Table of Content

    05 May 2018, Volume 38 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Multi-disciplinary Research Values of the Nanling Mountains
    ZHOU Guoyi,ZHANG Hongou and ZHOU Ping
    2018, 38 (3):  293-298.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003054
    Abstract ( )   PDF (598KB) ( )   Save
    The Nanling Mountains contain one of the most important subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests on earth, as compared with other regions at the same latitudes.The region forms an important ecological barrier in southern China and is the source of several significant rivers, including the Xiangjiang, Ganjiang and Beijiang Rivers.The unique Danxia landform led to international recognition of the importance of the Nanling Mountains in the 20th century.Over the past 90 years, research in the Nanling Mountains area has included geological structure, granite mineralization, Danxia landform, climate change, biodiversity, flora, large fungi and the monitoring of birds, mammals and butterflies.There has also been research into evergreen broad-leaved forests, the Nanling Corridors, nature reserves, landscape patterns and ecological tourism.We found that the Nanling region was of great significance not only in relation to studies of its physical and human geography, geosciences and life sciences, such as biodiversity, flora and ecosystems, but also for inter-disciplinary and multi-disciplinary research.We suggest that the region could be used as a long-term research base with high potential values for comprehensive, inter-disciplinary and multi-disciplinary research.
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    Analysis of Climatic Characteristics and Trend in Typical Regions with the Same Latitude as the Nanling Moutainous Area
    ZHOU Ping and LIU Zhiyong
    2018, 38 (3):  299-311.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003052
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    Based on the observations of 91 meteorological stations and an atmospheric circulation model (CCSM3),the climatic characteristic parameters of typical regions with the same latitude as the Nanling mountainous area were analyzed,the temperature and precipitation in different regions were forecasted until 2099,and the sensitivity of net primary productivity to temperature and precipitation was explored.We further explored the possible causes of climate difference in typical regions with the same latitude as the Nanling moutainous area.It has showed that arid and humid periods had different patterns among the studied regions.The Sahara Desert,the Arabian Desert and the Thar Desert only had an arid period,whereas both the Mexican Dryland and Nanling had a wet (moist and even humid) period.However,the seasons in which wet periods appeared was different between these two regions; Nanling had a rainy season during the spring and summer during plant growth,while the rainy season occurred in autumn in the Mexican Dryland.The potential evapotranspiration,wind speed and sunshine fraction of the Sahara Desert,the Arabian Desert and the Thar Desert were higher than those of the Mexican Dryland and Nanling,but the precipitation showed the opposite pattern.The water vapor pressure in the dry season of the Mexican Dryland was close to those of the Sahara Desert and the Arabian Desert but lower than the values for the wet season in the Mexican Dryland and those of the Thar Desert and Nanling.In the B1 climate scenario,a t-test of the temperature and precipitation data for every 20 years during the period 2000–2099 and 1981–2010 showed a significant upward trend (P<0.001) in the future temperature of the five typical regions.In contrast,precipitation showed a significant decrease or significant increase in different proportions in different stages and regions,even though there was an increasing trend overall.The sensitivity of the net primary productivity to temperature was zero in all five studied regions,indicating that the precipitation is a limiting factor for all studied regions.The deserts of the Sahara Desert and the Arabian Desert were significantly more sensitive to precipitation than the Mexican Dryland,the Thar Desert and Nanling.In addition to climate change,the reasons for different climatic conditions in Nanling moutainous area and other regions with same latitude include probably the spatial position of each region to the ocean and land,disturbance of human activities,and the roughness of topography.
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    The Macrofungal Diversity in the Nanling Mountains
    SONG Bin,DENG Wangqiu,ZHANG Ming and LI Taihui
    2018, 38 (3):  312-320.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003053
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    The Nanling Mountain region of South China is very rich in macrofungal resources, and also is the largest oasis near 25 degrees north latitude. The macrofungal diversity in the Nanling Mountains was introduced in this paper. 37 species originally described from the type localities in the Nanling were listed, including the Latin name, Chinese name, habitat and distribution; some misidentification or questionable species were annotated; the dominant families or genera, floristic elements, resource protection and sustainable utilization in the Nanling Mountains were analyzed. Strengthening the researches and protection of macrofungal diversity in the Nanling Mountains is greatly important not only for scientific significance, but also for ecosystem stability, regional environmental safety and future industrial development.
