should first divide the material spatial entity and scale it, subsequently analyzing the social facts shaped by it; then, one needs to analyze how the actors use discourse expression or political strategies to deconstruct and construct the scale, fully considering the possibility that individual interests infringe on social interests in the scale practice, and introduce the intermediary mechanism to intervene therein. This paper presents the conceptual framework of scale and realizes the induction of the application path of scale, which is embodied in three aspects: scale, scale deconstruction, and scale politics. At the same time, it proposes incorporating the effect of resource allocation into the analysis of scales of praxis to realize the political economy of scale, which not only expands the theoretical connotation of scale, but also increases the practical applicability and scope of scale.

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    Recognition of Urban Hinterland Based on Transportation Accessibility and Urban Competitiveness: A Case Study on the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River
    Zeng Bing, Zhang Yan, Hu Yaguang
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (1): 119-127.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003177
    Abstract510)   HTML8)    PDF (7512KB)(137)      

    Through the construction of a corresponding index system, the competitiveness of cities in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in 2015 was measured using principal component analysis, and based on their road traffic layers, the accessibility of cities was measured using GIS grid cost distance spatial analysis technology. Then, the entire spatial field strength was simulated using the field strength model, and the hinterland of the cities was extracted according to the maximum principle. This was done to effectively define the spatial scope of the urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. The spatial distribution of urban competitiveness in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River was found to be quite different, and the difference between the maximum and minimum values was 5.84, which is related to the administrative level. In terms of accessibility, the 1-h circle mainly concentrates in the vicinity of the central part of the city, and the 3-h circle and above mainly distributes in the periphery far from the provincial capital city as well as in the Yue-Jiu-Xian provincial boundary area. There is a lack of unified planning and coordination regarding inter-city traffic development in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and internal traffic links are relatively weak. Regarding spatial field energy, the high field energy area was concentrated in the central city and its surrounding areas, while the low field energy area was distributed in the marginal and peripheral areas with poor traffic accessibility, particularly in the provincial border areas. The spatial distribution of field strength was in good agreement with the distribution of urban competitiveness and traffic accessibility; However, the degree of inter-provincially coordinated development was low. From the perspective of urban hinterlands, the hinterlands of most cities in Hubei Province are smaller, the hinterland of Jiangxi Province is relatively vast, the hinterland of Hunan City is medium sized, and the hinterland of the three provincial capitals is much larger than those of other cities, which means that the urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River has formed a complex polar nuclear development pattern with the provincial capital cities as the multi-center However, the degree of internal integration is weak. From the overlapping results of the hinterland and administrative scope, the consistency between the urban hinterland and the municipal administrative scope is poor. Cities with an expansion rate that is greater than 1.1 were mainly Wuhan, Changsha, Nanchang, Yichang, Changde, Pingxiang, Xinyu, Jingdezhen, and Yingtan. Cities with an expansion rate above 0.9 and less than 1.1 mainly included Hengyang, Loudi, and Yueyang. In Xiangyang, Tianmen, and Qianjiang, the expansion rate of other cities was less than 0.9. In addition, the proportion of extraterritorial hinterland of the three major provincial capitals was found to be much higher than that of other cities. The proportion of extraterritorial hinterland of Jiujiang, Yueyang, Yichang, Changde, Xinyu, and Jingdezhen was also higher. Generally, urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River has stayed consistent at the stage of integration within the sub-circle and has not yet realized integration of the three circles or highly integrated development. This study attempted to identify the spatial range of urban agglomerations by using GIS quantitative analysis technology, and we provide reference for optimization and integration of the urban spatial structure of urban agglomerations in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River.

