Table of Content

    05 July 2017, Volume 37 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Characteristics of China’s OFDI and Related Economic Geography Research Themes: Based on an Analysis of Chinese Investment in the World and ASEAN Countries
    ZHANG Hong’ou,HUANG Gengzhi,WU Kangmin,YE Yuyao,WANG Yang
    2017, 37 (4):  443-451.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002965
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    China has entered a new stage of economic globalization characterized by “going global”. This means that an increasing number of Chinese firms have extended their investment to foreign countries and that as a result China’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) exceeded its inward FDI for the first time in 2014. However, China’s OFDI received little attention in domestic economic geography, leaving some important questions under-researched. This paper firstly analyzes the characteristics of China’s OFDI at the global and regional (the ASEAN region) scales. Five characteristics are found: 1) China has seen a rapid growth of OFDI and entered an accelerated development stage; 2) the distribution of China’s OFDI is geographically uneven, concentrating in Asia at the regional scale and in the USA and Singapore at the international scale; 3) China’s OFDI is mainly from her eastern coastal regions, which is associated with the uneven development in eastern, middle and western parts of China; 3) state-owned enterprises are the primary investors of China’s OFDI, but the investment from private enterprises have increased significantly; and 5) China’s OFDI mainly concentrates on service industries, but the investment in manufacturing sectors has continued to increase. Secondly, this paper discusses four research themes of China’s OFDI from the geographical perspective that focuses on the issues of spatial differences, place and local embeddedness. These themes include: 1) the impact of the institutional distance between home and host countries on the local decision of China’s OFDI; 2) the process of local embeddedness of Chinese firms abroad into host countries, or in other words, the way the Chinese firms adapt to the institutional difference between home and host countries; 3) the location decision difference between state-owned and private enterprises and between the firms with different investment motivations; and 4) the reasons for spatial distribution of China’s OFDI source in different provinces and its potential impacts on the regional development of China. In a word, it is suggested that the research of China’s OFDI from an economic geography perspective should pay attention to the geographical differences between the investment destinations and the investment sources, and the formation mechanism of those differences.
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    Effect of Industrial Transfer Policy on the Evolution of Regional Product Structure: Based on the “Double Transfer” Policy in Guangdong Province
    YANG Jiayi,ZHU Shengjun
    2017, 37 (4):  452-461.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002971
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    A diversified product structure is the force for regional economic growth, exerting profound economic impact on the sustainable development within a specific region. To promote the upgrading of regional production structure is to break through the unitary development model and create a new path. Based on the export trade data of Guangdong’s prefectural cities during 2002-2011, this paper discusses the relationship between Guangdong’s “Double Transfer” Policy and the evolution path of its export structure. The results show that the industrial transfer policy has achieved a certain effect on promoting the evolution of the regional product structure. For the regions that are affected by the transfer-out policy, the product structure there will experience a remarkable upgrading; for the regions that are affected by the transfer-in policy, there will be a push on the evolution of local products. Evidence also implies that the intensity and mechanism of the different factors in the transfer-in and transfer-out of industries varies. According to statistical results, factors connected to the transfer-in of industries such as the level of economic development and the labor cost of the region have little to do with the transfer-out of industries. Therefore, we have to discriminate between transfer-in and transfer-out and be aware of the similarities and differences when analyzing industrial transfer policy to develop effective policies. Industrial transfer policy can not only change the regional product structure, but also bridge the economic gaps between different regions. Considering the status quo of China, less developed and developed regions should jointly develop industrial transfer policies in order to change the current situation of path dependence and production structure lockup due to historical reasons, and to achieve “regional economic integration”. Underdeveloped regions can draw on the product paths from developed regions to seek new growth momentum, thereby closing the space differences across the regions; at the same time, the developed regions can spare the precious land resources by moving its path-dependent industries out, thereby upgrading its product structure. In the development of industrial transfer policies, the industries to be transferred in and out should be carefully decided based on existing local product structure. The calculation of regional technology density shows that the industries compatible with local technologies show greater advantages for transfer-in.
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    Perception and Reacting Strategies to Chinese Outbound Tourist Image: Taking Thailand Public Media as an Example
    2017, 37 (4):  462-472.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002969
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    By conducting content analysis of public media materials in Thailand, this research investigates into the construction, understandings and comments of the Chinese outbound tourists’ images in the host country’s society. The interactions between public media, tourist behavior and tourist image were examined, while the dynamics between micro tourist image and macro country image were investigated. 146 pieces of news and 10 articles of comments from the website of Thairath.com were scrutinized, which were then classified and coded in accordance with the content analysis methodology. The analytic structure of cognition-affection image was employed in the classification. The research finds that, understandings of Chinese tourist image from Thailand society are composed of cognitive and affective ones, where for the former the three dimensions of behavioral image, cultural image and economic/purchasing power image of the Chinese outbound tourist are emphasized. The behavior image is demonstrated through trip characteristic and code of conduct of the tourists. And the cultural image is centered by cultural concept, religion tradition and social morality, while the economic/purchasing power image is formed based on understanding of the market capacity and consuming power of Chinese outbound tourists. Among them, the economic/purchasing power image is dominating in the perception of general Chinese tourist image in Thailand society. The market value and spending power of Chinese market makes it increasingly influential in Thailand economic and social development, which facilitates the formation of a generally positive affective image in the dominating public media. However, perception of Chinese tourist image is controversial from social media. Negative emotion is being generated from divergent user-operated media, such as Facebook and micro-blogging, which was further parted into different organizations like “Anti-Chinese in Chiang Mai”. In 2015 conflicts concerning the uncivilized behaviors and disappointing images of Chinese tourists on the internet occurred, and the market fluctuated. To cope with the negative impacts on inbound tourism market, proactive reacting strategies from Thailand government and tourism industry were implemented. Thailand government further emphasized the importance of Chinese market and deal with the abusive remarks on the internet. And Thailand tourism industries advocate cultural empathy and urge the citizen to deal with cultural differences rationally. Meanwhile, they have realized the discrepancy in public infrastructure and carrying capacity and act positively to solve the problems. It is also found from the research that the discrepancy in the perception of micro image of tourists and macro image of the country leads to the tension in Thailand people’s understanding towards China, and it sheds new light on the construction and refinement of Chinese outbound tourist image.