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    β-diversity of Bird Assemblages in the Nanling Mountain Ranges
    QUAN Qing,TANG Xuan,WU Yi and ZOU Fasheng
    2018, 38 (3):  321-327.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003047
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    How to divide the world into biogeographical regions is a long concerned issue and recently intrigues the research interest because rich data about phylogeny and traits of taxa has been gained nowadays. β-diversity patterns was applied, based on 46 places located in 3 subregions (one belongs to South China and two belong to Central China) of Chinese animal geography, to re-analyze the robustness of setting Nanling Mountain Ranges as part of the boundaries between Central and South China. The results revealed that: 1) the taxonomic and phylogenetic dissimilarities among the three subregions were small and dissimilarities related to nestedness and species turnover had varied contributions to the distances between assemblages of three subregions; 2) resident birds, summer breeders and wintering birds affected the β diversity patterns differently; the dissimilarities were strong when analyzing the assemblages of resident birds and they became weaker when counting the summer and winter visitors; 3) in the eastern-western direction remarkable phylogenetic distance happened between places far from each other; in the northern-southern direction great phylogenetic distance happened between far and neighboring locations. The results above indicated that the phylogenetic structures of bird assemblages changed beyond expectations from south to north side of the Nanling Mountains, which suggests that it is reasonable to treat the Nanling Mountain ranges as part of the border between Central and South China of animal geography.
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    Forest Bird Diversity Investigation on the Guangdong Nanling National Nature Reserve
    LIU Zhifa,YANG Changteng and GONG Yuening
    2018, 38 (3):  328-336.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003050
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    To understand the dynamic changes of bird species and numbers and the habitat status of birds in Guangdong Nanling National Nature Reserve, we surveyed 11 bird monitoring lines in April, July and October 2017. The results are: 1) 89 species were recorded (11 orders and 27 families), of which 61 species of 15 families in the passeriformes. The frequency of discovery was 888 times, and the number of records was 3367. Hemixoscastanonotus, Alcippemorrisonia, Dendrocittaformosae and Leiothrixlutea were in the top five. 2) The majority were resident birds, a total of 61 species, accounting for 68.5%; 15 species were summer migrants, accounting for 16.9%; 7 species of migrant birds, accounting for 7.9%; and 6 species of winter migrants, accounting for 6.7%. The composition of the bird fauna was dominated by Oriental-boundary bird species, totaling 62 species, accounting for 69.7%; 19 species widely distributed, accounting for 21.3%; and 8 species of ancient north species, accounting for 9.0%. 3) April is the active period of bird breeding in the Nanling Mountains, and it was also the month that recorded the most bird species and the largest number of birds. Among the 11 sample lines, Xiangsikeng, Lutian, Hengshui, Nanmu, Zeziping, Dianshitai and Diyifeng have a higher Shannon Wiener index compared to Yikeng, Xiandong, Danganchong and Zhuao. 4) According to altitude and vegetation type, bird communities can be divided into four categories: coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests (low elevation), evergreen broad-leaved forests, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests (high elevation) and mountaintop trollies. In the 300~1 500 m coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest and the evergreen broad-leaved forest, there was no great difference in the habitat of the bird community. The dominant species were Hemixoscastanonotus, Alcippemorrisonia and Dendrocittaformosaeetc. However, the habitat of high-altitude hilltop coppice (1300~1800 m) was obviously different, the common species were Leiothrixlutea, Stachyrisruficeps, Trochalopteronmilnei, Garrulaxmaesi and Alcippemorrisonia of Timaliidae and Phyllergatescuculatus, Seicercusvalentini, Seicercuscastaniceps and Phylloscopusreguloides of Sylviidae. It is recommended to establish a Nanling bird diversity monitoring network and evaluation system to use long-term bird monitoring data, such as species changes and population fluctuations, as indicators for evaluating the ecological environment quality of protected areas.
