• 2024 Volume 44 Issue 5
      Published: 05 May 2024
        


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    • Jiao'e Wang, Enyu Che, Fan Xiao
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      Air cargo is an important component of transportation and plays a vital role in the efficient allocation of high-quality resources on global and regional scales. Air cargo contributes significantly to regional economic development by strengthening inter-regional cooperation and resource integration. However, air cargo geography has received relatively less attention from the research community. Existing studies have analyzed the spatial pattern of air cargo using a limited cross-sectional data from selected years, lacking an analysis of its influencing factors. Based on spatial statistics and panel data of air cargo, this study explores the evolution process and characteristics of China's air cargo pattern on a 20-years time scale and quantitatively reveals its key influencing factors. The research findings are as follows: 1) Air cargo in China has transitioned from the rapid development stage to the stable development stage in the past 20 years; 2) Air cargo volume in China is mainly concentrated in the eastern region, and in the past 20 years, China's air cargo center of gravity has been generally located at the junction of Anhui, Henan, and Hubei provinces, showing a spatial displacement trend from Henan to Anhui to Hubei; 3) The pattern of air cargo network in China remains relatively stable, forming a rhombic structure with Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen as the core; 4) Air cargo development in China is influenced by factors such as urban scale, industrial structure, and ground transportation development. Among them, urban economy, transportation, warehousing, postal and telecommunications industry, and technological investment have a significant positive impact on air cargo volume, whereas the wholesale and retail trade industries have a significant negative impact. For air logistics hubs, the influencing factors are consistent with those of the entire sample airport. However, for non-aviation logistics hubs, population size and research and technology services have a significant positive impact, whereas ground transportation accessibility has a significant negative impact. This study enriches the long-term time-series analysis and quantitative research content in the field of air cargo and has significance for the development of air transportation geography and the construction of a strong civil aviation industry in China.

    • Qitao Wu
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      Owing to historical reasons, the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) features a unique "one country, two systems" institutional framework. Facilitating the integration and connectivity of transportation among Hong Kong, Macao, and the Mainland is crucial for the high-quality development of the GBA. Previous studies about borders have primarily focused on national (supranational) or administrative boundaries within a country's territory. However, studies on the unique institutional differences in the GBA are insufficient. Additionally, most studies do not perform dynamic border effects measurements using big traffic flow data. This study utilizes toll-collection data from highways in the GBA for 2021 and 2023, as well as cross-border traffic data, to construct a traffic-flow network for the GBA. Complex network analysis and border-effect measurement methods are employed to investigate the spatial structure of the GBA traffic-flow network and its dynamic changes in border effects. The results indicate that, in terms of the overall spatial structure of traffic flow in the GBA, the network exhibits a unique "dual-core edge" structure, with the Guangzhou-Foshan, and Shenzhen-Dongguan-Huizhou regions serving as dual cores. In contrast, the overall coverage and connectivity strength of the passenger-flow network are higher than those of the freight-flow network. Regarding the dynamic changes in the spatial structure of traffic flow from Hong Kong and Macao, the coverage and density of the traffic-flow network in 2023 are significantly higher than those in 2021. Traffic flows from Hong Kong and Macao have begun to extend beyond the border toward the northern regions, thus accelerating the integration of transportation within the GBA and forming a spatial pattern of "cross-strait connectivity and all-area interconnection." However, because of their peripheral positions in the traffic network and the presence of border effects, the importance of Hong Kong and Macao in the GBA traffic-flow network remains relatively weak. Based on the dynamic measurement results of border effects, the obstruction coefficients between Hong Kong and the Mainland, as well as between Macao and the Mainland, are significantly higher than those between various counties within the Mainland. The obstruction coefficients for passenger vehicles are generally lower than those for freight vehicles. Following the outbreak of the pandemic, the obstruction coefficients of the GBA traffic-flow network have increased dynamically, thus indicating a reduction in obstructive border effects. This study expands the quantitative research framework of border effects in traffic-flow networks, thus promoting integrated transportation development in the GBA and facilitating its integration development goals.