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    Tendency and Fluctuation of Different Rainfall Intensities in China during 1961-2015
    KONG Feng,FANG Jian,LYU Lili,WANG Zhu,MENG Yongchang,YANG Xu
    2017, 37 (4):  473-483.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002941
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    Since climatic condition is the important foundation for human subsistence and development, and the key factor in sustainable development of economy and society, the long-term trend change of different intensity precipitation, as one of the climatic elements, has been a global issue attracting great attention of politicians, scientists, governments, and the public alike throughout the world. In this research 535 stations’ meteorological data between 1961 and 2015 are from Daily Surface Meteorological Observation Data Sets of China provided by National Meteorological Information Center of China Meteorological Administration. According to the precipitation intensity grading standard issued by the China Meteorological Administration, rainfall events can be divided into six grades: light rainfall, moderate rainfall, heavy rainfall, storm rainfall, torrential rainfall and severe storm rainfall, in which the latter three grades constitute total storm rainfall, while all the six grades constitute total rainfall. Here starting from the annual rainfall amounts and rainfall days, we use tendency and fluctuation to diagnose different intensities’ rainfall amounts and days. The results show that, the tendencies of different intensities’ rainfall amounts and days show different spatial patterns. The light rainfall and moderate rainfall amounts are given priority to increasing trend in the northeast China, northern Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai and Tibet. In southwest and south China are given priority to decreasing trend. The heavy rainfall is given priority to increasing trend in the regions south of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, while decreasing trend in southwest China. And, storm rainfall, torrential rainfall and total storm rainfall show increasing trend in the east and south China with vast regions, while decreasing trend in north China. Extraordinary storm rainfall in parts of Sichuan and the southeast coastal regions have increasing trend, the increasing or decreasing trends in other parts of China are not obvious. The fluctuations of different intensities’ rainfall amounts and days show different spatial patterns. Light rainfall, moderate rainfall, heavy rainfall, storm rainfall, torrential rainfall and total rainfall have higher fluctuations in the northwest than in other regions. Extraordinary storm rainfall with high fluctuation is mainly distributed in the Bohai Sea rim and the vast regions south of the sea. To sum up, China’s rainfall is in development in the direction of extremalization. Putting forward some projects to response and reduce the adverse effect of precipitation extremalization is imperative.

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    Characteristics and Causes of Elevated Thunderstorms which Produce Hail in the Cold Sector of Stationary Front in Guizhou
    ZHOU Mingfei,WAN Xueli,LUO Xiping
    2017, 37 (4):  484-493.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002957
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    By using methods of synoptic and physical quantity diagnosis, elevated thunderstorms which produce hail in the cold sector of stationary front from January to April in past thirty years in Guizhou are analyzed. The results show that elevated thunderstorm is one of the important types of thunderstorms which produce hail in Guizhou in the early spring. Half of the hail cases were caused by elevated thunderstorms. Most of the elevated thunderstorms which produced hail occurred in the Mid-Eastern Guizhou, different from the spatial distribution of hail occurring in Guizhou. Analyzing the 37 typical processes of elevated thunderstorms, we find that the stationary front between Guizhou and Yunnan is the most important weather system. At 200 hPa height the impacting weather system is the strong southwest flow before the tough. At 500 hPa height the impacting weather systems are the southwest flow, west flow and active tough. When the active tough moves to east it causes cold air moving to south area on low level. On low level 700 hPa and 850 hPa, the impacting weather system is the shear. With (due to) the moving of shear the wind changes fast. On the surface the stationary front always swings between the middle of Guizhou and the east of Yunnan, and commonly stays at the area between the two provinces. According to the changes of stationary front the weather situations can be classified into three types: 1) the stationary front is moving to the west, 2) the stationary front is static, and 3) the stationary front is retreating to the north. Comparative analysis of the 3 processes shows that: because of the stationary front, low level atmosphere is stable, but it lifts the uplifted height onto the top of the stationary front, then an inversion layer and CAPE occur and the vertical instability structure appears, presenting a graphic of “dry upper-level and wet lower-level”. The analysis of vapor conditions shows that vapor comes from the southern wind above the stationary front. The analysis of vertical wind shear shows that the strong vertical wind shear on the front is beneficial for the elevated thunderstorm. Because of the differences of geographical position and the changes of stationary front, the height of the stationary front inversion layer is different and the height of frontogenesis is different. When the stationary front moves to the west affected by the cold air from north, the frontogenesis function shows that the trigger mechanism is the θse density increase on the top of inversion layer, which is caused by the shear between the north wind and south wind. As the cold air is strong and deep, the layer of shear is higher. When the stationary front is static, the trigger mechanism is same as case one, but the cold air is not strong and deep, so the layer of shear is lower. When the stationary front moves to the north, the south wind is strong. The trigger mechanisms are F2 and F3, and the two factors make the θse increase in the south of Guizhou, which is different from the case one and case two.