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    Supplying Space for Innovation from the Old Factory from the Perspective of Land Rent Residual: Comparison between Guangzhou and Shenzhen
    Jiaping Chen, Jing Li, Yaohong Wen
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (5): 795-807.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003273
    Abstract242)   HTML7)    PDF (2727KB)(137)      

    According to the land rent theory, innovative activities return to a megacity's downtown based on the formation of land rent residual in the area occupied by factories. The city government regularly modifies the regeneration policy to balance the distribution of land rent residual between different principals and supply space for innovation. City governments have different opinions on the distribution of land rent residuals. Therefore, methods of supplying space for innovation and shaping diverse urban landscapes also differ. Since the city government of Shenzhen relies less on land finance than other megacities in China, and it lacks land resources, they regenerate industrial land into innovative space. With less constraint on function transformation, development density, and property rights, the city government gives out much of the land rent residual and supplies several high quality spaces for innovation at a medium-cost. The city government of Guangzhou chooses to acquire massive land rent residuals by regenerating state-owned factories and business areas under financial pressure and debts into residency. However, the land rent residual of village-owned factories can only be extracted from informal regeneration under the strict constraints posed and acquired by the city government, while supplying medium to lost cost innovation spaces of medium and low qualities. Consequently, it is suggested that the Guangzhou government should thoroughly research on existing industrial land where old state-owned factories and village industrial parks are located. Spatial planning and reformation of the city and resolving problems in old village-owned factories for a complete and legal upgradation will provide a decent space for the innovation industry. To ensure enough land and space for the innovation industry, the Shenzhen government needs to employ precaution against over-exploitation of industrial regeneration policy when real estate gets involved.

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    Coastline Tourism Value Evaluation in the Pearl River Delta
    Li Yuanjun, Wu Qitao, Chen Cong, Zhang Yuling, Zhang Zhengsheng, Zhang Hong’ou
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (1): 164-174.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003202
    Abstract594)   HTML12)    PDF (3283KB)(135)      

    The domestic demands of coastal tourism have increased rapidly in recent years, stimulating the development and utilization of coastal areas. At the same time, unreasonable development patterns bring a series of resource and environment problems that require scientific evaluation of coastal tourism value to guide regional sustainable development. This paper constructs a coastline tourism value assessment model with three dimensions: coastline natural attributes, tourism development factors, and location factors. Combined with the particularity of coastal tourism, indicators such as coastline type, sea water quality, tourism infrastructure, land use, and scenic spots are selected. The model focuses on the Pearl River Delta to quantitatively assess the tourism value and its spatial distribution on the mainland and island coastlines. The results show that in the Pearl River Delta, the advantageous coastline for tourism accounts for 25.50%, the middle value coastline for 40.67%, and the low and lowest value coastlines for 30.52% and 3.31%, respectively. From the perspective of spatial distribution, the tourism value of the eastern part of the Pearl River Delta is higher than the western part. The highest tourism value of mainland coastline is concentrated in Huizhou Xunliao Bay, Shenzhen Daya Bay, Dapeng Bay, and Shenzhen Bay. These areas have excellent water quality, long sandy coastlines, superior natural conditions, and better tourism infrastructure. The lowest tourism value of mainland coastline is concentrated in the west of Huangmaohai, mainly because most of its coastline is artificial and estuarine and the location advantage is insufficient. The tourism value of the central part of the Pearl River estuary is medium. There is a big spatial difference in the tourism value of island shoreline. The highest value is concentrated in Sanmen Island, Xizhou Island, Jixin Island, Dalajia Island in Daya Bay, Neilingding Island in the Pearl River Estuary, and the north of Shang Xiachuan Island; the lowest value is concentrated in Wanshan Island and Dangan Island in Zhuhai. On the county scale, the tourism value of the Pearl River Delta coastal area has a significant spatial autocorrelation. The coastlines with higher comprehensive value are concentrated in Bao’an District, Longgang District, Futian District, and Yantian District of Shenzhen; the coastlines with lower value are concentrated in Jinwan District and Doumen District of Zhuhai. This research has made some exploration in the scientific evaluation of the tourism value of the coastal zone and enriched the theory of tourism resources development of the coastal zone. It also has reference value for clarifying the development orientation of different coastal areas and regions, giving full play to the advantages of tourism resources, making reasonable development strategies, and providing policy support for the development of the coastal region tourism in the Pearl River Delta.