    • Huiming Zong, Huimin Liu, Yilin Chen, Dapeng Zhang, Jiamin Zhang
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      Research on urban spatial networks based on "flow" data has become a new paradigm in the assessment of urban spatial connections and the delineation of metropolitan influence areas in urban geography and territorial spatial planning. Research on urban connections in Chongqing focuses primarily on districts and counties within the city's administrative region, utilizing passenger or cargo flow data to study the spatial structure of the network within Chongqing. However, few studies have been conducted on cross-provincial administrative regions between Chongqing and its neighboring areas, which does not align with the actual influence of Chongqing's metropolitan area. Based on highway traffic passenger flow data, this study employs social network and GIS spatial analysis methods to study the urban network spatial structure between Chongqing and its neighboring areas from the perspective of passenger flow connections. The results indicate the following: (1) Chongqing's central urban area serves as the absolute core of the urban network, with Changshou, Jiangjin, and Bishan as important nodal cities. Fuling, Bishan, and Changshou exhibit notable accessibility within the network, while Fuling, Qianjiang, Jiangjin, and Wanzhou play prominent intermediary roles. There are no prominent regional nodes outside Chongqing's administrative area, and the growth poles for the development of the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle need further cultivation. (2) The passenger flow network between Chongqing and its neighboring areas exhibits a three-tiered axial connection, with the overall network displaying a distinct radial characteristic. The urban clusters in northeastern Chongqing form a distinct band-shaped axis along the Yangtze River with Chongqing. The urban clusters in southeast Chongqing and their neighboring areas exhibit radial axes, with relatively weak connections to the central urban area. Some areas in Guang'an and Dazhou have overcome provincial administrative boundaries, and the network hierarchy is distributed according to "4(level 1)+15(level 2)+18(level 3)." (3) The cohesive subgroups between Chongqing and its neighboring areas demonstrate a high degree of geographical proximity, forming a "core-periphery" structure. This reflects the significant influence that factors such as spatial distance and road extensions exercise on the road passenger transport network. Conducting research on the spatial structure of cross-administrative urban networks from the perspective of highway passenger flow holds significant theoretical and practical value for enriching research on the spatial structure of cross-administrative metropolitan areas and promoting the linkage between Chongqing's metropolitan area and its surrounding regions.

    • Xintong Li, Jicai Dai
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      The Fourteenth Five-Year Plan of China has proposed the acceleration of the construction of a strong transport nation. The Outline for the Construction of a Powerful Transportation State emphasizes that it is necessary to focus on the general objective of the construction of a powerful transportation state and create a "123 traveling and transportation circle in the country" and reach the new standard of 1-hour commuting metropolitan area, 2-hour connecting urban agglomeration, and 3-hour coverage of the major cities in the country, which determines the importance of the accessibility of urban agglomeration in the strategy. The high-speed railway network in the twin-city economic circle of the Chengdu-Chongqing region enhances inter-city accessibility and has a spillover effect on socioeconomic development. Starting with HSR network accessibility, in this study, the evolution of the accessibility pattern after the opening of the HSR in 2015, 2020, and 2025 was analyzed using the shortest inter-city travel time, weighted average travel time, and daily accessibility index. Based on the gravity model used to measure the economic reinforcement effect generated by HSR network accessibility, the spatial Durbin model was used to explore the spillover effect of HSR network accessibility on the tertiary industry's economic development from 2015 to 2020. The study results demonstrate that the HSR network improves the level of urban accessibility, narrows the gap of accessibility level between cities, weakens the regional accessibility circle structure, and exhibits significant corridor effect. The HSR network generates a significant spatiotemporal convergence effect. The direction of spatiotemporal convergence of core cities is to expand uniformly to their surroundings, and the direction of expansion of edge cities is mainly to spread along newly opened HSR lines in the form of a belt. The improved accessibility of the HSR network will strengthen regional economic ties, narrow the gap between the attractiveness levels of non-core cities, and enhance the twin-core phenomenon. Increased accessibility is conducive to the economic development of the tertiary industry in neighboring cities, with an increase of 1 percentage point in the accessibility of the high-speed rail network in the neighboring region, leading to an increase of 0.3088 in the local tertiary industry. An increase in the tertiary economic level of neighboring cities will inhibit the development of the local tertiary economy, which may be because the Chengdu-Chongqing region is now more competitive than cooperatives in terms of urban relations; therefore, regional development is still in the siphoning stage. The possible contribution of this study is reflected in the use of accessibility as the core research and explanatory variable to explore the economic spillover effects of accessibility of high-speed rail networks in typical case regions. It aims to reveal the impact of high-speed rail network accessibility on the economy and industry, summarize the theory of spillover effect, and provide a theoretical reference for high-speed rail construction, regional planning, and economic layout optimization.