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    Drought Disaster Identification and Changing Tendency in Guangdong Province
    REN Qiwei,LI Xinhua,YIN Xiaoling,LI Jingjing
    2017, 37 (4):  494-500.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002970
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    Guangdong Province is situated in the coastal area of South China and belongs to the subtropical monsoon climate zone. Though precipitation is abundant, its spatial and temporal distribution is uneven. Drought is one of the major natural disasters in Guangdong Province. As global warming continues, droughts occur more frequently in Guangdong Province. Based on the monthly precipitation and temperature data of 36 meteorological stations in Guangdong Province during 1960-2015, the occurrence of drought in Guangdong Province was identified by standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), and drought variation trends and their spatial distributions were analyzed in this work. Crop (especially rice) drought disaster is of the widest area and greatest impact in Guangdong Province. Thus, the water demanding period of crops was used as a drought stage to identify drought years in this study. The spring drought period from February to April was defined as early spring drought, while the one from March to May late spring drought, which were identified by April SPEI3 and May SPEI3s, respectively. Similarly, September and October SPEI3s were used to identify early autumn drought and late autumn drought, respectively. April and May SPEI6s were used to identify droughts occurring from early and late winter to the next spring, respectively. The results show that drought disaster occurred every 3 to 4 years from 1960 to 2015 on average, and the identified drought years are basically consistent with drought disaster statistics. The drought changing tendency in Guangdong Province was analyzed by linear function fitting of the mean SPEI sequences. The fitted linear slope of the October SPEI3 sequence was -0.011, which passed the significance test of 0.1. However, the fitted linear slopes of the other SPEI sequences didn’t pass the significance test of 0.1. It means that the overall occurrence of drought did not significantly increase or reduce in spring or from winter to the next spring. However, occurrence of late autumn drought displayed a tendency to increase. Finally, the slopes of the linear functions fitting the SPEI sequences were spatially interpolated to demonstrate the spatial distribution of drought changing tendency in Guangdong. A significant tendency of alleviation of late spring drought was found for Shaoguan and Guangzhou, but a significant tendency of exacerbation of winter to the next spring drought for the Leizhou Peninsula. In most parts of the province, autumn drought mainly showed a tendency of intensification.

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    Experiments and Simulations of Water Stable Isotopes Fractionation in Evaporation Pan
    HUA Mingquan,ZHANG Xinping,YAO Tianci,HUANG Huang,LUO Zidong
    2017, 37 (4):  501-511.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002967
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    To assess the results of water stable isotopes fractionation simulated respectively by equilibrium model and kinetic model, four evaporation experiments were conducted under different atmospheric conditions. The results indicate that stable isotopes in residual water are gradually enriched along with the evaporation, there is a positive correlation between the enrichment rate and the evaporation rate. However, when precipitation happens, the residual water stable isotopes are diluted, as they are susceptible to the influence of relative humidity and the stable isotopes in atmospheric water vapor. Experimental water stable isotope fractionation rate is influenced by temperature and relative humidity, and certain positive correlation between the isotopic fractionation rate and the temperature changes appears. This phenomenon is contrary to the results described by Rayleigh fractionation model. There is a remarkable inverse relationship between the isotopic fractionation rate and relative humidity. Although the simulation results of equilibrium fractionation model have higher correlation coefficient with the measured results,as a whole,they fail to reflect the details of changes in stable water isotopes ratio with f in actual evaporation process, especially during the middle period of evaporation.In addition, the results of equilibrium simulation overestimate the degree of stable isotope fractionation. By contrast, kinetic fractionation model performs well in reproducing the variation of stable isotopes in water evaporation. It can capture the details of changes of the δ18O. The actual evaporation line slopes (3.855, 3.749, 4.097, 6.942) are low in summer and high in winter due to the influences of air temperature and relative humidity. Evaporation line slopes calculated from equilibrium fractionation model remain near 8, and their intercepts are all more than 10, close to the global meteoric water line, reflecting a poor fitting result. However, the evaporation line slopes (4.265, 3.433, 5.705, 5.833) of kinetic fractionation model are closer to those of the measurements, which can reflect the actual process of water evaporation. Variations of observed d-excess in residual water with residual water ratio f show a decrease trend in the four experiments, d value increases when rain events occur.And the decline speed of d-excess in summer is higher than that in winter, that is related to faster evaporation rate and stable isotope fractionation rates in summer. The d-excess of the equilibrium fractionation model varies with a constant value, and have lower correlation coefficient with the measured results, the root mean square error is large, and the simulation effect is poor, while that of the kinetic fractionation model shows similar results with measured d-excess both in magnitude and trend. It is concluded that the kinetic fractionation model would be more suitable to describe the water stable isotopes evaporation fractionation process under regional climatic conditions.