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    Geographical Detection of Regional Demarcation in the Nanling Mountains
    WANG Yuying and DONG Yuxiang
    2018, 38 (3):  337-346.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003049
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    The Nanling is the largest mountain system in the southern part of China, there is a certain dispute over whether it has a distinct regional demarcation effect, in that case the Geodetector, a new spatial analysis model to reveal the driving force behind it and can measure spatial diversity, can be used by choosing temperature, precipitation, vegetation type and soil type indicators to quantitatively identify the territorial boundaries of the Nanling mountains from the perspective of spatial heterogeneity, in order to get the contribution degree of different zoning indexes to the boundary of the Nanling Mountain area, and the geographical significance of the Nanling mountains can be more objectively and accurately understood. The results showed: 1) the Nanling mountain area has obvious regional demarcation, the highest q value reaches 0.99, the Within Sum of Squares (SSW) of the south of the mountains and the north of the mountains is far less than the Total Sum of Squares (SST), the spatial stratified heterogeneit of the two sides of the Nanling mountain region is significant. 2) Nanling regional difference is mainly reflected in the specific temperature, there are 5 indexes having the greatest contribution to the regional boundary of the Nanling Mountains, which are the average temperature of the coldest month, the annual mean minimum temperature, ≥10℃ accumulated temperature, the number of days when daily mean temperature ≥10℃ and the annual average temperature; The contribution of vegetation type, soil type and precipitation index to the regional demarcation of the Nanling mountain area is less than that of the temperature index, and their contribution degree decreased in turn. 3) The regional demarcation of the Nanling mountains has obvious seasonal difference. It is notable in spring, autumn and winter, but decreases in summer. In terms of precipitation, seasonal fluctuation is obvious, and it is significant in summer and autumn, and reaches its peak in November. The research results would have certain guiding significance for the areas south of the Nanling and north of the Nanling to carry out agricultural production and daily life in local conditions. At the same time, it also would provide a new way of thinking for the study of the boundary of other mountainous regions.
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    Study on the Soil Erosion Sensitivity in the Nanling Mountains, Guangdong, Using the RUSLE Model
    WANG Jun,ZHOU Ping,GONG Qinghua,YANG Long,WEN Meili and FU Shuqing
    2018, 38 (3):  347-355.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003046
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    In recent years, due to the intense human activities, the ecological environment of the Nanling National Nature Reserve, Guangdong Province, China, has been severely damaged and the soil erosion has been exacerbated. The sensitivity and spatial differentiation characteristics of the soil erosion in this area are urgently needed to be studied so that providing a reasonable scientific basis for local formulation of water and soil conservation measures, eco-environment conservation, and economic and social sustainable development. In this paper, based on the modified universal soil erosion equation (RUSLE) and Geographic Information System (GIS), factors affecting the sensitivity of soil erosion, such as rainfall erosion factor, soil erosion factor, slope length and steepness factor, and vegetation and management factor, were analyzed, and a single factor sensitivity assessment map was generated. On this basis, the comprehensive evaluation of the soil erosion sensitivity in the study area was achieved. The distribution of different soil erosion sensitivity and the spatial differentiation characteristics of the dominant factor were discussed finally. The results showed that the range of variation of rainfall erosion was from 8 181.52 to 14 621.56 MJ·mm/(hm2·h·a), the range of soil erosion was from 0.146 to 0.238 t·h/(MJ·mm), the slope length and steepness factor was ranging from 0 to 612.615 and the vegetation and management factor C was ranging from 0.101 to 1.183. The maximum and average values of soil erosion were 7 016.44 and 137.69 t/(km2·a), respectively. The sensitivity of soil erosion in the study area was mainly low sensitivity and lower sensitivity, whose areas accounted for about 90.44% of the total of the study site. The area above moderate sensitivity was 55.81 km2, accounting for about 9.56% of the total. The area of high sensitivity and higher sensitivity was about 6.45 km2, which only accounted for 1.10% of the total area and mainly distributed on both sides of mountain ridges and human activities in steep terrain. The comparison results between analysis of the soil erosion sensitivity and interpretation of remote sensing images showed that the RUSLE model was in good agreement with natural erosion, and there was more difference between the model result and the accelerated erosion induced by the human activity. It is necessary to further study the type and main controlling factors of soil erosion in the study area, and then revise the RUSLE model to highlight the accelerating effect of human activities on soil erosion so that making the model more realistic and reasonable. Different impact factors have different ranges of sensitivity in different zoning areas. Topographic factors and vegetation cover and management factors are the most sensitive to soil erosion in the study area, which can be adapted to local conditions and targeted soil erosion control measures can be adopted to prevent soil erosion. In particular, attention should be paid to control of the intensity of human activities for maintaining the ecological landscape and preventing the occurrence of secondary disasters such as collapses, landslides, and mudslides. The study results could be applied to the planning of soil and water conservation, land resources management in the Nanling National Nature Reserve, Guangdong Province, China.