    • Pengjun Zhao, Tong Zhao, Mengzhu Zhang, Ting Xiao
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      The impact of international geopolitics on transportation network patterns is an important topic in economics and transportation geography. Previous studies have often overlooked the diversity of domestic crude oil transportation among countries due to limitations in statistical data, focusing mainly on national-level node selection. Additionally, the evolution of network characteristics is predominantly analyzed through long-term descriptive approaches, lacking specific contextual analyses of network evolution. This study investigates changes in the maritime crude oil transportation network along the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) routes against the backdrop of the Russia-Ukraine conflict, offering new evidence for research in this field. Using AIS(Automatic Identification System) ship trajectory big data and complex network analysis methods, this study analyzes the overall characteristics, node importance, core-periphery structure, and clustering of the maritime crude oil transportation network along the BRI routes from 2019 to 2022. Furthermore, it examines the impact of maritime network changes on the stability of crude oil imports to China. Our findings reveal several key points. 1) The closeness, strength, and accessibility of network connections between ports show an initial increase followed by a decreasing trend. The direction of the overall network characteristic changes in the periods 2019-2020 and 2020-2022 are opposite, with a greater magnitude in the latter period. In recent years, particularly following the Russia-Ukraine conflict, the scale-free nature of the network has continuously increased, accompanied by an increase in the concentration of crude oil shipping connections. This concentration, notably evident towards export destinations, reflects a shifting pattern in the crude oil supply demand landscape, spatially manifested as China replacing some of its crude oil shipping connections with the Middle East, thus reducing its reliance on Russian crude oil shipments. 2) The comprehensive importance of export ports has become more prominent, with a slight decrease followed by a significant increase in recent years. The importance of ports in Russia's Far East region has notably increased, reflecting a shift in Russia's crude oil export center eastward after the Russia-Ukraine conflict. The network structure transitioned from single-core to multi-core to single-core with export ports occupying more central layers. 3) Initially, there was a continuation of the core-periphery and clustering structures, but later, there was significant structural reorganization. In 2020, the core-periphery structure and clustering in terms of core ports, geographical distribution, and cluster size were largely the same as corresponding clusters in 2019; however, by 2022, a noticeable structural reorganization emerged. 4) Changes in maritime networks significantly and heterogeneously affect China's crude oil import stability. At the network level, import stability initially increases and then decreases, with the decline in the later period far exceeding that in the earlier period. At the port level, compared to ports around Bohai Bay and the Yangtze River Delta, ports along the southeastern coast, Pearl River Delta, and southwestern coast were more affected by the Russia-Ukraine conflict in terms of crude oil import stability. China responded to the risk of instability in its crude oil import network against the backdrop of the Russia-Ukraine conflict by adjusting its sources and proportions of imports from different ports. This study provides scientific evidence for a deeper understanding of the impact of geopolitical events on China's oil imports and the formulation of national energy security strategies.

    • Tao Li, Leibo Cui, Jiao'e Wang, Huiling Chen
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      With the rapid development of urban regionalization and networking of high-speed transport, intercity travel has increasingly played a key role in China's economic and social development and socioeconomic functional connections. However, amidst global change and uncertainty, the event disturbance-oriented theory and empirical research on intercity travel is still insufficient to improve the ability of transportation systems to cope with disturbances. Since uncertainty is prevalent in transport operations, improving Intercity Travel Behavior Resilience (ITBR) and grasping the spatiotemporal pattern of demand-side intercity travel fluctuation to restrain risk is essential for resilient transport construction. Based on related theories and analysis methods of spatial interaction and intercity travel, this study refines the definition of ITBR. A measurement model of ITBR was constructed based on long-term intercity travel data and the general properties of disturbance events. Furthermore, COVID-19 disturbance was used as a case study to reveal the adaptive pattern of intercity travel and the spatiotemporal pattern of ITBR over three years. The results show that the evaluation of ITBR based on seasonal and holiday trends reveal spatiotemporal patterns of intercity travel fluctuations influenced by disturbance events. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on intercity travel is as follows: peak of the national pandemic > peak of the Omicron variant > peak of the multipoint fluctuation. The intensity of intercity travel decreased linearly with an increase in distance, and intercity travel during the three stages is lost by 0.86, 1.03, 1.15 percentage points, respectively, with an increase of 50 km. The average intercity travel distances of residents in these three stages were shortened by 52.55, 65.31, and 105.16 km, respectively. The value of ITBR decreased from the multipoint fluctuation period to the national pandemic period because of the Omicron outbreak. Overall, ITBR showed a gradual increasing trend during the study period. Meanwhile, ITBR in these three stages was characterized by obvious spatial differentiation and regional agglomeration. Compared to existing research, this study further expands existing research focusing on intra-city travel behavior resilience by exploring ITBR on the regional scale.

