#### Table of Content

05 June 2022, Volume 42 Issue 6
 A Study of Farmer' Livelihoods in "Azheke Plan": Based on the DFID Sustainable Livelihood Framework Yang Xu, Jigang Bao 2022, 42 (6):  867-877.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003496 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1311KB) ( )   Farmer' livelihoods are an important issue for rural revitalization and rural sustainable development. It has been proven in recent years that rural tourism influences farmers' livelihoods and its impacts vary based on different tourism development modes. The DFID sustainable livelihoods framework has been widely used in research on rural tourism development and farmer' livelihoods. It offers a comprehensive perspective that links elements from the external livelihood environment, to investigate farmer' livelihoods. This study developed an evaluation index for farmer' livelihood capital based on the DFID sustainable livelihoods framework. The evaluation index was used to analyze the farmer' livelihood capital. Azheke village, Yunnan Province was chosen as an example in the present study, which successfully launched a tourism poverty reduction program, the "Azheke Plan", in 2018. The data used in this study were collected through questionnaire survey from July 2020 to February 2021, during which the first author lived in Azheke Village. The findings of this study were summarized as follows: (1) Farmers in Azheke used to have only one livelihood mode: farming or working in cities. Now rural tourism development has allowed local villagers to work within local tourism businesses or operate their own tourism businesses in the village. thus, farmers has formed a diversified livelihood mode. (2) Families with different livelihood modes have manifested different features and livelihood capital. Ranking from high to low, the livelihood modes are: tourism-oriented, tourism involved + working in cities, tourism-involved, working in cities, and farming + working in cities. The sequence highly correlates with the degree of farmer' participation in tourism. (3) Farmers whose livelihoods are tourism-oriented, tourism involved + working in cities and tourism-involved have the highest degree of participation in tourism, their household labor and livelihood capacity has improved, it have created more livelihood outcomes for their households, and has a higher level of livelihood capital. Farmers who work in cities and farming + working in cities experienced the growth of physical capital and financial capital mainly throughout the "Azheke Plan", but their livelihood capital is lower than the other three livelihood modes relating to tourism. (4) From the institution perspective, this study explores the relationship between tourism development and changes in livelihood. Several notes are summarized on villagers' livelihoods through "Azheke Plan" from basic conditions, external support, internal factors, livelihood strategies and livelihood results. Finally, the future research direction of tourism development and farmer' livelihood, as well as the possibility of replicating the "Azheke plan" in other regions are discussed.
 The Spatial Pattern and Influencing Factors of China's Organic Livestock Enterprises under the Link of Functional Location Quanwei Zhao, Yuhua Wang 2022, 42 (6):  878-888.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003497 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1764KB) ( )   Since the 18th and 19th National Congress, China has put forward ecological civilization construction and rural resolution, requiring the transformation of traditional agricultural production models to a high quality, sustainable, green ecological production model. As an eco-environmental, sustainable, and high value-added agricultural production model, organic agriculture is in-line with the future development direction of China's rural areas and policy guidelines and is also a useful alternative model to traditional agriculture. In order to promote the development of the organic livestock industry in China, this study analyzed the service function and production function basic data of 744 organic livestock enterprises and explored the factors of functional location using Pearson's correlation analysis and multi-regression analysis methods. There is substantial research available related to the functional location of the organic livestock industry that can provide a certain reference value for the location analysis of different industries. The multi-scale analysis of different functional locations can provide reference and policy recommendations for the functional location layout of organic livestock enterprises in China. The results of this study showed the spatial agglomeration characteristics of organized livestock enterprise service and production function locations, such as central and eastern Inner Mongolia, northwestern Xinjiang, northeast Sichuan, and southern Anhui. There is a strong cohesion phenomenon among the organic livestock enterprise service and production function locations in China. However, this is limited to the development characteristics and affected zone, as different functional structures of some organic livestock enterprises have not occurred in the production expansion process. The production and service function locations of organic livestock enterprises are affected by multiple influencing factors, such as feed output, environmental quality, and policy benefits, of which natural resources and the development level of the traditional livestock industry have the greatest impact. It is also important to note that the location layout of organic livestock enterprises has deeper contacts with feed resources and environmental quality at the macro level. The influencing factors of organic livestock enterprise service and production function locations are consistent, but the same influencing factor has certain differences in the extent of their service and production function locations. According to the demand, organic livestock enterprises should guide different functional departments to lay out the functional location gathering area and balance the needs of the service and production function sectors in the initial development phase, select resource endowment, rich in knowledge and technology, convenient transportation, cheap land prices, and low labor cost-effective suburban areas. Local governments should increase policy support and guide deployment in areas with rich natural resources and developed traditional livestock industries. Moreover, according to actual conditions, they should guide enterprises to convert production from traditional to organic in the traditional livestock production industry.