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    Ancient Post Roads in the Nanling Mountains
    LIANG Guozhao,TANG Guangliang and LI Xiaoling
    2018, 38 (3):  356-363.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003055
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    The Nanling Mountains are a mountain system lying across Southern China, and serve as the dividing ridges between the Yangtze Basin and the Pearl Basin. There were many ancient post roads across the mountains, of which five roads were the most important. The five important ancient post roads were situated on the Five Ridges, and so the Five Ridges have been famous for their post roads. The ancient post roads of the Nanling connected the navigable rivers between the Yangtze and the Pearl systems, and goods from the north could be easily transported to Guangzhou, which was one of the most important departure ports of the ancient Marine Silk Road. Since the Qin Dynasty, the Nanling Mountains have always been called the Five Ridges. However, what and where are the Five Ridges? That has long been a problem. At present the Five Ridges are normally designated as Dayuling, Qitianling, Dupangling, Mengzhuling, and Yuechengling. Some people considered that in addition to the above-mentioned ancient post roads on the Five Ridges, there was another important ancient road on the Yunmenling at the easternmost of the Nanling, connecting the navigable rivers between southern Jiangxi and eastern Guangdong. Some geographers even held that the Nanling Mountains may also be called the Six Ridges. In this paper the historical functions and evolution of the ancient post roads in the Nanling Mountains are discussed. It is found that the main functions of the ancient post roads were merchants’ activities, and the roads played very important roles in the economic and human exchanges between northern and southern ancient China, as well as in the prosperity of the Marine Silk Road. It is also found that in the ancient period of two thousand years the communications of the Nanling had a trend that the traffic core moved from west to east. At first the post road of Yuechengling in the west was the most important, while from the Tang Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty the Dayuling post road in the east became the busiest one.
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    The Temporal-spatial Characteristics of the Pseudo-timberline in Shimentai National Nature Reserve and Its Adjacent Areas Based on 3S Technology
    ZHANG Qi,DU Jianhui,TIAN He and HUANG Yixin
    2018, 38 (3):  364-371.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003045
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    As an important ecological boundary, the pseudo-timberline is the product of multiple environmental factors, and widely distributed in subtropical regions, but the distribution characteristics and influencing factors are poorly understood. In this paper, spatial-temporal characteristics of the pseudo-timberline in Shimentai National Nature Reserve and its adjacent areas were studied with the 3S technology according to the high resolution QuickBird images and DEM data from two phases in 2011 and 2015. The results showed that: the pseudo-timberline was distributed at altitudes between 317 m and 1 569 m, of which 80% was from 700 m to 1200 m. Considering the distribution frequency of the pseudo-timberline at different altitudes, the overall trend firstly showed an increase, then followed by a decrease with increasing altitude, and the maximum frequency was found at the altitudes from 1 000 to 1 100 m, accounting for 18.33%. Meanwhile, the average altitude of the pseudo-timberline distributed in different slopes and aspects all showed a rising trend, but it was not very significant (P>0.1). The pseudo-timberline was mainly distributed on the slopes from 5° to 35°, while few was on the flat ground of less than 2°, and the vertical slope with gradient over 55°. The highest average altitude and the maximum altitude of pseudo-timberline were both concentrated on the slopes from 5° to 15°, while the lowest values all occured on the vertical slope, and the proportion of the pseudo-timberline was only 0.03%. The altitude of timberline indicated obvious variations in different aspects of the study area (P<0.001), in which the altitude on the north slope was significantly higher than that on the south, and that on the east slightly higher than that on the west. The highest altitude of timberline was on the northwest slope while the lowest was on the south slope. As for the distribution frequency of the pseudo-timberline on different slopes, the largest was on the west slope, reaching 22.65%, while the lowest on the northeast slope, only 6%, and that on the east slope and the west slope was far greater than that on the south slope and the north slope. The habitat of the plant communities near the pseudo-timberline is special, and the environmental factors that affect its distribution are also complicated. In the future, we need to further combine the high precision remote sensing image with the ground long-term field observation, so as to further study the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of the pseudo-timberline and its influencing factors.