    • Wulin Zhan, Guangliang Xi, Yang Ju, Fei Shi
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      Under the influence of information technology and high-speed transportation networks, which compress space and time, the region's population has achieved large-scale fluidity. Examining the temporal heterogeneity of intercity travel networks and its influencing mechanism can help optimize regional spatial organization and provide a scientific basis for regional integrated development. Based on Baidu migration data from January to April 2023, this study uses a PPML(Poisson Pseudo Maximum Likelihood) gravity model and interaction term testing to compare the scale, pattern, and influencing factors of intercity travel networks during weekdays, weekends, and holidays in the Yangtze River Delta region. The results indicate the following: 1) The intercity travel network in the Yangtze River Delta region exhibits temporal heterogeneity characteristics. During weekdays, intercity travel primarily consists of cross-city commuting and business trips, with the lowest daily average scale. This forms a V-shaped intercity travel structure covering Shanghai, southern Jiangsu, Northern Zhejiang, and Southern Anhui. The positive effects of destination city population size and economic status on intercity travel are enhanced. On weekends, intercity travel is dominated by business trips and leisure activities, and residents tend to take shorter trips, which means that intercity distances pose greater hindrances to intercity travel. During holidays, intercity travel is primarily for leisure and entertainment and for visiting friends and relatives, with the highest daily intensity. The promotional effect of destination city population size on intercity travel is weakened, and intercity travel is less hindered by intercity distances. Compared to the effects of geographical distance, economic status, and population size on the scale of intercity travel during weekdays, travel duration, or geographical distance, tends to pose a greater hindrance on weekends and a lesser hindrance during holidays. The promotional effect of economic status is intensified on weekends but diminishes during holidays. Meanwhile, the promotional effect of population size weakens both on weekends and during holidays. 2) Push-pull factors encompass the level of urban development and the incentives that trigger individual travel. In terms of urban development level, indicators such as population size, economic status, and industrial structure reflect the comprehensive strength and development status of a city, influencing its ability to serve as both a starting and destination point for intercity travel. From the perspective of various individual travel incentives, residents pay more attention to various urban resources such as income levels, public service quality, and tourism resources to meet their personal needs for production and living. The primary types of population movements vary across different time periods, shifting between cross-city commuting, business travel, and leisure and entertainment. As a result, the dominant factors among push-pull elements also change, leading to significant variations in the effectiveness of each factor. Intermediate obstacles are the key factors limiting intercity travel. On the one hand, while the level of integration in the Yangtze River Delta region continues to improve, and transportation facilities are gradually improving, geographical distance remains a crucial intermediate obstacle. On the other hand, administrative and cultural differences between different provinces increase residents' adaptation costs, forming "invisible barriers" that hinder cross-province population interactions. The hindrance posed by intermediate obstacles to intercity travel also varies across different travel periods. The effects of push-pull factors exhibit temporal heterogeneity. The small-world characteristics of the intercity travel network during weekdays are more evident, and the central city has a more prominent structural core status. On weekends, the geographical proximity of the intercity travel network improves, with close "center-hinterland" connections and enhanced inter-provincial boundary effects. During holidays, the overall intensity of the intercity travel network increases, with the most significant increase in medium- and long-distance cross-provincial travel. The provincial boundary effect and spatial proximity effect decrease, weakening the structure of the intercity travel network.