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    Characteristics of the Evolution of Hydrological Regimes across the Poyang Lake Region in the Past 60 Years
    WANG Ranfeng,LI Zhiping,ZHAO Guizhang,TAN Zhiqiang,LI Yunliang
    2017, 37 (4):  512-521.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002959
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    In the recent decades, the hydrological regimes of Poyang Lake clearly changed, the persistent dryness and rapid shrinkage of the Poyang Lake seriously threatened the security of the local human life and the stability of wetland ecosystem. Poyang Lake suffers from frequent droughts and floods in the Yangtze River basin, which greatly altered the river, lake, and wetland hydrological processes accompanied by the degeneration of the ecosystem, also affects the local industrial and agricultural production as well as the regional social and economic development. This paper analyzes the evolution of hydrological regimes in the Poyang Lake region and associated casual influencing factors. We focus on the integrated lake-catchment-Yangtze River system. The data of the 62-year lake water levels, the runoff of the Yangtze River and catchment discharges were used to explore the hydrological evolution under the changing environment. Additionally, the Mann-Kendall testing and Sen’s slope methods were adopted in this study. Statistical results show that the Mann-Kendall testing and Sen’s slope methods have similar results in terms of the trend analysis, while lake water level, the catchment river inflow and the Yangtze River discharge exhibit different variation trends in the flood and dry seasons. In addition, the extreme regimes for the droughts and floods are affected by the five major rivers and the stem stream of the Yangtze River. Generally, the characteristic values of lake water level (except for the Kangshan station), catchment discharge (except for the Lijiadu station), and the Yangtze River discharge (except for Yichang station) have the same decreasing trends before the 1970s, while they exhibit distinctly fluctuation between the 1970s and 1980s; however, the characteristic values have obviously increasing trends during the period from 1990 to 2000. A significantly decreasing variation trend is also observed after 2005. The finding in this paper would be helpful to the regulation and management of floods and droughts, and would provide scientific support and reference for the ecological wetland protection in Poyang Lake. Nevertheless, either the runoff changes of the five rivers basin or those of the Yangtze River are subject to the superposition of the climate change and human activities interfere to varying degrees.
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    Interactions between Groundwater and Lake Water of Riparian Zone in the Typical Area of Poyang Lake
    LI Yunliang,ZHAO Guizhang,YAO Jing,ZHANG Qi
    2017, 37 (4):  522-529.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002956
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    Study of the interactions between groundwater and lake water is helpful to improve the understanding of water resource management, hydrogeochemistry, biogeochemistry and eco-hydrology in lakes. Hydraulic relationship between groundwater and lakes has become an important topic for the scientific and decision-making communities. Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, has significant seasonal lake water level variations. This will cause the groundwater level changes in the riparian zone of the lake, and hence affect the water resource characteristics in the local area. This paper selected riparian zone of Poyang Lake (China) as the typical study area. We used groundwater and lake water level observations, groundwater velocity and flow direction measurements, and hydrochemistry signatures to identify the recharge and discharge between groundwater and lake water. Results show that ,SO2-4, Ca2+ and Mg2+ are the major anion and cation in both the groundwater and lake water. The flow direction of the riparian groundwater is mainly from the upstream mountainous areas to the downstream plain areas, indicating an inclined surface from the recharge area to the discharge area. Generally, the riparian groundwater flows to the river and the lake in the study area. Field observations also indicate that the spatial distributions in groundwater level have a decreasing trend from the upstream to the downstream areas. Although the riparian groundwater exhibits obvious dynamic changes, the magnitude of groundwater level variations is generally less than 2.0 m. Additionally, groundwater velocities are distinctly large (up to 19.5 m/d) in the upstream mountainous areas, which are far from the lake zone, and those are relatively small with a mean value of 5.1 m/d close to the lacustrine area. The spatial pattern of groundwater level and groundwater velocity coincides with the surface topographical changes, suggesting an important effect of the topography on the local groundwater flow. The evidences of hydrochemistry indicate that the lake water and groundwater have a hydraulic link. In addition, the groundwater velocity field and seasonal dynamics for both the groundwater level and the lake water level demonstrate that the riparian groundwater may discharge to the lake with different water fluxes. Our study is the first attempt to perform a field work on the interactions between groundwater and lake water, which can provide scientific knowledge for the water resource management and environmental assessment in Poyang Lake.

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    Evolution of Domestic Spatial Pattern of Sino-Africa Trade
    TONG Ruifeng,REN Hang,WANG Xin,WANG Huan,ZHANG Zhenke
    2017, 37 (4):  530-537.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002960
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    The Sino-Africa trade has developed rapidly in the past ten years. The volume of Sino-African trade in China's foreign trade has been increasing year by year, from 2% in 2002 to 5.06% in 2013. By the platform of the Sino-Africa Cooperation Forum, China and Africa have conducted exchanges and cooperation in the field of economic and trade in depth, and China is already Africa's largest trading partner. With the increasing of Sino-Africa trade volume, there is a different trade pattern. The regional differences are obvious in China. At present, the academic research on Sino-Africa trade focuses mainly on trade characteristics, trade structure and trade effect. Through literature review, it is found that few existing studies involve the provinces pattern of Sino-Africa trade in China. Based on the data of trade about provinces (cities/districts) in China with Africa, this paper analyzed the evolution in the spatial distribution of the trade through the perspective of differences in increment and dependence. By the model of diversity index and evenness index, the study discusses the Sino-Africa regional differences situation and makes a comprehensive analysis in depth. At the same time, this paper made some prospects from the analysis. The result shows that: The Sino-Africa trade has developed rapidly from the year of 2002 to 2013, the trade of Sino-Africa is concentrated on the coastal areas. The trade volume is from 9.746 billion dollars to 179.47 billion dollars in the coastal areas in the last 12 years. For example, Beijing, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Shandong, Jiangsu and Shanghai, six provinces are the main provinces in the trade volume in Africa, accounting for 77% of the total trade in 2013. Because Chinese provinces (cities/districts) have different resources natural endowments and trade policies, the provinces (cities/districts) have obvious differences in import and export trade with Africa. From the rate of export-import, the trade is classified into four types in general: “continue to decline”, “rise with fluctuation”, “first rise then fall”, “irregular fluctuation”. In the northern regions export increment is less than that of import increment, while that in the southern regions is opposite. The inland areas and coastal areas show an opposite development pattern in the growth rate distribution and the increment distribution. The coastal areas dominated the Sino-Africa trade pattern. The growth rate of the inland trade with Africa is higher than that of the coast areas. Taking the year of 2008 as a turning point, the provincial distribution pattern shows the characteristic of gradually dispersing equilibrium after the concentration on a few provinces (cities/districts). The inland areas, with the opportunity of economy and politics, are developing fast in recent years. The Northern provinces (cities/districts) are mainly made up of resource intensive industries. With the increasing consumption of resources and the economic transformation and upgrading, the demand for alternative resources imported from Africa has been increasing. The southern provinces (cities/districts) are mainly made up of the export processing manufacturing industries, and the demand for Africa's mineral resources is relatively low. On the contrary, Africa is becoming an important export destination for these southern provinces in recent years. Although the spatial distribution pattern is becoming balanced in recent years, the trade of inland areas with Africa is relatively small. Serious homogenization is a question that should not be neglected. In the future, provinces (cities/districts) should be based on their own characteristics and advantages of enterprise to develop trade with Africa. In the process of economic development in the future, the provinces (cities/districts) need to seize the opportunity to maintain the pace of development. Relying on the national strategy of “The Belt and Road”, with the help of Africa’s huge economic market potential, it can narrow the regional differences, balance the regional trade structure, and improve the current situation of regional economic in China.