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    The Industrial Ecologicalization Path for Fine Chemical Industry in Ecological Development Zone under the Policy Regulation:Taking Coating Industry in Shaoguan City as an Example
    JIN Lixia,ZHANG Hong’ou,LAN Fang,YE Yuyao,WANG Changjian and CHEN Weilian
    2018, 38 (3):  372-383.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003026
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    Based on the study of the choice of industries and the path of industrial development, the case study on the transformation and upgrading of stock industries under the policy regulation still needs to be strengthened. Based on the theoretical perspective of industrial chain and industrial ecologicalization, taking the coating industry of national key ecological development zone in the mountains of northern Guangdong Province as an example, this paper studies the ecological development path of polluting industries transferred to ecological development zone under the industrial transfer policy. The research found that under the dual policy regulation of environmental regulation for polluting industries and negative list of industrial access for ecological development zones, the coatings enterprises in the ecological development zone generally face the fate of upgrading or shutting down. On the one hand, the increasingly stricter environment regulation policies in China will increase the cost of enterprises and reduce the corporate profits. On the other hand, it will lead the ecological development of the Chinese coating industry. At the same time, the industrial access policy for ecological development zones has played an important role to constraint corporate behavior and protect the local environment, and also effectively suppresses the government rent-seeking and local protectionism. But it is also the product of the limited rationality of the government, with one-sided nature of environmental protection and subjective understanding, which is not conducive to the benign development of the local industry. From the three levels of government, industrial park and enterprise, the research constructs the ecological path to promote sustainable development of industry. The first is the ecological reconstruction of government management mechanism, including the ecological and fine management of industry access, and incentive policies and measures of promoting industrial ecologicalization, such as establishing the support policy for water coatings and other environmentally friendly coating industry. It also proposes to refine the negative list of industrial admittance including product, production technology and equipment, management capability and level. The second is the ecological remake of Industrial Park, including the ecological reconstruction of the ecological environment and the industrial chain. The last is the ecological transformation of enterprises, including greening the whole productive process of raw materials, production and products. Then it suggests that the subjective status of government should be stressed in the process of the ecological industry. The ecological policy regulation system should be reformed and improved by implementing the ecological incentive mechanism and fine management mechanism for the negative list of industrial access, which standardizes and guides enterprises/parks to actively participate in industry ecological practice, and promotes the industrial ecologicalization of ecological development zone.
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    Spatial Pattern and Causes of Rental Housing in Guangzhou
    LU Junwen,YUAN Qifeng,HUANG Zhe and LI Zhigang
    2018, 38 (3):  384-393.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003027
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    With rapid growing and expanding in urban China, it is of great significance to study how the housing space is being used, especially from the perspective of housing leasing. Existing studies paid plenty of attention to rental housing space and have found that historical inertia during the progress of market-oriented transformation, development of urban rail transit, the adjustment of urban structure and the construction of new towns are the main factors affecting the spatial distribution of rental housing in big cities in China, but these conclusions are mostly drawn from studies conducting on town and subdistrict scale, there is still a lack of empirical research about those from community scale. By using open data from government websites and business websites, this paper draws a picture of the rental housing space in Guangzhou, and attempts to make a demonstration analysis. It is found that rental housing space and commodity housing space are separate obviously in central Guangzhou, while there is a more obvious tendency of sitting along the traffic lines for rental housing space and it even gather in somewhere outside the central city. It employs spatial econometric approaches as K-means spatial clustering analysis to help explore the spatial distribution patterns of rental housing space, and the results show that the rental housing space of Guangzhou is divided into six different types including central leasing-dominated regions, central owner-occupied regions, secondary leasing-dominated regions, periphery leasing-dominated regions, owner-occupied regions of low resident population and the remainders. The results above verified the theoretical assumptions presented earlier in some extent, which represents the general characteristics of the distribution pattern of rental housing space in big cities in China, but these also reflect some particularity of the distribution pattern of rental housing space in Guangzhou. After extensive study, the causes of the spatial distribution patterns of rental housing in Guangzhou are summarized as follows: 1) The rise of investment-oriented housing-purchase boom around 2005 gave birth to the dividing pattern of central leasing-dominated regions and central owner-occupied regions in central urban area of Guangzhou. 2)The rapid development of urban rail transit truly plays an important role in shaping the secondary leasing-dominated regions, but in Guangzhou, the emerge of some of the secondary leasing-dominated regions are inextricably linked with urban development strategies like "extending to east and opening up to south" as well. 3) Industrial suburbanization and residential suburbanization are the forces resulting in the distribution pattern of periphery leasing-dominated regions like industry new towns and large residential communities, but in cross-boundary area between Guangzhou and Foshan (Guang-fo city), the force of Guang-fo integration is nonnegligible, which results in a unique type of periphery leasing-dominated region in Guangzhou. As the new policy of “Renting and buying a house enjoy equal rights” launched, this research may conduct much more significance in assisting housing policy, community administration and spatial planning. Around this theme and considering the situation in Guangzhou, it is instructive to improve the supply of public service and emphasize on distribution of public interest in central city, and quicken the pace of designing pertinent policies for rental housing space along the traffic lines and outside central city.