    • Shuang Ma, Xin Chen, Jiayue Ma, Zhehui Chen, Shuangjin Li
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      Urban agglomerations are the main spatial carriers of national and regional urbanization development. The study of their spatial association networks is of great significance for optimizing the allocation of urban resources, promoting the process of regional integration, and facilitating the high-quality development of urban agglomerations. The Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration (YRDUA) is one of the most economically active regions in China. Its spatial association network structure was the main feature of economic and social development in China's "14th Five-Year Plan." Based on the perspective of flow spaces in terms of both the city and township scales, multi-source data were used in this study and included online car-hailing origin-destination travel data, combined with complex network models and a quadratic assignment procedure, to analyze the structural characteristics and driving mechanism of the spatial association network of the YRDUA. Results show that: 1) spatial association network based on online car-hailing flow in the YRDUA has spatial dependence and hierarchical characteristics, and intensities of network association are mostly coupled with levels of economic development; 2) spatial association network in the YRDUA displays spatial spillover effects, leading to an overall pattern of high equilibrium in southern development and strong single-point development capacity in the north; 3) the structural features of spatial association network in the YRDUA differ between townships and urban scales, with some high-level townships in certain transportation networks failing to exert their driving role at the urban level; and 4) economic development status, population vitality, the level of urban construction, and administrative division ownership and geographical location differences between townships have significant impacts on the spatial association network structure in terms of the township scale. The differences in administrative divisions are most important. Online car-hailing travel data were used in this study to effectively supplement the links between township streets within and between cities. This data also revealed intercity links. Thus, the development characteristics of spatial units on different scales were reflected, and research and social management needs were satisfied on a fine scale. In addition, by introducing spatial big data and analyzing the influence mechanism from various aspects, such as socioeconomics, the driving factors of the spatial network of urban agglomerations were systematically identified at the small-scale level, which will help with more reasonable planning within the city and play a role in the development of urban agglomerations by enhancing the attractiveness of individual cities. This study expands the research perspectives on the cooperative development of urban agglomerations on different scales, providing theoretical references and practical support for the promotion of the coordinated development of urban agglomerations as a whole.

    • Yukun Gao, Pengjun Zhao
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      The rapid development of information technology has triggered an explosion of data, marking the era of big data. A wide range of transportation big data has been used in urban space and travel behavior studies since the beginning of this century. Mobile phone signaling data in particular have many advantages: they have prevalent spatial and temporal coverage, high tracking stability, satisfactory resolution, and low cost. The description of urban phenomena and the analysis of their forming mechanisms using mobile phone signaling data are thoroughly studied by previous research. The next course of action is to tackle specific urban problems. This study summarizes the application progress of mobile phone signaling data in job-housing relationships and travel behavior studies, discusses the application prospects of mobile phone signaling data in transportation carbon emissions research based on past applications and the existing literature on low-carbon transportation, and proposes a research framework and several future directions for studies using mobile phone big data to examine job-housing relationships, travel behavior, and transportation carbon emissions. We first provide a brief introduction to the features of mobile phone signaling data in comparison with other commonly used data types, including their type, content, and spatial-temporal resolution. We then review the existing applications in job housing and travel research. Regarding the jobs-housing relationship, prior studies employ mobile phone signaling data to detect the spatial distribution of workplaces and residences of urban dwellers, analyze jobs-housing relationship features and urban spatial structure characteristics, and examine the factors influencing jobs-housing relationships. Regarding travel behavior, studies employ mobile phone signaling data to identify stays and trips, infer trip modes, detect trip routes, and explore the universal laws of human mobility. Next, we also discuss how mobile phone signaling data can be applied to transportation carbon emissions research. Indeed, mobile phone signaling data can be used in the calculation of transportation carbon emissions and analysis of the relationships between urban spatial structure, individual travel behavior, and transportation carbon emissions, and its wide coverage and large sample size can be exploited to fill research gaps and problems that have yet to be resolved using traditional traffic datasets. Finally, we present a research framework underlining the indirect and direct effects of the jobs-housing relationship and travel behavior on transportation carbon emissions. We also propose future directions in study contents and methodological innovations by recommending long time-series longitudinal studies, large-scale comparative studies, and new population and transportation phenomena. We further recommend fusing multi-source big and small data, incorporating machine learning algorithms into traditional statistical analyses, and constructing digital twin models. Examining the jobs–housing relationship, travel behavior, and transport carbon emissions using mobile phone signaling data is essential for clarifying the interactions between urban and regional structures, travel behavior characteristics, and transport carbon emissions. It has important implications for emissions reduction and sustainable development in the context of proposing carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals.