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    Spatial Changes of AIDS Epidemic and Population Mobility in China
    DING Qiyan,YANG Zhen,ZHOU Qingyu
    2017, 37 (4):  538-546.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002961
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    AIDS is a kind of serious infectious disease which seriously endangers human health. With the increase of global mobility, the speed of the spatial spreading is faster and faster in China. The cross-region flow of China’s population continues to increase, and the speed continues to accelerate. In this context, spatial auto-correlation, convergence test and principal component regression were used to investigate the spatial and temporal changes of new AIDS epidemics and its relationship with population mobility in China from 2004 to 2014 in this paper. The basic data used in the study came from “The direct online reporting system of National infectious disease and public health emergency network” and other authoritative information published by other government departments. The research indicates: 1) Since 2004, the annual number and incidence of new AIDS incidences grew rapidly. Based on the number of incidence and morbidity, the epidemic level of each province was divided into four grades, they were low, moderate, higher and highest grade. It was found that the level of new AIDS epidemic in China showed the spatial distribution pattern, namely “high in the south, low in the north, high in the west, low in the west”. From the perspective of the average annual growth rate of each province, the change of the new epidemic not only showed the obvious growth at the provincial level, but also showed the “fastest in the west, fast in the east, the lowest in the central part” in the three zones. 2) There is a spatial auto-correlation phenomenon in the new AIDS epidemic situation in each province, which is influenced by the incidence level of adjacent areas, and the trend of geographical agglomeration is obvious. In the southwest region, it formed a high incidence zone which centered Guangxi, Yunnan and Guizhou. In the northwest, northeast and other places, it formed low-incidence closely grouped area. AIDS epidemic distribution has a strong spatial correlation, which was related to the continual improvement of marketization in China and the social-economic factors flow among different provinces, especially the continuous increase in population mobility. 3) The temporal and spatial changes of the incidence of newly diagnosed AIDS in each province showed the trend of convergence, indicating that the increase rate in the lower initial level of the epidemic will be faster than the initial high level, and the growth rate in the initial higher level was slower than that in the lower area. And in that case, the difference will reduce between the two regions, and are expected to gradually converge to a higher level. However, there is no trend of convergence towards provincial difference in the incidence of new AIDS. 4) Under the condition of controlling the regional economic level and medical resource endowment, the intensity of regional population movement and the new epidemic change, the regional outflow and the increase of the population will promote the increase of the incidence level. In order to effectively eradicate the transmission of AIDS and cut off the transmission chain, the government should also consider optimizing the current prevention and control system from the perspective of improving the management of population flow the policy of “preventing first, combining prevention and treatment, comprehensive management”. Whether it is in the outflow or inflow provinces, it should strengthen the propaganda and education on HIV/AIDS prevention and establish the mechanism in mutual-controlling work of inflow and outflow areas.