 Coupling Coordination of Population-Economy-Housing Rental Market: An Analysis Based on Data from 35 Large and Medium-Sized Cities Lingling Mu, Xinran Wang, Chenxi Wang 2022, 42 (6):  889-901.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003500 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1231KB) ( )   With urbanization, the influx of populations into economically developed large- and medium-sized cities, and the reality of high property prices are forcing the rental housing market to expand. The population, economy, and housing rental market interact, and the coordinated development of the three systems is an inevitable requirement for sustainable urban development. To coordinate the relationship between population, economy, and the housing rental market in large and medium-sized cities, it is crucial to solve the housing problem and achieving "housing for all so that everyone can live and work happily". Based on coupling coordination and spatial error models, this study explores the level of coupling coordination of the population-economy-housing rental market system in thirty-five large and medium-sized cities across China in 2018-2019, and explores its influencing factors. The results show the following: (1) As three social systems, the population, economy, and housing rental market interact with each other. In the perspective of sustainable urban development, the harmonious development between the three systems is a rational movement of population, a well-functioning economy and a smoothly functioning housing rental market, where the three systems win and prosper together. (2) Among the 35 large and medium-sized cities, the integrated population level and economic subsystems are on an upward trend; the integrated housing rental market level has slightly decreased, and although the integrated evaluation value of the housing rental market in the eastern core cities is higher, it still lags behind the population and economy development. (3) Considering the time, the difference in the development of the coupling and coordination degree of the population-economy-housing rental market system of each city has become more extensive. Still, the overall trend is upward, and the coupling and coordination degree of cities classified as pilot housing rental cities are relatively high. (4) For space, there are significant differences in the degree of coupling and coordination of the population-economy-housing rental market system between regions. The degree of coupling coordination in eastern cities is generally higher than in other regions; Shanghai and Beijing have reached a substantial coordination level. Among the central cities, the coupling coordination of Zhengzhou and Changsha remains at the primary coordination level, the coupling coordination of Wuhan rises to the primary coordination level, and the coupling coordination of the other cities is mainly at the barely coordinated level. There is a wide gap in the coupling coordination between cities among western cities. The coupling coordination of Chongqing is at the primary coordination level, of Xi'an and Urumqi is at the barely coordinated level, and of Chengdu has increased from the slightly coordinated level to the primary coordination level. The coupling coordination of other western cities is at the verge of dissonance, except for the cities mentioned above. The coupling coordination degree of all four cities decreased slightly in the northeast region, while Harbin dropped to the near-disordered level. (5) The level of economic development, population size, level of development of the real estate market, and educational resources are notable factors in increasing the level of coupling and coordination of the system. This study analyzes the coupling and coordination between population, economy, and the housing rental market in 35 large and medium-sized cities in China from the coordinated development perspective. This enriches the housing rental market research and alternatively provides a reference for decision-making to address the housing problem in large and medium-sized cities in China and achieve "housing for all".