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    Driving Force behind PM 2.5 Pollution in Guangdong Province Based on the Interaction Effect of Institutional Background and Socioeconomic Activities
    Huang Yongyuan, Zhu Shengjun, Wang Shaojian
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (1): 74-87.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003180
    Abstract443)   HTML6)    PDF (2935KB)(133)      

    In recent years, the driving force behind PM2.5 concentrations has been extensively investigated. Most existing literature has focused on the socioeconomic impact factors that contribute to PM2.5 concentrations; however, the importance of institutional background is ignored. During the period of economic transformation, marketization, decentralization, and globalization were the three important institutional processes in China; these processes were considered as the key factors that contributed to pollution. Therefore, the existing literature separately focuses on the socioeconomic activities and institutional background. However, the interaction effect of these factors on air pollution remains understudied. Therefore, the interaction effect of socioeconomic activities and institutional background on PM2.5 pollution in Guangdong Province, which is the frontier of China’s economic reforms and transformation, must be investigated. Using the PM2.5 concentration data obtained from remote sensing images, spatial Markov chain analysis was performed herein using a spatial econometric model to analyze the spatial- temporal pattern of PM2.5 concentrations and its driving factors. Following results were obtained: 1) the PM2.5 concentrations in the Guangdong Province first increased and then decreased. Over the past 18 years, the PM2.5 concentrations have increased by an average of 55.47%. PM2.5 concentrations in the seven prefecture-level cities in the Pearl River Delta region were within the first-level standard of 35 μg/m 3 according to the Ambient Air Quality Standards. 2) The PM2.5 concentrations showed a spatial distribution structure circling around the Pearl River Estuary and presented a diffusion pattern, followed by concentrating spatial-temporal evolving trend whose variation core is situated in Foshan, Guangzhou, and Dongguan cities. Spatial Markov chain analysis result identified a spatial spillover effect of PM2.5 concentrations in Guangdong Province. If a region is adjacent to the regions with high PM2.5 concentrations, then the probability of PM2.5 concentrations increasing in that region will be high. However, if a region is adjacent to the regions with low PM2.5 concentrations, the probability of PM2.5 concentrations decreasing in that region will be high. 3) Based on the Spatial Lag Model, we examined the interaction effect of institutional background and socioeconomic activities on PM2.5 concentrations after controlling the spatial spillover effect. Empirical results indicate the existence of an environment Kuznets curve during the economic development in Guangdong Province. Overall, pollution-intensive industrial production is one of the most important factors promoting PM2.5 emissions; energy-related technological improvement can significantly lower the PM2.5 concentrations. Marketization has a positive relation with PM2.5 concentrations because the ratio of non-state owned industry rose remarkably and reached 96.8% in 2015; however, regions with a high degree of marketization can weaken the positive effects of industrial production on PM2.5 concentrations. The reason is that a better market order has more stringent environmental standards and requires enterprises to have higher resource-utilization efficiency, which enable to emit relatively few pollutants during the industrial production. Excessive amounts of PM2.5 pollutants can be generated via industrial production during decentralization and the PM2.5 discharge from pollution-intensive industrial production can be reduced because of the “race-to-the-bottom” effect. PM2.5 pollution was reduced because of the introduction of clean technologies during globalization. Based on environmental regulations and global market demands, PM2.5 concentration can be reduced by reducing industrial emissions and incentivizing technological progress.

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    A Spatial-Temporal Pattern Evolution Analysis of Urban Scale Development in the Guangdong-Hongkong-Macao Region Based on Nighttime Light Imagery
    Zhao Lixian, Li Changhui, Song Yang, Li Xi
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (2): 243-253.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003231
    Abstract474)   HTML19)    PDF (6056KB)(128)      