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    Simulating Multiple Land Use Scenarios in China during 2010-2050 Based on System Dynamic Model
    TIAN He,LIANG Xun,LI Xia,LIU Xiaoping,OU Jinpei,HONG Ye,HE Zhijian
    2017, 37 (4):  547-561.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002939
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    China is going through a rapid urbanization process, which will have significant influences on the land use pattern in the nationwide scale. In this context, it is very important for getting more information about the overall trend of land use change in the coming decades. To help develop better land management policies and improve the land resource allocation, this paper provides a system dynamic model which is able to project future demands of multiple land use types under the influences of various climate change and socioeconomic factors (e.g. population, gross domestic product, investment) for large scale region in different scenarios. The developed SD model consists of four sub-modules: the population sub-module, the economy sub-module, the climate sub-module and the productivity sub-module. Meanwhile, four regions (the northeast humid and semi-humid region, the northern arid and semi-arid region, the southern humid region and the Tibet Plateau region) were designated based on China’s provincial boundary according to the regional natural ecological conditions and socio-economic development. The model is applied in mainland China to simulate future land use demands under four different scenarios from 2015 to 2050 (the fast development scenario, the baseline development scenario, the harmonious development scenario, the slow development scenario). These scenarios are developed based on future temperature and precipitation data provided by the IPCC assessment reports. The simulation results show that our newly developed SD model is able to effectively simulate long term land use change under different land use scenarios. The analysis results demonstrate that the demand for each land use type, especially the construction land and cultivated land, will vary greatly in different land use scenarios. The demand for construction land will grow in four scenarios, especially in the fast development scenario. The future demand for cultivated land will be relatively low in the baseline development scenario and the slow development scenario. In addition, the harmonious development scenario is the healthiest, which successfully keeps more ecological land than other scenarios. Besides, because of the climate change and construction land increment, the amount of water area tends to decrease in all four scenarios from 2015 to 2045. Therefore, managers should strictly control the city expansion to meet the challenges from the reduction of the water stores. The impacts of temperature and precipitation on forestland and grassland are different in the four regions. In southern humid region, areas of forest land and grassland are mainly affected by temperature. In northeast humid and semi-humid region, temperature is also the key factor for area change of grassland. In northern arid and semi-arid region, most land use types are mainly affected by precipitation while the effects of temperature on forestland and grassland cannot be ignored. In the Tibet Plateau region, forestland and grassland areas are mainly affected by precipitation. The cultivated land areas in four scenarios are more than 2 billion mu. It shows an increase from 2010 to 2050 in the fast development scenario but decreases in the other three scenarios. Especially, in the slow development scenario, the cultivated land area in 2050 will be 12.9% lower than that in 2010. This indicates that if future climate is deteriorating, it will be necessary for managers to take measures to protect cultivated land from degradation. Moreover our analysis results also indicate that the improvement of technology is also an important factor for affecting the amount of cultivated land.
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    Catering Cultural Production under the Background of Globalization and Locality: Spatial-temporal Characteristics of Teochew Cuisine Ingredients
    LI Jiancheng
    2017, 37 (4):  562-568.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002963
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    Under the background of globalization and locality, Teochew cuisine is a case study of catering cultural production “from locality to globalization”. Teochew cuisine sources from Chaoshan, Guangdong, China. As Chaoshan is a region feeding relatively larger population with limited farmland and the cultural feature is reflected on its fineness. Regarding the food culture, it is characterized by making the best use of various food materials as well as pursuing exquisite and fresh delicacies. Therefore, Teochew cuisine is also known as fine food. “Harmony between nature and men” is a chief notion in the culture of Teochew cuisine, and “delicacies in season” is the supreme pursuit for the flavor of Teochew cuisine. Teochew cuisine is spread with the immigration of its people. Nowadays, the population of overseas Teochew and their descendents is almost matched by that in the mainland. Thus, Teochew cuisine has been in the form of the distribution pattern of three pillars: locality, Southeast Asia and Hongkong. Such spatial distribution characteristic of Teochew cuisine is a reflection of the local cultural communication and transformation formed under the influence of immigration from Chaoshan together with the global integration. Based on the analysis of incoming data of local Teochew restaurants, combined with local knowledge, this study discusses the Man-land relationship of Teochew cuisine, the temporal and spatial characteristics of ingredients, the influence of globalization and the adaptation of overseas Teochew cuisine from the perspective of food geography. The geographical advantages of Chaoshan provide abundant food plants, hence the “cradle” of Teochew cuisine contains diverse ingredients, priority with seafood, featured by the conspicuous seasonal variations and geographic concentration. Teochew people form their unique cooking method and flavor of seasoning through accumulation of local food making experiences. The background of globalization and locality means, in one aspect, local Teochew cuisine is influenced by globalization, and food ingredients from all over the world tend to be obtained because of the increasingly developed logistics worldwide. Cultural communication affected by globalization also leads to the integration of external elements into Teochew cuisine. In the other aspect, the overseas Teochew cuisine has still kept the local flavor in translocal catering cultural production by using the unique methods of cooking and seasoning. Moreover, globalization makes the space compression and breaks through time limit, and, to some extent, food ingredients are relocated to satisfy the seasonal requirements of local Teochew cuisine. In other words, globalization expands the range of available food supplies. Overseas Teochew cuisine maintains some similarities with differences comparing with the local one. As a local branch of cooking styles, it manifests the cultural expansion of “making what is regional worldwide” in terms of foreign communication. Meanwhile, its constitution of ingredients shows the cultural infiltration of “making what is worldwide regional”. As a part of catering culture, Teochew cuisine exactly embodies the cultural blending in the background of globalization and locality. Therefore, globalization is conducive to the spread and development of Teochew cuisine. However, flavors of Teochew cuisine have not been homogenized in the globalization process, instead, richer flavors have been obtained. By integrating with external elements in the globalization background, local Teochew cuisine is also advancing with times. In cross-region diet culture, the temporal and spatial limitation to ingredients is offset by seasonings with Teochew cuisine flavors in the overseas production process of Teochew cuisine. So as discussed above, Teochew cuisine has a sustainable development prospect under the background of globalization and locality. Teochew cuisine has now been listed as a national intangible cultural heritage, which highlights its diversity and locality in the globalization process.