 Temporal and Spatial Behavior Characteristics of Low-Rent Housing Residents: A Case Study of the Juyuanzhou Community in Fuzhou Yifan Tang, Xue Zhang, Qun Liu, Yuqi Lu 2022, 42 (6):  902-915.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003501 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2921KB) ( )   Housing has always been a hot issue in various disciplines. Only when people live in peace can they be happy to work and achieve sustainable economic and social development. In recent years, the construction of a large number of subsidized housing communities has provided material protection for low- and middle-income groups, achieving initial results. However, problems in the construction of supporting facilities and site selection have become increasingly prominent. Therefore, it is important to study the spatial characteristics of the daily activities of the residents of affordable housing to better understand their daily needs and promote the development of affordable housing. Taking a typical community of low-cost housing in Fuzhou City as an example, this study used data from a questionnaire survey and 48 h activity log survey in December 2020, and combined in-depth interview materials from typical samples as the database for this study. Based on the theory of time geography, this study investigated the temporal and spatial behavior characteristics of low-rent housing residents from a microscopic perspective. With the help of GIS visualization techniques, such as 95% standard confidence ellipse, point density analysis, and overlay analysis methods, this study adopted a hybrid analysis method combining qualitative and quantitative analysis to study the spatial characteristics of three types of activities of working, shopping, and leisure of low-rent housing residents on one weekday and one rest day and their use of nearby space from the perspective of micro-individuals, and analyzed their influencing factors using multiple linear regression. The results showed that 1) there is a big difference between the activity space of residents in the case community on weekdays and rest days. The activity space of the sample was more fixed on weekdays, and the working and shopping activities were more dependent on the Juyuanzhou area. On the rest days, the average area of the residents' activity space was four times larger than that on weekdays. Residents needed to use a larger area to meet their shopping and leisure needs, and there were greater internal differences among the samples. 2) Residents had relatively small internal differences in work activities, and their workplaces were mainly distributed in the Juyuanzhou area, with a strong dependence on the Juyuanzhou area. The area of activity space was significantly positively influenced by the residents' income, age and work commute distance. 3) Influenced by residents' travel intentions, there was a big difference between residents' shopping and leisure activities between weekdays and rest days. Workdays relied more on the surroundings of the community, while on the rest days, the internal differences in the resident sample increased. Both shopping and leisure spaces had a significant tendency to expand and decay in distance. Shopping and leisure activities were concentrated within 500 m on weekdays and extended to 5 km on rest days. A comparative analysis with the conclusions of related studies revealed the following significant characteristics of low-rent housing residents in Fuzhou: 1) Short commuting distances to work and dependence on community surroundings. 2) Compared with weekdays, the proportion and space scope of residents' rest days for shopping and leisure activities increased significantly, but the spatial scope of activities was still limited due to the limitation of transportation. Unlike the trend of positioning subsidized housing in first-tier cities, such as Beijing and Shanghai, at the edge of the city, Fuzhou has a large space for inner-city renewal and suburban development, and still has enough space to make the siting of subsidized housing relatively balanced. Finally, in view of the existing problems of the case community, some reference measures are provided for the optimization of low-rent housing from two aspects: planning and construction and community building.
 Agglomeration Characteristics and Factors Influencing Business Office Space in Changsha Qiang Ye, Chang Tan, Yao Zhao 2022, 42 (6):  916-927.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003498 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3684KB) ( )   Because business office space is the main functional space of the spatial structure of a city, it is important to explore its spatial layout characteristics to promote efficient use of urban space. Therefore, taking Changsha as an example, this study constructed an explanatory model of the agglomeration phenomenon and ultimately explored the influences of other spatial factors in the city on the agglomeration characteristics of business office space, from the perspective of spatial heterogeneity, based on the business office space POI(Point of Interest) in Changsha and by utilizing standard deviation ellipse analysis, the Getis-Ord G$i*$ index, and geographically weighted regression analysis. The study produced several interesting results: 1) The business office agglomeration in Changsha mainly has the spatial structure of "one main, one secondary, two belts, and multiple clusters." The central agglomeration has a high degree of overlap with the city's main traffic arteries, with a cross-shaped clustering along the two strips of Wuyi Avenue and Furong Middle Road, leading to the main positive value area in Furong Square. Although there is a tendency for business office space in Changsha to develop to the west of the Xiangjiang River, the strength of development is insufficient, and the main and secondary business districts still lie to the east of the Xiangjiang River. The concentration strength of business office space in the Liugoulong-Guanshaling area has not yet reached the level of the secondary business district. 2) The city is a large collection of multi-factor spaces, and the uneven distribution of various factors causes the influence on the agglomeration of business office space to vary from one region to another. Different influencing factors have either an attracting or inhibiting effect on the agglomeration of business office space. The average degrees of influence are shopping services>hotels>public transport>main roads>parks and green areas>external transport>metro>flats>scenic locations>residential areas. 3) Each influencing factor was characterized as a "center-periphery" influence mode. Influenced by the "business dividend," the clustering of business office space in the center is strongly influenced by the commercial space, metro, main roads, and park green spaces factors, and the coordinated development of these spaces in the core of the city can greatly contribute to enhancing the regional agglomeration economy and the formation of the urban CBD. With increasing distance from the center, the driving effect of the commercial dividend gradually decreases, leading to a decrease in the influence of the four factors and thus causing the business office space in the periphery to be influenced to form clusters mainly by residential space, public transport, and other factors. The study aimed to refine and analyze the factors influencing the location of the business office space layout to promote harmonious development of functional spaces within the city.