    Taking the Guangdong-Hongkong-Macao region as our study area, we first used the time series data fitting method in TIMESAT to improve the quality of VIIRS nighttime light remote sensing images. We then generated annually averaged nighttime light images from the repaired VIIRS monthly composite data from June 2012 to May 2019. These, combined with the LandScan TM population distribution map and administrative division data, were used to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of urban development in the Guangdong-Hongkong-Macao region for the first time, using a spatial statistics method, rank-size distribution method, and the Nighttime Light Development Index (NLDI) constructed using the Gini coefficient. The experiment was performed at both prefecture and county levels. The following conclusions can be drawn from this study. 1) From 2012 to 2018, the total amount of nighttime light in all prefecture-level cities in the Guangdong-Hongkong-Macao region showed an increasing trend. The total amount of night light in Guangzhou has always been highest, with Shenzhen, Dongguan, Foshan and other economically developed cities maintaining steady increases. The growth rate of nighttime light in small and medium-sized cities was significantly higher than in large cities, and was as high as 310.35% in Shanwei City. Small and medium-sized cities located in the surrounding areas show great development potential. 2) In the rank-size distribution analysis, from 2012 to 2018, the q value at prefecture level and county level decreased by 16.86% and 13.52% respectively. At the prefecture and city level, the distribution of urban scale has gradually changed from a first-place distribution to a rank-size distribution. At the district and county level, it has remained a first-place distribution, but the tendency to disperse has been greater than the tendency to concentrate. The "Core-Edge" urban network structure that had prevailed in the Guangdong-Hongkong-Macao region for a long time has gradually been broken. The gaps between urban structure levels are gradually narrowing, and the scale development is gradually becoming more balanced across the whole region. 3) It can be seen from the analysis of the Nighttime Light Development Index that the differences in nighttime light levels and population distribution levels in the Guangdong-Hongkong-Macao region are gradually decreasing, with the imbalance between cities showing a decreasing trend year by year. The rate of decrease of NLDI in small and medium-sized cities is faster than in large cities, which indicates that the development of small and medium-sized cities is faster. The NLDI values of Jieyang City, Shanwei City and Shantou City, which are all in the east of the Guangdong-Hongkong-Macao region, decreased most significantly, indicating that the east of the region has shown a strong development trend in recent years. This paper presents an analysis the evolution of urban scale distribution in the Guangdong-Hongkong-Macao region from the perspective of spatial statistics, and its dynamic urban development in recent years is discussed herein. These findings have both theoretical and practical significance for optimizing development as well as for scientifically informed distribution of resources in the region.

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    Distribution Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Traditional Market Towns and Linpan Settlements in Chengdu Plain: A Case Study of Pi County, Chengdu City
    Xueyuan Huang, Lei Zhang, Lian Zhou
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (5): 856-867.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003274
    Abstract309)   HTML9)    PDF (2963KB)(124)      

    Linpan is a unique, scattered rural settlement in Chengdu Plain. Linpan residents exchange materials and information in the market town, which is the central node of the traditional era. The spatial distribution of traditional market towns and Linpan settlements is developed on the basis of certain natural and social conditions, which are the manifestations of the relationship between man and land in Chengdu Plain. This study took Pi county as an example, as it represents the regional characteristic of Linpan in Chengdu plain. According to modern maps and related geographic information, this study revealed the changes in spatial distribution characteristics of Linpan settlements and the distribution of market towns in Pi County in 1947, 1970, 1985, 2000, and 2018, using GIS spatial analysis, kernel density estimation, Euclidean distance, Gini coefficient, and other methods. The results are as follows: First, there are clear spatial differences in the distribution of Linpan settlements in different periods. From the distribution characteristics of different periods, before economic reforms and liberalization, the distribution of Linpan settlements was affected by its political and economic center. Thereafter, the distribution of Linpan settlements demonstrates the characteristics of homogenization and rapid development. However, the process of urbanization has fundamentally changed the scattered characteristics of Linpan settlements, and its aggregation degree has considerably increased. From the distribution changes over time, the high-density Linpan settlements tend to distribute around the traditional market towns and urban built-up areas. Second, the market radius of the traditional market town is about 3 km, and the traffic condition primarily determines the site selection of the traditional town. Before the end of the Republic of China, the location of the market town was affected by waterway traffic. Afterwards, the transportation convenience introduced by waterway traffic was replaced by land traffic. Third, the equilibrium degree of spatial distribution of traditional market towns in different periods, is in the following order: 1985 > 2000 > 1970 > 2018 > 1947. The distribution of traditional market towns would tend to be balanced with the self-organizing behavior of Linpan residents and the regulation and control of relevant policies. However, because of an increase in policy intervention in the early stage of economic reforms and liberalization, the market town is no longer affected by the spontaneous activities of Linpan residents. The trading space of the market and town has changed from the traditional streets, squares, teahouses, and clubhouse gates to facilities and indoor fixed places. Finally, Linpan settlements are distributed along the river system. In the traditional period, the relationship between Linpan settlements and the major roads was not significant. However, currently, the Linpan settlements are distributed along the road. Based on the comparative analysis of several periods, this study reveals the distribution characteristics and evolution process of traditional market towns and Linpan settlements and discusses the relationship between them. Moreover, this can provide a new perspective for the orderly and healthy development of urban and rural space in Chengdu Plain.