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    Effects of Administrative Division Adjustments and Structural Reforms on Economic Development of Economically Strong Counties:A Case Study on Shunde
    YE Guanjie and LI Lixun
    2018, 38 (3):  393-404.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003051
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    “Revocation of Counties (Cities) to Districts” based on regional integration and “Province Directly Administrating Counties” based on local initiatives have become important policy tools of economic adjustments during the last twenty years.Scholars have different opinions about their effects on economic development of Economically Strong Counties. Shunde is a special economically strong county, which has gone through these two periods of administrative division adjustments and structural reforms. In order to analyze effects of administrative division system adjustments on economic development of Economically Strong Counties,the study paid close attention to development of administrative division system, management autonomy, regional economy and their relationship during these two periods in Shunde. It made comparisons of different periods of Shunde and contrasted Shunde with entire area when it studied development of regional economy of Shunde. What’s more, it analyzed economic efficiency with DEA model after studying on economic growth of Shunde. It finds: 1) “Revocation of City to District”, weakening important affair (such as planning), finance and personnel rights of Shunde have disadvantages of its economic growth and efficiency; 2)“Reinforcing Rights to Strong County”, “Province Directly Administrating County”, strengthening financial autonomy, general affair rights and personnel rights of Shunde have advantages of its economic growth and efficiency; 3)Levels of regional administration increased, control of different regional departments weakened, and regional developmental needs restricted were part of reasons why the economic development of Shunde was weakened during the period of “Revocation of City to District”. More importantly, economic weakness of the central city and preservation of part of county system in order for smooth going of administrative division adjustments made difficulty of resolution of region segmentation when prefecture-level and county governments differed in views, which had disadvantages of regional integration and economic development of Shunde and Foshan; 4)Levels of regional administration decreased,power and desire of “Super-Ministry System Reform” and “Streamlining Administration and Delegating Power” strengthened, and achievement of regional developmental needs have contributed to strengthening economic development of Shunde after “Reinforcing Rights to Strong County” and “Province Directly Administrating County”.
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    Paths to Rural Governance Based on Cultural Identity and Participatory Capacity: A Social Practice of a Village in East Hubei
    YAO Huasong,HUANG Gengzhi,FENG Shanfu,CHEN Zaiqi and GUO Yan
    2018, 38 (3):  405-412.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003037
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    Facing globalization, urbanization and modernization, rural China witnessed unprecedented deconstruction and reconstruction, which were especially characterized by gradual vanishment of cultural identity as a whole family of a village. As a result, cultural bases of rural governance could be destroyed. At the same time, under rapid urbanization, ‘hollowing-out’ of China’s countries was very universal, which was driven by going-out of lots of young laborers and staying of relatively weak villagers. As a result, Chinese villagers were confronted with great difficulties in deep engagement in the process of rural development and governance, which caused structural problems such as absence of main bodies, inefficiencies of rural governance during the rural development and rural governance. According to the theories of cultural identity and participatory capacity, focusing on cultivation of dominant role of rural governance, and promotion of participatory capacity, this paper made a case study of FX village in East Hubei, implemented activities of rural forum, filial piety and long table dinner, etc, tried to explore the possible paths to move forward rural governance in China. Our experiments figured out that, firstly, the establishment of cultural identity and sense of belonging based on “community” was the preconditions and foundation of rural governance. Secondly, to root rural publicity, to stimulate the villagers’ expression and willingness to participate in rural development, and to enhance the ability of villagers to deliberate, were the essence and key of rural governance in China. Finally, the paper put forward some enlightenments for the current rural (village) planning: 1) The core topic of rural (village) planning was community, community relations and community competence; 2) Rural (village) planning could not follow the city (town) planning; 3) Rural (village) planning should have fully respect for rural local knowledge; 4) Social planning was more important than physical planning in the planning of rural areas; 5) Qualitative analysis and qualitative thinking were vitally important.