 Spatial Evolution and Underlying Factors of the Urban Financial Network in China Jie Zhang, Kerong Sheng, Chuanyang Wang 2022, 42 (6):  928-938.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003489 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1263KB) ( )   Since the implementation of the reform and opening-up policy, China has experienced rapid development of the financial industry, with a large number of financial enterprise groups being established over the past 40 years. Meanwhile, the distribution of branches of financial enterprises has expanded rapidly, which has accelerated the integration of the financial market in China. Against this background, financial service relationships have played important roles in strengthening the linkages between cities, providing an important perspective for the study of city networks. This study aimed to analyze the spatial patterns, influencing factors, and mechanisms of the key factors in the financial network in China. First, data on the headquarter and branch locations of financial enterprises in China were subjected to the interlocking network model to approximate the financial network, resulting in a 285 × 285 valued urban network, and its spatial patterns were described from the three aspects of centrality, linkages, and core-periphery structure. Then, by using the Quadratic Assignment Procedure, an econometric analysis was conducted to identify the influencing factors, and the micro processes in the spatial growth of the urban network were examined. Finally, by combining theories of information hinterland and resource dependence, a conceptual framework for comprehensively understanding the mechanisms driving financial network growth in China was suggested for further discussion. This study has three main findings: First, the financial network presents a significant concentrated multi-dimensional core-periphery structure. The spatial distribution of centrality exhibits obvious spatial orientation and path dependence characteristics. The cities well-positioned in the network are mainly the core cities in China's major metropolises, such as Beijing and Tianjin in the Beijing-Tianjin area; Shanghai, Suzhou, and Hangzhou in the Yangtze Delta area; and Shenzhen, Guangzhou, and Foshan in the Pearl Delta area. The connectivity of city linkage exhibits enhanced relevance and hierarchical structure characteristics, which promotes the emergence of a "core-periphery" mode in financial network structure. Second, vital resources possessed by cities, such as market potential, political rank, knowledge base, and economic openness, are important factors underlying the formation of China's financial network. Links are more likely to occur between cities with large market potential, abundant political resources, intensive knowledge capital, and high economic openness. Geographical distance, location condition, and historical basis also have a profound influence on the spatial patterns of the financial network. Third, preferred linkage, geographical proximity, and spatial agglomeration are the dynamic mechanisms underlying the development of the financial network. Preferred linkage and geographical proximity can be interpreted as the observable results of sharing vital resources and reducing transportation costs in accessing valuable information flows. The spatial agglomeration mechanism, stemming from the agglomeration economy in the location selection of financial enterprises, tends to strengthen the financial network structure formed historically. In the network environment, the policy of urbanization in China needs to be adjusted accordingly. The Chinese government should support cities to choose differentiated development paths in the financial network, give full play to the supply and guidance function of the financial network to urban economic growth, and promote network cooperation between cities on a larger spatial scale.