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    A Research Framework for the Application of Volunteered Geographic Information in Post-Disaster Recovery Monitoring
    Yan Yingwei, Ma Dawei, Fan Hongchao
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (2): 184-193.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003239
    Abstract291)   HTML11)    PDF (2297KB)(121)      

    In recent years, many studies on the application of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) to natural disaster management have been reported. To date, it has been shown that VGI can provide big geospatial data, incorporating rich content and extensive spatiotemporal coverage, in a real-time and cost-effective manner. Thus, it can facilitate disaster management by filling information voids known to occur in traditional geospatial datasets. However, existing studies have mostly focused on disaster prevention, preparedness, and response phases, and few studies have focused on post-disaster recovery. The aim of the proposed work is to help bridge this research gap by investigating how VGI data can facilitate post-disaster recovery monitoring, both in general, and for specific aspects such as tourism, business, industry, and the daily routines of residents. In the work reported here, we first review the development of VGI research in the decade since 2007, and then propose a research framework for post-disaster recovery monitoring, based on VGI data. The research framework involves three key components—data acquisition, data quality control, and data mining. Data acquisition is generally referred to as VGI collection (for example, OpenStreetMap, Twitter, and Flickr data), while authoritative data (such as remote sensing data, official statistics, and field survey data) can be collected as ancillary information. Data quality control is based on a fuzzy expert system, which considers Linus’ law, metadata, data lineage and provenance, geographic contexts (Tobler’s first law of geography), user credibility, spatiotemporal data density, and user activeness, and leverages artificial neural networks (deep learning) for optimizing the fuzzy rule sets of the expert system. Data mining is based on the transformative paradigm, using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches, involving text mining, spatial statistics, and machine learning. Using this combination, the status of infrastructure (roads, electricity, water, transport, housing, buildings, and telecoms), the economy (external sources of economy, internal sources of economy, and services), and safety (reputation, secondary disasters, health, security, and stability), which are the three main measures of post-disaster recovery, are investigated. This work thus paves a way for future studies related to this topic, identifying both research and practical implications. We also identify limitations in using VGI for post-disaster recovery management. The first of these is that a VGI source may rapidly become obsolete due to the fast development of cyberspace, making it imperative for researchers to keep the technique up-to-date, adapting it to the diverse and emerging VGI sources. The second limitation is that certain VGI platforms do not provide all the data available in their databases, and have imposed constraints on their Application Programing Interfaces (APIs). The third limitation is related to privacy issues pertinent to VGI data use. We suggest that the future work should also focus on seamlessly integrating VGI with traditional post-disaster recovery monitoring approaches, such as remote sensing, field surveys, and resident interviews.

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    Evolution of Coral Shingle Cays in the Nansha Islands during 2009-2017
    Shengnan Zhou, Qi Shi, Huayu Guo, Hongqiang Yang, Hongqiang Yan
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (4): 694-708.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003255
    Abstract303)   HTML9)    PDF (3601KB)(121)      