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    Protection and Renewal of Traditional Villages from the Perspective of Cultural Gene: A Case Study of Northeast Guizhou Tujia Minority
    LIN Lin,TIAN Jiashuo,ZHONG Zhiping,LI Shiyuan and REN Bingxun
    2018, 38 (3):  413-423.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003048
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    Through the identification, mining and extraction of the cultural landscape gene of Chaoyang Village, a traditional village of Tujia nationality in Guizhou, by deep interview and image map analysis, we find that the cultural landscape of Chaoyang Village incorporates the cultural elements of the Tujia and Han nationalities. Its typical characteristics are reflected in the aspects of environmental characteristics, layout characteristics, architectural characteristics, and cultural characteristics. Among them environmental characteristics are village landscape gene with cross axis of “mountain-water-field-stockade” and “upper stockade-middle stockade-lower stockade”, Layout characteristics of the gene are represented by the lane and lane texture and the dendritic road network structure intertwined with “house-alley-house” and “house-dyke-alley”, architectural gene is embodied in forms of “crossing bracket type and stilt style” and architectural decorative elements from Tujia –Xizi Tower, Wangzi Tower, window grille of tiger totem and arranging the direction of gate according to the date of birth and the eight characters of a horoscope. The cultural gene of the village is composed of words-loving culture, exorcising opera, waving hand dance and Tujia etiquette. In general, the context of the environment, layout, and architectural genes relies on the cultural characteristics of the genes to exist, while the cultural genes use the environment, layout, and architectural characteristics of genes as the carrying objects of inheritance. At the same time, there are also a series of problems in Chaoyang Village. The study found that due to the excessive tourism development and disorderly quarrying, the soil and water of the village had been polluted and the terraced fields had become abandoned, the “mountain-water-field” pattern of traditional villages, the street texture of “house-dyke-alley” and the traditional architectural decorative elements in Chaoyang Village, had been severely damaged. In order to break through the dilemma, the leaders of Chaoyang Village took advantage of the concept of “public participation” and organized a “government-village committee-social group” system to organize multiple parties to participate in the protection of cultural landscapes in Chaoyang Village and better inherit and sustain the cultural landscape. Now we have obtained a series of lessons for us to learn from integrated elements of architectural symbols, unifying the traditional style of streets and lanes, and renovating village natural environments. The future research would focus on two aspects. First, study the protection and development of traditional villages in different regions and different ethnic groups. Second, introduce quantitative techniques and methods into the design of traditional village planning programs. At the same time, adhering to the “people-oriented” concept, we should seriously take the villagers’ behavioral activity into consideration.
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    Relationship between the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of World Cultural Heritage and Human Urban Civilization
    ZHENG Xuesi,SUN Wenrui,HUANG Xu and ZANG Xiaolin
    2018, 38 (3):  424-431.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003036
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    World Cultural Heritage tells the story how the human civilization develops. Most researchers focus on individual study rather than exploring the spatial-temporal distribution of whole World Cultural Heritage and how the distribution of heritage implies the development of human civilization. In this paper UNESCO’s World Heritage data and Google maps are combined to explore the time-spatial relations between the World Cultural Heritage and human civilization, esp. urban civilization. 417 World Cultural Heritage sites are considered to be associated with human civilization in cities, most of them are historical sites and architectural landscapes. 2) Most of World Cultural Heritage is located in European and American cities, while Africa has the least number. This is because of the degree of economic and urban development level. 3) World Cultural Heritage sites that emerged during the Ancient period (3500 B.C. -500A.D.) mainly are religious sites, and are located along the rivers where the condition was conducive to the development of agricultural economy. World Cultural Heritage that emerged during the Middle Ages (500A.D.-1500 A.D.) witnessed the flourishing time of the Renaissance. Those sites include Palaces, Classical Gardens and Temples. Since the 16th Century, there have been more kinds of heritage, such as colonial heritage, military heritage, industrial heritage and lineal cultural heritage, which show history of colonial expansion, industrial development, and the dynamic development of cities. 4) World Cultural Heritage expresses the human wisdom in dealing with problems that were encountered in the city’s development. They also show the profound art and humanity of special cities. In all, the World Cultural Heritage basically covers the different regions all over the world and the historical process of human civilization, reflecting the cultural diversity and continuity of development. Under the context of globalization and “The Belt and Road”, World Cultural Heritage plays the significant role as a carrier for human urban civilization. We need to adopt a broader perspective that is more trans-regional and trans-boundary to study cultural heritage in the future.