 Research Hotspots, Connotation, and Significance of Emotional Geography at Home and Abroad: Based on Bibliometrics and Visualization Jinping Lin, Jiajia Feng, Bowen Zhang, Yujie Han, Hao Zhang, Man Luo, Fuying Deng 2022, 42 (6):  939-951.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003493 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1256KB) ( )   Owing to the long-term acceptability principle of geography, emotion has always been in a relatively marginal position in the study of geography. With the emotional turn of western geography, the research of human-centered "emotional relationship" has gradually attracted great attention from domestic and foreign scholars. To grasp the research ideas, research methods, research hotspots, research progress, and key scientific issues of research in emotional geography of domestic and foreign scholars, this study used the bibliometric method to sort out, summarize, and condense 265 foreign language documents and 248 Chinese documents with the theme of "emotional geography" from 1992 to 2020. The study discussed the quantitative relationship, temporal and spatial distribution rules, distribution characteristics, and characteristics of emotional geographic literature at home and abroad. Gephi software was used to visually present research cases at home and abroad, and Citespace software was used to analyze the co-occurrence knowledge graph of keywords in the literature and to clear the research hotspots of emotional geography at home and abroad. The connotation and significance of the research have been explained, and the research prospects are put forward. The study concluded that the key scientific issues of emotional geography include five aspects: constructing a theoretical model of emotional geography with Chinese characteristics, establishing a sound system of emotional geography research methods, promoting the integration and interdisciplinary research of emotional geography and other disciplines, exploring the operating mechanism and practice path of emotional geography for stabling emotions, peace of mind, and understanding society, and studying the impact mechanism of human emotional needs on the construction of local space. There were many research topics at home and abroad, and foreign research hotspots mainly focused on politics, education, gender and climate, whereas domestic research focused on sense of place, tourism, and residents. After nearly 30 years of research on emotional geography at home and abroad, it can be divided into three stages: initiation, expansion, and volatility growth. Research methods have also gone through three stages: from qualitative descriptive analysis to the combination of qualitative and quantitative, innovative and diversified quantitative methods, and collaborative qualitative research. Academia has reached a consensus on the three-dimensionality of "person, emotion, place (space)," but only a few scholars have defined the concept of emotional geography. Thus far, cognition has not been unified, hindering the research process of emotional geography. Based on the complex patterns of emotional geography, time-complex processes, and time-space complex features, follow-up research is needed to collaboratively couple with multidisciplinary theories and methods to find a scientific, typical, representative, and practical theoretical system. There is also a need for qualitative and quantitative research methods combining with the analysis of cultural self-confidence, rural revitalization, homesickness, and uniquely Chinese characteristics of "emotional relationship" and other social hot topics, to provide valuable and scientifically based references for follow-up emotional geography research, expand scholars' research horizons, promote the theoretical and systematic research of emotional geography with Chinese characteristics, improve the academic influence and discourse power of emotional geography, and serve mankind better.
 Estimation Model and Spatial Pattern of Highway Carbon Emissions in Guangdong Province Yuanjun Li, Qitao Wu, Changjian Wang, Kangmin Wu, Hong'ou Zhang, Shuangquan Jin 2022, 42 (6):  952-964.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003491 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3316KB) ( )   The transportation sector has become one of the largest industrial emissions source of greenhouses gases, such as CO2. What's worse, carbon emissions from this industry has continued to grow in recent years, posing serious challenges to human survival and global environmental security. Among the various transport modes, road transportation yields the highest levels of energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Therefore, scientifically measuring highway carbon emissions and analyzing their spatial differences are of great significance for energy conservation and emission reduction in the transportation sector. Taking Guangdong Province as an example, this study constructs a full-samples and high-precision carbon emissions model, which encompasses Class I~IV passenger cars and Class I~VI freight vehicles based on origin-destination traffic flow data recorded by the highway networking toll system. Finally, the study explores the spatial difference in carbon emissions of highways in Guangdong Province by using geospatial methods. The conclusions are as follows.Firstly, carbon emissions from highways in Guangdong Province mainly came from trucks, which accounted for 57.1% of the total carbon emissions; passenger cars accounted for 