    Coral shingle cays are distributed widely around coral reefs and islands in the South China Sea; however, their formation and evolution are little understood. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of three coral shingle cays at the Yongshu, Ximen, and Anda reefs, respectively, in the Nasha Islands had been built after they were investigated in 2017. Based on the modern DEMs of the shingle cays, different DEMs of the shingle cays were reconstructed at the past four intervals of 2011 (2009), 2013, 2015 and 2017 by remote sensing analysis; thus, the geomorphic features and evolution that the cays underwent from 2009-2017 was revealed. During this periods, the shingle cay at the Anda Reef experienced near constant erosion, shrinking continuously and showing losses of 50%, 70%, and 72% in average height, area, and volume, respectively, as part of a general declining trend. The shingle cay at the Yongshu Reef was dominated by horizontal and vertical accretions; its average height, area, and volume increased by approximately 21%, 62% and 103%, respectively, from 2011-2017. The area of the shingle cay at the Ximen Reef showed horizontal accretion, with an increase of approximately 160%, but its average height declined by approximately 31% and changes in its volume were insignificant. At both the Yongshu and Ximen reefs, the shingle cays moved eastward or southeastward into the lagoon or inner reef flat, with the centroid being displaced 41.18 m and 55.71 m, respectively; the average rates of movement were 0.6 m/month and 0.8 m/month, respectively. In contrast, the shingle cay at the Anda Reef moved northwestward towards the outer reef flat for a larger distance (193.1 m) and at a greater velocity (2.1 m/month) than the other reefs moved. The evolution of three shingle cays was controlled mainly by monsoon- and typhoon-driven waves, and was influenced by differences in hydrodynamics based on their locations and the shapes of the reef flat. As a result, the three shingle cays showed two different modes of evolution: migration and shrinking towards the outer reef flat and migration and extension into the lagoon or inner reef flat. The geomorphic evolution of these coral shingle cays in the Nansha Islands provides an important scientific basis for extensive study of the geomorphic development, and the dynamic mechanism thereof, of coral islands in the South China Sea. Further research will combine long-term remote sensing analysis and regular field observations of the ecology, sedimentology, and hydrodynamics of the coral shingle cays and neighboring reef areas, and focus on the long-term processes of coral shingle cay formation and evolution to reveal the key environmental factors thereof and the mechanisms affecting them.

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    Spatial Distribution Patterns and Factors Influencing the Shanghai Catering Industry Based on POI Data
    Jinyue Tang, Yijun He, Na Ta
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 1015-1025.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003280
    Abstract335)   HTML19)    PDF (1951KB)(120)      

    Commercial space structure is an important research focus of Urban Geography. Analyzing the spatial distribution of urban commerce is of great significance to urban planning management, within which spatial distribution patterns of the catering industry have always been a focus of research. Quantitative analysis of the catering industry's spatial pattern and influencing factors using big data is a primary trend in recent research. This paper uses Shanghai as a case-study. Based on POI data and using GIS spatial analysis methods and spatial regression models, the spatial distribution patterns, influencing factors, and internal heterogeneity of different catering industry types are investigated. This paper's conclusions are useful for understanding the influence of urban internal spatial elements on the catering industry's spatial pattern. It also provides a location selection reference for the catering industry and analyzes residents' consumption behavior. We find that the catering industry is clustered and multi-centered, and concentrated in the central urban area. The foreign catering industry is highly concentrated within the inner ring, extending from east to west. The fast-food industry is primarily agglomerated in central areas and rural-urban continua where universities cluster. We use a spatial error model to analyze the influencing factors, finding that the catering industry distribution is influenced by four factors: population, economy, transportation, and space. A larger population provides for more consumers in the catering industry, and the spatial concentration of the population can promote the creation of more catering companies. The catering industry tends to assemble in areas with a higher level of regional economic development. Superior transportation conditions can attract catering companies, but the influences of transport facilities differ. Parking facilities and bus stations are vital to the catering industry. In terms of macroeconomic location, catering industries concentrate around regional centers. Densities of catering companies within the inner ring are significantly higher than those outside. The density of catering companies does not show a significant difference between new towns and the Puxi area. Regarding the micro-built environment, the clustering of public, leisure, entertainment, and cultural facilities positively impacts the distribution of catering companies; however, the degree of diversity of surrounding industry types negatively impacts agglomeration. There are also differences in the factors affecting the catering industry's four distribution types: Chinese food, western food, fast food, and dining establishments. Western food companies tend to be located in areas with higher land prices. Chinese food companies have a greater demand for traffic accessibility. The distribution of dining establishments corresponds significantly to the level of local economic development. The distribution of fast-food companies is closely related to cultural and entertainment public facilities. We extrapolate the relevant theories of urban commercial space structures, providing theoretical support to facilitate the catering industry in choosing company locations and conduct future urban planning.