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    National Park Selection Mechanism in Canada Based on System Feedback
    LI Peng,HE Linsi,ZHAO Min,QI Xingyan
    2017, 37 (4):  569-579.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002966
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    The national park selection criteria and national park selection process are the core of National Parks Selection System which is a complete institutional arrangements combining various elements and segments. As the foundation of National Park construction, it not only conveys the core philosophy of National Park, but also is the priority of the establishment of National Park. The Canadian National Park Selection Mechanism is an important achievement of the scientific approach and government governance toward the National Park in Canada. It t is very unique and scientific and has been highly recognized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Under the guidance of systematology, the Canadian national park selection mechanism was analyzed with various methods, such as documentary study, comparative method and map overlay technique. The results show that: 1) the national park system plan which was completed in 1971 was established based on the characteristics of natural regions. And the system plan divided Canada into 39 natural regions according to biota, special natural features, topography, and climate. Each natural region is then surveyed for potential national park sites. 2) The national park units were selected based on their ecological representations. This refers to the need for the potential National Park to represent, or sample, the full variety of biodiversity of different biological realms and biological scales. When selecting potential park areas, the following factors should be considered: significant cultural heritage features or landscape; ecological integrity of the area’s ecosystems; an area which is relatively undisturbed or unaffected, being in the natural state or could return to the state; feasibility of establishing a National Park; agreement of the new National Park could be reached. 3) The selection criteria were integrated into the system plan. This selection process was government-led with participation of all walks of life. Every year the evolving process was presented by the dynamic characterization based on change in land use. The selection criteria, the selection process and the evolving process all constitute the dynamic feedback mechanism. This selection mechanism is beneficial for reaching a consensus, forming resultant force and accelerating the construction of National Parks and extending the protection objects. Since China is going to establish a national park system, lots of planning and management practices first put into use in Canada could be borrowed and used to tackle the problems faced during the process of National Park selection. Overall system plan and specific criteria should be combined as the final selection standard, so as to end segmentation of natural elements caused by various governance. With the process of government-led and participation of all walks from our society, the passive situation faced by the central government could be improved and the national will and scientific feature could be better represented. The frequently update of the National Parks lists could contribute to the progress of National Park construction dynamically and reflect the relatively constant vision and system plan. The study is of great scientific significance for China and could be used for reference. It is conducive to guide the sustaining development of the national park system construction in China.

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    Spatial-temporal Evolution of Japanese Visiting-China Market
    XI Yubin,WANG Lifeng
    2017, 37 (4):  580-590.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002946
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    Japan plays an important role in China’s inbound tourism market, and it means that the study on Japanese visiting-China market is quite necessary. On the basis of reviewing the spatial-temporal evolution of international tourist market, with the 1979-2015 statistics of inbound tourism published by Japan Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, China Tourism Yearbook and China Tourism Statistical Yearbook, this paper analyzes the temporal and spatial structure evolution of Japan visiting-China market by adopting research methods such as business fluctuation theory, seasonal intensity indexes, coefficient of variation and primacy ratio. The research results are as follows: 1) Under the influence of the factors such as Japanese economy, Japanese outbound tourism market and public events between China and Japan, Japan visiting-China market has developed rapidly since 1997. The average annual growth rate reaches 9.17%. The temporal structure evolution of Japan visiting-China market can be divided into ten cycles. The economic cycle fluctuation is in accordance with characters of Kitchin cycle. However, there are still some limitations to the stability and sustainability of its annual market growth rate. Twists and turns are obvious; 2) During the period from 1994 to 2015, there was a certain law to the dull and boom periods of Japan visiting-China market. March, May, and the months from July to November were boom period. April, June and December were shoulder seasons. And January and February were dull period. But the differences between dull and boom periods were lessened. It could also be found that the fluctuation of market curve changed from trimodal to bimodal in dull and boom seasons of Japan visiting-China market. However, as the market demand is relatively uniform, the seasonal difference is not so obvious in recent years; 3) Being affected by traffic, trade, cultural communication, product placement and so on, the tourists from Japan center around eastern coastal areas of China for many years, including the Yangtze and the Pearl River Deltas and the region around Bohai. It reflects that the tourism destination preference of Japan visiting-China market is relatively unchanged; 4) The two city index of Shanghai is of moderate primacy distribution, far more surpasses that of the second city. Shanghai is the most popular destination in Japan visiting-China market. Besides, cities in the four-city system such as Bejing, Shenzhen and Dalian, and cities in the eleven-city system such as Guangzhou, Suzhou, Hangzhou, Tianjin, Xi’an, Qingdao, Wuxi and Guilin are also popular among Japanese tourists under the influence of the factors such as bilateral trade, tourism products and policies.

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    Retail Store Rent Calculation for Mountain Scenic Spot: A Case Study of Huangshan Scenic Area
    I Huangxiong,ZOU Xiaomeng,JIANG Changchun,MA Na,LIN Shen,LIN Yuxian,FEI Weicheng
    2017, 37 (4):  591-600.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002964
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    Retail stores are relatively closed in Mountain Scenic Area. They are generally distributed along the step road, where market competition is insufficient. It is difficult to fully measure the store rent to standardize management and improve the service level. Taking Mount Huangshan scenic area as an example, this paper attempts to establish a relatively perfect rent calculation method for the retail outlets in the scenic area. The calculation method is called a comprehensive correction method. Firstly, according to the local actual situation the rent per unit area (square meter) is estimated, then the corresponding measurement of the chain price index and correction coefficient in various retail outlets is conducted, and finally, the business accounting is adjusted with the general calculation formula, and the per unit area rent for every retail outlet is estimated. Through literature review, field survey and interviews, the basic situation of the Mount Huangshan scenic area, and the distribution of retail stores in current conditions are studied. Selecting the prices of typical commodities which the retail outlets in different locations sell, according to the correcting coefficient, this paper calculates the reasonable rent per unit area for those stores on the basis of using land tax theory and chain price index method, expert evaluation method and market comparison. The survey results show that in the rental area to a certain extent, the rent for large retail store is higher than that for the small one, and the geographical location of the retail store also has impact on the rent. The rent for those at the locations with better communications and large people flow would be higher than that for the low-end retail outlets. These two factors, namely, the geographical location and the space area, also affect the income of the retail stores to some extent. The results of the rent calculation analysis in this paper can be used to make rational rent pricing and planning of the distribution of retail outlets. For reallocation of the retail outlets five ways can be comprehensively taken: preservation, cancellation, merging, transformation, and new construction.