    • Chang Liu, Liang Guo, Shuo Yang, Qinghao Zhang, Hui He
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      Public transportation is a vital means to alleviate urban congestion. Despite substantial investments in public transit infrastructure in China, the development of urban public transportation has been unsatisfactory, with many city residents still favoring car travel. The extensive use of personal vehicles occupies limited road resources, thus exacerbating traffic congestion and environmental pollution. The built environment extensively influences residents' travel choices. Existing studies often describe the characteristics of the built environment from the perspective of the origin, destination, and public transit stops, lacking attention to the out-of-vehicle segments before and after using public transit; moreover, they mainly focus on the built environment faced by transit riders, without fully considering the alternative transit chains for car travelers. Accordingly, this study adopts a trip chain perspective. Combining resident travel surveys and streetscape data from the main urban area of Wuhan, and simulating travel paths using Baidu Maps, this study uses a random forest model to comprehensively analyze the impact of the built environment at the origin, destination, and out-of-vehicle segments on the choice between public transit and private vehicle. The results indicate the following: (1) The performance of the random forest model is superior to that of the traditional Logistic model, and it can reveal the nonlinear relationship between the built environment and travel behavior. At the same time, considering the out-of-vehicle environment also better understands the competitive environment between public transit and private vehicle, thereby improving the model's predictive ability. (2) the built environment is the main factor influencing the preference for public transit, and the out-of-vehicle environment's influence on travelers is no less than that of the built environment at the origin and destination. The preference for transit and built environment factors exhibit a nonlinear relationship, with some factors having different impacts at the origin and destination. Specifically, the population density, intersection density, and transit stop density at the origin and destination have very similar effects on the preference for transit, while the land use mix and job density differ. The proportion of roads and fences in the out-of-vehicle environment show a clear threshold effect, while the proportion of sidewalks and visible green index exhibit a saturation effect. (3) The mechanisms by which the built environment influences the choice of public transit and private vehicle can be summarized into three categories: elastic adjustment, limited support, and direct drive. These findings reveal the effective range of built environment factors in enhancing the attractiveness of transit, providing more rational and precise targeting for policy-making. This study addresses the issue of insufficient detail in the built environment in current research, incorporating the out-of-vehicle environment and alternative modes of travel into the analysis framework of transit preference, providing more intervenable built environment factors to enhance the attractiveness of transit, and offering insights for integrating nonlinear impact relationships into urban planning practice.

    • Haijing Guo, Yuanjun Zhong, Hanfa Xing, Mianxin Gao, Jiayin Peng
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      Urbanization in China has entered a new phase that emphasizes both scale expansion and quality improvement. This has led to demands on urban functional structures and rational urban planning. Street space serves as a vital spatial carrier for meeting urban residents' needs, such as travel, shopping, and leisure. It is comprised of urban roads and their ancillary facilities, buildings along the route, and many other elements. However, existing studies typically focus on the traffic function of urban roads, overlooking other functional aspects of street space as complex public activity areas, thereby hindering the optimization of street space quality. Therefore, there is a need to propose a classification method for the urban street space functions. Given the proliferation of taxi trajectory data and street view imagery, street space can be described in detail from the citizens' perspectives. Therefore, this study proposes a street space classification method that integrates taxi trajectory and street view imagery to delineate urban functions. The dynamic travel characteristics of urban residents in the street space are constructed using the taxi trajectory, including the number of trajectories passing by the street, the number of origin points on the street, and the number of destination points on the street. The physical environment characteristics of the street are constructed using the street view image, which contains single element street features, combined element street features, and overall element street features. Subsequently, based on residents' dynamic travel characteristics and the physical environmental characteristics of street space, the K-Means method is utilized to allocate street spaces with similar urban functions into the same clusters. Taking Bao'an District of Shenzhen as a case study, it was found that clustering with K=3 yielded the most interpretable results. Subsequently, based on street characteristics and auxiliary POI information (including POI density and POI enrichment index), street spaces were successfully classified into three urban functional types: commercial, traffic, and residential. Further analysis was conducted by integrating street view images, the Gaode map, and the 24-hours distribution of the trajectory, which validated the reliability of the classification results, achieving an experimental accuracy of 81%. Additionally, this study constructed two sets of ablation experiments for a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of the characteristics extracted in this study. The results of street space function classification based on taxi trajectory data and street view image data showed classification accuracies of 67% and 34%, respectively, which are lower than the classification effect of combining the two data sources. The results of street space classification based on feature selection from taxi trajectory data indicated that the classification accuracy considering only the weekday taxi trajectory features was 69%, and considering only the taxi trajectory features during T08:00-22:00 on both weekdays and weekends was 73%, which is lower than the classification effect of using three types of trajectory features throughout the entire day. By integrating the characteristics extracted from multiple data sources, the methods took into account both pedestrian and vehicle traffic functions, as well as the diversity of the streetscape environment and residents' activities. The identification results can provide references for the design and quality optimization of street space, as well as detailed investigations into urban functional areas such as residential, commercial, and traffic street space.

