热带地理 ›› 2015, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (4): 456-462.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002724

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

鲁迅在京足迹折射的文人城市空间结构意象 ——对《鲁迅日记》中北京地名的分析

周尚意,张乐怡   

  1. (北京师范大学 地理学与遥感科学学院,北京 100875)
  • 出版日期:2015-07-03 发布日期:2015-07-03
  • 作者简介:周尚意(1960―),女,广西人,教授,主要从事社会文化地理学领域的研究,(E-mail)twizsy@163.com ;张乐怡(1995―),女,北京人,本科在读生,(E-mail)zly950704@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目“北京不同区域地方性的刻画及形成机制研究”(41271152);全国哲学社会科学重大项目“我国城镇化进程中记忆场所的保护活化创新研究”(14ZDB139);2015年度全国大学生科学研究与创业行动计划“以北京社区新地名分析地名文化中的主体关系”

Beijing’s Spatial Structure in 1920’s:A Study of the Beijing’s Place Names in LuXun’s Diary

ZHOU Shangyi,ZHANG Leyi   

  1. (School of Geography,Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875,China)
  • Online:2015-07-03 Published:2015-07-03

摘要:

国家第二次地名普查已经启动,其中一项工作是调查地名文化。发掘地名文化有6种功能,其中之一是“展现历史时期聚落空间格局”。文章的第一个目的是分析一系列地名与城市整体空间格局的关系,而以往的研究多聚焦于地名与所在地的自然环境、聚落功能的关系;第二个目的是,基于历史文献恢复城市历史空间格局的主体性,意在指出所有基于文献分析得出的城市空间结构均带有主体性,这种主体性恰恰可以部分反映出城市的社会文化空间。文章以《鲁迅日记》为研究对象,统计鲁迅1912―1926年在北京居住的时期内,他所光顾过的地方。用这一系列地名,将那个时期北京城市的空间结构呈现出来。文章采用文人日记作为研究材料分析地名,这与采用城市历史地图中的地名分析城市空间结构的差异是,强调了个体视角中的城市空间结构。这个结构折射出那个时期文人心中的城市空间结构意象。文章的结论有二:第一,鲁迅在京足迹地图串联的那些貌似无意义的地名,可以构成一个地名集合遗产,它体现了中国知识分子的精神情怀。第二,鲁迅对北京的空间感知的首要对象是区域,而他将林奇提出的其余4个空间要素列为次要感知层次。

关键词: 地名, 北京, 鲁迅, 城市空间结构

Abstract:

China has started the second survey of place names. One of the tasks is investigation of the culture of place names, which has six functions. One function is showing the spatial structure of settlements in history. This is the first aim of this paper. The second aim of this paper is finding the subjectivity of place names when elites lived in a city and used the place names. That shows the social structure of a city in eyes of elites. This paper shows the statistic of place names in LuXun’ s Diary, which were the places had been or stayed by LuXun from 1912 to 1926, when he lived in Beijing. The series of place names give us a spatial structure of Beijing in that time. This paper highlights the subjective image of Beijing in the eyes of LuXun. This is different from the way to find city’ s structure by historical maps, which is hard to find the real maker of a map. The conclusions are as follows. Firstly, many meaningless place names mentioned by LuXun in his dairy can get their meanings when people look at them in a whole. Their series can be regarded as a cultural heritage, which shows the cultural identity of Chinese intellectuals by LuXun’ s case. Secondly, LuXun took “area” as the most important element to understand the urban structure. In his view, path, border, node and landmark were the second level to percept Beijing.

Key words: place name, Beijing, LuXun, urban spatial structure