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    Spatial-temporal Pattern and Influencing Factors of Environmental Quality in Guangdong, China
    YANG Jiangmin,YANG Ren,XUE Desheng
    2017, 37 (4):  601-609.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002968
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    In this day and age, forging an ‘eco-city’ has become one of the leading ideas to deal with the current environmental challenges against the context of global climate change and rapid urbanization. This paper examines the long-term environmental conditions in Guangdong Province, China, analyzing the changing characters and influencing factors of environmental quality of 21 municipalities with the use of some sophisticated data analysis software like geographic information system (GIS) and SPSS. In so doing, we established a new evaluation system of the level of environmental quality with 9 major indexes as well as the availability of data in terms of pollution emission, environmental background and environmental governance, in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014. The main findings are: 1) For the whole province, the level of environmental quality has increased significantly from 1990 to 2014 with periodic fluctuation. Moreover, the environmental quality of each city in Guangdong Province is within a dynamic process, in which cities change their positions constantly. 2) As we can see from the results of Theil indexes, on account to the differences within the region, environmental quality in Guangdong Province has noteworthy regional differences. In other words, both low and high value points exist in the Pearl River Delta and other regions that are different from economic disparities. The distribution of environmental conditions also shows characteristics of decentralization, to a certain extent which corresponds to the fact of differences within the region. 3) Environmental quality of each city is closely related to the pattern of economic development, relevant government policy, public awareness of environmental protection and community participation. Extensive economic development, the ignoring of environmental problems and the low public awareness of environmental protection severely hindered the improvement of overall environmental quality in Guangdong Province, but different cities were affected with various degrees. In addition, more effective interaction among market, government and community would be beneficial to advance the construction of ecological environment, modify the patterns of urban growth in order to meet the demand of China’s sustainable development.

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    Discovery and Scientific Significance of Qixinggang Relics of Ancient Coast,Guangzhou
    ZHAO Huanting
    2017, 37 (4):  610-619.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002972
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    It is discussed in this paper about the discovery and report of coastal erosion landform in Qixinggang and barrier-lagoon system landform in Songgang of the southeastern suburb of Guangzhou by Wu Shangshi in 1937. Wu Shangshi is proved to be the first discoverer of ancient coastal landform in the Pearl River (Zhujiang) Estuary and Delta area, which formed in the middle Holocene while global sea-level rising and Guizhou transgression in Pearl River Estuary in 8-2 ka BP. The discovery has important scientific significance and shows that the research capacity of Chinese scholars can rival the contemporary foreign counterparts. The discovery supports the existence of Pearl River Delta and provides evidences in kind for the record of the evolution of the Pearl River Estuary in Chinese ancient books, while playing a major role in teaching practice, scientific research, public knowledge popularization and social-culture education in past decades. Several generations of geological, geographical and marine talents benefited from Qixinggang relics of ancient coast. The discussion and study of the erosion landform of Qixinggang promotes the development of geomorphology, Quaternary geology, paleooceanography, paleogeography, estuarine and coastal research in Guangzhou area and global change study. There is more achievement and talents in the formation and development of Pearl River Delta, which devoted in the regulation of Pearl River Estuary Delta. Qixinggang relics of ancient coast were listed as city-level key historical relic by Guangzhou government in 1956 and monument was set up there by Guangdong Geographical Society in 1983. The scientific park of Qixinggang relics of ancient coast is being built, while the first stage project has been commissioned and sculpture of Wu Shangshi has been unveiled. All of those would be good for the efficient protection and teaching and researching of Qixinggang relics of ancient coastal landform. We should learn from Wu Shangshi with his scientific innovation spirit of emphasizing on field-study, seeking truth from the facts, no superstitions, no blind obedience, bold exploration, and hard writing.

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    Re-discussion on the Development and Management of the Lingdingyang Bay at Pearl River Estuary
    LI Pingri,ZHOU Qing
    2017, 37 (4):  620-626.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002973
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    Lingdingyang Bay at Pearl River Estuary has seen rapid development in recent years. It has such megalopoli as Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Shenzhen along the banks and is recently defined as the “Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area”. This strategy will certainly greatly improve the economic status and development speed of Lingdingyang Bay at Pearl River Estuary, which in turn will greatly speed up the development of the greater Pearl River Delta (PRD). Focusing on how national and regional economic development policies enhance the advantages of the geographical locations surrounding Lingdingyang Bay and taking into the evolution characteristics of its natural history, this paper discusses the series of issues during the development of Lingdingyang Bay caused by rapid land reclaiming from the sea by building dykes and the predominant effects of human effects in landform evolution. The following conclusions are drawn: 1) Too rapid land reclaiming will surely speed up the change of Lingdingyang Bay to Lingdingyang Bend; 2) foundation settlement issues are emerging in the newly reclaimed area, which will bring hidden dangers to the natural environment of the region; 3) reduction in tidal prism caused by land reclaiming weakens tidal power, which has important effects on brackish aquaculture, river and stream sedimentation and sewage discharge, etc.; 4) the deterioration of eco-environment will have irreversible effects on regional biodiversity. Taking together, it is suggested that the development and management of Lingdingyang Bay at Pearl River Estuary be planned from the perspective of “Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area” and attention be paid to the macro-dispatch, scientific research first, and ecology first of the central government layer so as to build the region into a new “growth pole”.
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