    • Jialin Liu, Yue'er Gao, Ruizhen Qi
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      Implementing preferential policies for bus transfers is an important measure for promoting the development of public transportation. Although public transportation extends the travel time of passengers, the preferential policies reduce the travel costs to a certain extent. On the basis of IC card data of public transport, an income method model was constructed to evaluate the cost of passenger flow transfer time after the implementation of the preferential transfer policy in Xiamen and compare it with the reduced fees due to the policy regulations. To better assess the overall benefit of bus transfer travel, the transfer passenger flow was divided into four categories: transfer zero cost passenger flow, transfer additional cost passenger flow, transfer extra time cost passenger flow, and transfer extra time+cost passenger flow. The spatial distribution characteristics of various types of passenger flow are analyzed from five aspects: station, line, traffic area, density of travel starting and ending points, commuting and non-commuting of travel. With regard to stations, a large number of different types of passenger flowed into the area centered on Yueyang Community. As regards route, No. 24 mainly gathered a large number of different types of passenger flows. As regards transportation areas, numerous different types of passenger flows gathered in the transportation communities around the subway and the island's Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) lines. In terms of OD point density, each station of Rail Line 1 and the BRT stations had large numbers of passengers at the starting or ending points. In terms of commuting and non-commuting behaviors, the activity range of various passenger flows during commuting was smaller, the span was shorter, and the cross-island passenger flow was relatively small. In contrast, the passenger flow during non-commuting behavior showed a more evident cross-island trend, and the span was generally longer. This study devised a new passenger flow classification method to evaluate the effectiveness of a preferential policy for bus transfers. Further, it affords a reference for public transport operators to better comprehend the needs and behaviors of passengers and accordingly formulate more effective policies and measures.

    • Changsheng Xiong, Yuyao Hu, Bo Zhou, Xue Liu, Qiaolin Luan
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      High-Speed Rail (HSR) stations can influence the expansion of the surrounding construction land. However, relevant studies face three main limitations: influence scope estimation lacking a theoretical foundation, less focus on whether the impacts of HSR stations on construction land expansion vary, and misjudgment of the drivers of HSR stations on construction land expansion. To address these research questions, this study first conducts a literature review to theoretically analyze the influence of HSR stations on the surrounding construction land expansion and then identifies the ideal curve for the influence distance of HSR on construction land expansion based on location theory and distance decay theory. Using the 24 stations of the Hainan Roundabout Railway (HRR) as an example, we revealed differences in the influence of various HRR stations on construction land expansion through GIS technology, buffer analysis, and nonlinear fitting to quantitatively analyze the expansion of construction land around HRR stations, identifying the impact range and direction of different HRR stations on the expansion of construction land. Building on the identification of heterogeneous impact results, the study further employed Geodetector to analyze the factors and reasons for the differentiated results of construction land expansion around different HRR stations from four dimensions: attributes of the socioeconomic environment, location conditions, HRR station attributes, and natural conditions. The results show that: (1) after the construction and operation of each HRR station, the surrounding construction land has expanded; the Hainan Eastern Ring HSR (the East Ring) has increased 1.70 km2 around each station per year and the Hainan Western Ring HSR (the West Ring) has increased 1.25 km2 around each station per year. (2) The changing trend of construction land expansion around 20 of 24 HRR stations conforms to the ideal curve, with the impact range of construction land expansion concentrated within 0.5-3.5 km, and the influence intensity of impact ranging from 0.06 to 6.64 km2. (3) The impact directions of construction land expansion around 20 HRR stations are mainly in three types of directions: "HSR-main urban area," "HSR-town center," and "HSR-scenic spot." This is because the expansion of construction land around HRR stations is not only influenced by the spillover effects of the stations, but also by the traction effect of the main urban areas, town centers, or tourist areas where the HRR stations are located. The stations along the East Ring of Hainan mainly expanded towards the main urban areas, whereas the stations along the West Ring of Hainan mainly expanded towards town centers. (4) Differences in the scope of the influence of each HRR station on the surrounding construction land expansion were mainly related to several variables, ordered as follows: socioeconomic environment, location conditions, attributes of the HRR station, and natural conditions. The GDP density of the towns where the HRR stations were located had the highest impact intensity at 0.51, followed by population density at 0.49, whereas the average elevation had the lowest impact intensity at 0.12. This study analyzed the mechanism and ideal curve of construction land expansion around HSR stations, establishing a logical basis for studying the spillover effects of HSR stations. In addition, this study analyzes the various impacts of HSR stations on the expansion of surrounding construction land and the reasons for these differences, providing a scientific basis for the current operation and future location of HSR stations. This study also offers methodological insights into the impacts of other infrastructures on the expansion of construction land in surrounding areas.