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    Saltwater Intrusion Forecasting Based on Random Forest
    SU Chengjia,CHEN Sha and CHEN Xiaohong
    2018, 38 (3):  432-439.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003044
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    Saltwater intrusion forecast is one of the key measures to ensure the safety of water supply in coastal areas which are under serious influences of saltwater intrusion. The purpose of this study was to test and verify the feasibility of random forest (RF) in saltwater intrusion forecast. Thus, the predictors used for model construction were determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient on the basis of candidate predictors, and their lag time between the salinity and predictors was identified by the importance index of variable based on the RF. By taking Dachongkou, a station in the downstream of Modaomen waterway, as a case study, a model for salt water intrusion forecast based on the RF was constructed with the predictors and was applied to the dry season saltwater intrusion forecast. The results showed that among the 9 candidate predictors, there were significant correlations between the salinity and low tide level, flow at Wuzhou, water level at Wuzhou, tidal range at Denglongshan, water level at Shijiao, and flow of Shijiao and Wuzhou, and all of them passed a significant test at 0.05 level. Furthermore, the low tide level at Denglongshan has the highest correlation coefficient with the salinity among the 9 candidate predictors. The remaining candidate predictors, i.e., rainfall, high tide level at Denglongshan, and flow at Shijiao didn’t pass the 95% significant level test, that is, the correlation between salinity and these candidate predictors were not significant. Results of the importance index based on the RF showed that there was a lag time ranged from 1 to 3 days between the salinity and the 6 predictors which passed a significant test at 0.05 level. The results of prediction for the RF model with consideration to the lag time between the salinity and predictors not only satisfied the precision requirements of the saltwater intrusion forecast, but also had a better performance than the one without consideration of the lag time between the salinity and predictors, in which the Nash efficiency coefficient was increased by 0.55, the decision coefficient was increased by 0.33 and the average relative error was reduced by 26.7%. The model considering the lag effects between the salinity and predictors can significantly improve the model performance and is more practical. In addition, the RF model considering the lag effect between the salinity and predictors also had a higher performance when compared to that of the traditional Markoff chain; the average relative error was reduced by 80.4%, the deterministic coefficient and the Nash efficiency coefficient were increased by 0.03 and 0.88, respectively. The correlation between the salinity and predictors is more significant than that of the sequences of salinity itself is the cause for the advantage of the RF model in mid-term and long-term salinity forecast. This study can provide further technical support for saltwater intrusion forecast in coastal areas.
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    Review of the Research in Foreign Countries in the Past 15 Years about Neighborhood Effects on Residents’ Health: A Visualized Analysis Based on CiteSpace Software
    YUAN Yuan,LIN Jing and XIE Lei
    2018, 38 (3):  440-450.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003028
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    With the rapid social and economic transition and marketization of housing estates in China, social segregation and residential differentiation has become increasingly apparent. Although neighborhood environment plays a significant role on the health of residents, there is a lack of research about how neighborhood environment affects Residents’ Health in China. A total 613 papers in web of science of ‘Neighborhood Effects and Health’ were visually analyzed by CiteSpace. This paper reveals important environment factors that influence Residents’ Health and provides a theoretical foundation for health urban planning. The results and conclusions are as follows. Firstly, Neighborhood Effects on Residents’ Health has drawn increasingly extensive attention in nearly 15 years and has concentrated in some research topics, including built environment and social environment. However, due to the differences of urban development background, political and economic system, the research conclusions from the United States and from Europe have some differences. Those from the United States generally agree with the role of neighborhood effect, but those from Europe are more unclear. Secondly, based on the built environment and social environment, the mechanisms of neighborhood effects are elaborated from four perspectives: neighborhood walk ability, public service facilities, neighborhood socio-cultural features and reputation. All those perspectives have a direct or indirect impact on physical health and mental health by influencing residents’ travel mode, physical activity, healthy diet, attitude towards life, mental status, accumulation of stress and limited accessibility to resources. Furthermore, due to the difference of individual socioeconomic status, the built environment has a different impact on different groups. Thirdly, the multi-level analysis using cross-sectional data and the multivariate model are the main research methods, but longitudinal research is relatively lacking. As Geographic Information System (GIS) and smart mobile phones could bring new data collection and analysis methods, the usage of GIS and smart mobile phones would help the research making a major breakthrough. Lastly, based on the analysis above, this paper puts forward three suggestions to promote the research progress in China, namely, combining with the characteristics of China’s neighborhood to choose environment factors, attaching importance to the role of qualitative research methods on revealing the mechanism of neighborhood effect, and increasing longitudinal research to clarify the relationship between individual socioeconomic characteristics and neighborhood environment.
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