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    Spatial Effect of Construction Land Misallocation in China: An Empirical Analysis Based on Data o 235 Cities
    Junfeng Zhang, Congcong Wang, Lei Xu, Yuwei Weng
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (2): 217-228.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003327
    Abstract219)   HTML17)    PDF (2027KB)(118)      

    China's social and economic development is currently transitional. There is great incompatibility between the traditional construction land allocation model and the requirements of social and economic development, marked by a prominent contradiction between the supply and demand of construction land that has severely restricted the sustained and healthy development of China's social economy. Improving the efficiency of land resource allocation has become a new driving force for economic growth. With the limited driving power of this factor input for economic development, it is important to explore the occurrence and mechanism of rare construction land resource misallocation to secure the structural benefits of construction land allocation and sustainable economic development, as correcting construction land misallocation would greatly advance land supply-side reform and improve the efficiency of land resource allocation. To explain the mechanism of construction land misallocation, the article builds models for the measurement of both construction land misallocation and its mechanism, applying methods such as spatial autocorrelation model and the spatial Dubin model (SDM). Using these models, we focus on the space-time characteristics, driving factors, and spatial effects of construction land misallocation in China from 2001 to 2016. The sample data in this article come from 235 prefecture-level cities in China. The results show that the misallocation of construction land in China tends to decrease, followed by an increase, with a spatial distribution high in the West and low in the East. There were obvious spatial agglomeration and association features of construction land misallocation and its influencing factors in China, but the spatial correlation effect has weakened. Land financial dependence, industrial structure optimization, and market development have a significant negative impact on construction land misallocation, while government corruption and economic development have a significant positive impact and exert a space spillover effect. We find that the misallocation of construction land in our country is widespread and shows an upward trend. Changing the mode of economic development, increasing government governance, and improving market mechanisms and regional integration can effectively alleviate the misallocation of regional construction land. This paper is significant in discussing the driving factors of construction land misallocation from both theoretical and empirical perspectives, and in analyzing their spatial effect for the first time. It provides research directions and ideas for quantitatively exploring the problem of land resource misallocation, and indicates a feasible way to correct the misallocation of land resources.

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    Identification and Patterns of Employment and Residential Centers in a Cross-Border Region Based on Mobile Phone Signaling Data: A Case Study of Guangzhou and Foshan
    Li Ying, Chen Tingting, Li Xun, Xu Weipan, Lang Wei
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (2): 206-216.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003211
    Abstract437)   HTML22)    PDF (4526KB)(117)      

    Based on mobile phone signaling data, this study uses the Guangzhou-Foshan area as the focus area of a case study. The spatial structure is determined using the Lorenz method, and the spatio-temporal characteristics of job-housing are analyzed in a cross-border region. The findings of the study are as follows. First, the job-housing space of Guangzhou exhibits the characteristics of a single employment center and suburbanization, which is mismatched. The job-housing space of Foshan is mixed and presents a spatial pattern of "large scatter, small cluster," which is related to the urban development mode. Second, the job-housing space presents a new trend that emerged after the cities of Guangzhou and Foshan were integrated. The cross-border region, including Jinshazhou, Fangcun, and Guicheng, has formed a continuous high-intensity commuting area. Third, the job-housing patterns of the five cross-border regions are quite different. The Huadu airport area and the new station area (also referred to as a traffic hub type) support the airport economy and the high-speed rail economy, which affects the flow of labor and capital factors in the two cities and drives industrial development of surrounding areas. At the center of the cross-border region, the Jinshazhou and Fangcun-Guicheng regions (living type) undertake the resident spillover of Guangzhou and Foshan. The Wusha region (industry type) has a geographical advantage of forming a cross-border industrial park, attracting nearby residents for work. This research provides meaningful guidance and practice for the development of cross-border regions. Further, it provides new analytical dimensions and perspectives for related research. It can be seen that the development of different types of transboundary areas is conducive to suturing space rifts between the cities of Guangzhou and Foshan, thereby accelerating the integration of urban space. Based on the Lorenz curve, this study innovatively introduces a stricter endogenous threshold method to determine the threshold value of vocational and residential centers of Guangzhou and Foshan. Existing research mainly focuses on Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, and other big cities. From the perspective of regional functions, this study focuses on cross-border regions and aims to provide references for regional coordinated development. However, some deficiencies still persist in this study, such as one person with multiple phone numbers, or incomplete samples of mobile phone signaling data. In the follow-up study, other trajectory data such as subway use and traffic can be added for verification. In addition, if the economic and social attributes of individual residents can be combined, the characteristics of people residing in cross-border areas during urbanization can be analyzed more precisely. This will be conducive to identifying patterns inoccupation and residence space.

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