Wumeng Mountains is a short term for the continuously and particularly impoverished area in the Wumeng Mountain region. More than 200 important and typical karst landscape resources, which are widely distributed in different karst areas, have been discovered to present in the Wumeng Mountains. There is a complete range of karst landscapes in their typical forms, including mountains (peak clusters, peak forests, cuestas, hills, pictographic mountains, dome mountains, etc.), gorges (including Difeng), mountain gorges, natural bridges, stone forests, pillar-like peaks, cliffs, platforms, denudation surfaces, depressions (valleys), dolines, plains, basins, poljes, caves and various speleothems, light-through caves, tiankeng, karst windows, shafts, underground rivers, waterfalls, lakes, springs, wetlands, forests, cultural landscapes, and more. This study analyzed and examined many factors of the Wumeng Mountains, including the social economy, poverty alleviation status, natural environment, and regional geological settings, as well as the karst features, to discuss the karst landscape types and distributions systematically, assess the karst tourism potential for poverty alleviation through an analysis of the resources potential, suitability for development, regional features, development conditions, and market potential, and finally define the correlation between karst tourism potential and karst features. The study reached the following conclusions: 1) The Wumeng Mountains region includes numerous karst landscapes, with typical forms, that cover all of the types of karst landscapes and comprise 118 individual karst landscapes or karst landscape areas with different levels of advantages (including 78 provincial-level and 32 national-level and international-level karst landscape areas and many county-level individual karst landscapes or karst landscape areas). These individual karst landscapes or karst landscape areas form a stable pyramidal resource structure and are distributed in county-karst areas with different characteristics of solubility (that is, strong, easy, and weak solution conditions) that are located in three karst districts of Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan Provinces and are classic concentration areas and outstanding representatives of plateau karst landscapes in the world. They present different types of landscapes and reflect obvious regional features and advantages. 2) In general, with gradual lowering of the karst landscape distribution density (from 39.13 to 19.58 and 4.91 items per ten thousand square kilometers), weakening of solubility (from strongly soluble to easily soluble and weakly soluble areas), and reduction of landscape area level (from international level to national level, provincial level, and county level), the three continuous karst areas in Guizhou, Yunnan, and Sichuan and each county-level karst region, as well as each individual karst landscape or landscape area, have progressively lower advantages, concentrations, scales, and popularities, which accordingly result in gradually diminishing tourism potential for poverty alleviation. 3) The most suitable and dominant tourism products with the greatest number of advantages and greatest development potential for the Wumeng Mountains are sightseeing and leisure, and the Wumeng Mountains could be established as a sightseeing and leisure tourist destination for caves, mountain gorges, Difeng, karst windows, natural bridges, tiankeng, waterfalls, and lakes, which has international-level advantages. 4) The regional features, development conditions, and market potential of the Wumeng Mountains are obviously inferior to those of other similar karst regions. Finally, the study proposed five karst tourism modes for poverty alleviation, i.e., sightseeing and leisure tourism, ecological tourism, scientific tourism, cultural tourism, and scientific exploration. Additionally, the study evaluated guaranteeing mechanisms of karst tourism for poverty alleviation through aspects such as government, infrastructure, regional tourism development, regional cooperation, and development concept.