42.9%. To be specific, the carbon emissions mainly originated from small and medium-sized vehicles, including Class I passenger vehicles (i.e., cars) and Class I and III freight vehicles. Secondly, the high carbon emissions road sections were spatially auto-correlated, with peak aggregations on national highways, near economically developed and densely populated areas, and adjacent to airports and ports. Road sections with high carbon emissions in Guangdong Province were concentrated along national highways (9,477 t; 61.9%); the carbon emissions of provincial road sections were relatively low (5,834 t; 38.1%). The high-emission sections of passenger vehicles were mainly concentrated in the Pearl River Delta and radially distributed outwards along Guangzhou City. The high-emission sections of freight vehicles were mainly distributed in national highways. The smaller volume of trucks, the more concentrated the spatial distribution of carbon emissions. Furthermore, at the city scale, the cities with higher carbon emissions were mostly concentrated in the Pearl River Delta urban agglomerations, and Guangzhou had a evident primary city effect. The cities with lower carbon emissions were mainly concentrated in coastal areas, such as Zhuhai. At the county scale, the spatial non-equilibrium characteristics of the carbon emissions were significant. The counties with higher carbon emissions were located in the northern part of Guangdong Province and the center and east coast of the Pearl River Delta.Finally, different types of vehicles had differentiated carbon emission characteristics and emission reduction paths. For example, based on the large quantity and significant carbon emissions of Class I passenger vehicles, we must optimize the energy structure to increase the proportion of vehicles using renewable energy sources. Owing to the high unit fuel consumption of Class VI freight vehicles, improving their operation efficiencies is crucial to avoid empty carriages (i.e., no cargo) and we must optimize their driving routes. This research improves the scientificity and spatial analytical accuracy of measuring traffic carbon emissions, thus enriching the sustainable development theory of the transportation, practically promoting the precise emission reduction and green development of the transportation industry, and providing technical and strategic support for attaining dual carbon targets in China.
 Excess Commuting and Its Spatial Differentiation Pattern in Guangzhou Supported by Cell Phone Signaling Data Wangbao Liu, Jie Chen 2022, 42 (6):  965-972.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003494 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1649KB) ( )   Excess commuting is an important indicator to understand the spatial organization and commuting efficiency of the urban job-housing space. With the advantages of full sample and high precision, cell phone signaling data help describe the urban job-housing relationship and commuting pattern at the micro scale. The job-housing relationship pattern at the micro scale is conducive to a more accurate assessment of urban excess commuting. Using cell phone signaling data to construct a job-housing Origin And Destination (OD) contact matrix of the Residents' Committee, this study analyzes excess commuting and its micro-structure in Guangzhou. This study finds the excess commuting in Guangzhou to be 76.01%, which is relatively high compared with that of other cities in China as well as cities in the West; this indicates that the overall efficiency in job-housing spatial organization is low. From the perspective of local excess commuter rate, there are obvious characteristics of high excess commuter rate at the edge of the region and in the old city, and the distribution of high excess commuter rate has a certain correlation with the direction of subway rail transit. The construction of rail transit tends to reduce residents' sensitivity to commuting distance, which leads to an increase in excess commuting. Simultaneously, large suburban real estate communities and industrial agglomeration areas have a high excess commuting rate because of the relatively single urban function. Although the function of the city center is relatively diversified, it is easy to form a high excess commuting rate due to the impact of high cost of living. In the suburbs of Guangzhou, areas with specific functions, such as University Towns and urban villages, have a lower excess commuting rate and better organizational efficiency in the job-housing space. Relevant public policies to improve the spatial organizational efficiency of job-housing in big cities require not only focusing on improving the balance of regional job-housing but also placing great emphasis on optimizing the urban functional structure and reducing regional differences in housing costs. Excessive single functional development in the suburbs will affect the job-housing balance in the region. Hence, it is necessary to avoid large-scale "sleeping cities" and industrial new towns. The choice of workplace and residential location is often a rational one made based on cost of living and commuting. Reducing regional differences in cost of living is the most important way to eliminate the regional job-housing imbalance. Strengthening the equalization of public service facilities between central urban areas and suburbs, improving the traffic convenience in suburbs, and reducing regional differences in housing prices are important measures to reduce regional differences in cost of living.