    • Yisheng Peng, Linchuan Yang
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      The construction and development of the metro have reshaped the activity spaces of residents and provided them with abundant opportunities to access various resources. However, existing literature often overlooks the impact of increased access to resources due to the metro system on housing prices. This study, based on residential transaction data from 2017 to 2019 obtained from Beike and metro line and station data from Chengdu, employed network analysis to define a 15-minute activity space for 56,999 residential samples in 2,609 neighborhoods around metro stations, serving as the basis for decomposing resource allocation. Subsequently, an XGBoost model was developed to explore the nonlinear impacts of accessibility and resource allocation at the neighborhood and cross-regional levels on housing prices. The results show that 1) the closeness centrality of the nearest metro station primarily affected housing prices. 2) Additionally, the relative importance of resource allocation on housing prices at the neighborhood and cross-regional levels was 34.60% and 19.55%, respectively, highlighting the significance of resource allocation at the cross-regional level. The development of the metro has reshaped residents' activity spaces, increasing access to various resources. The value of resources obtained through the metro has significantly affected residents' willingness to pay. Furthermore, resource allocation at the two levels reflected a different impact on housing prices. At the neighborhood level, the relative importance of factories and comprehensive hospital facilities was 8.02% and 7.47%, respectively. Meanwhile, the relative importance of parks and comprehensive hospital facilities were 4.85% and 3.86%, respectively, at the cross-regional level. 3) The relationship between accessibility, resource allocation characteristics, and housing prices is complex and nonlinear. Regarding accessibility, the travel time to the nearest metro station and housing prices exhibited a roughly U-shaped relationship, whereas the closeness centrality of the nearest metro station positively affected housing prices. In terms of resource allocation characteristics, different facilities had varying degrees of impact on housing prices at the neighborhood and cross-regional levels. Specifically, parks and primary and secondary schools at the neighborhood level showed an overall positive impact on housing prices, while factories, comprehensive hospitals, and shopping services at the neighborhood level generally suppressed housing prices. Additionally, business and financial service facilities at the neighborhood level showed an inverted U-shaped relationship with housing prices. At the cross-regional level, comprehensive hospital facilities and primary and secondary school facilities had opposite effects on housing prices compared to park facilities and shopping services. The impact of factories at the cross-regional level on housing prices was unstable. Business and financial service facilities at the cross-regional level demonstrated an inverted U-shaped relationship with housing prices, with a suppressive effect when the count of these facilities exceeded 423. The study findings provide valuable insights into sustainable metro development and rational resource allocation.

    • Zengxian Liang, Hui Luo, Yanxing Liu
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      Chinese people have become important international buyers of second homes in many destination countries, particularly Malaysia, Thailand, and other Southeast Asian countries. In the past decade, the aging population and the quest for a better life have become pressing concerns in China and have triggered an increase in transnational second-home purchases in other countries. However, despite the significant and rapid growth of transnational second homes in China, little is known about the nuanced relationship between buying motives and life satisfaction. Current studies in the Western context offer limited theoretical and practical implications for Chinese transnational second homes because Chinese buyers exhibit different motives and have a distinct understanding of a good life. Based on the push-pull theory, this study examines Chinese transnational second-home buyers' motivation and life satisfaction and the relationship between these two constructs. Data were drawn from 340 Chinese transnational second-home buyers of R&F Princess Cove in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Structural equation modeling (SEM), Importance-Performance Map Analysis (IPMA), and multi-cluster analysis (MGA) were used to process the data. Our empirical results show that, in comparison to Western second-home buyers, Chinese second-home buyers' tourism and residential experiences and overall life satisfaction are significantly affected by pull motivations, while push motivations exhibit less influence. Among all the dimensions of push motivations, the natural and tourism environment, cultural and life atmosphere, and service facilities are crucial motivations in order of priority. Economic factors (such as prices and cost of living) also influence but are not the most important factors. Both tourism and residential experience significantly affect Chinese second-home buyers' overall life satisfaction, with residential experience exhibiting a higher influence. Women and larger second-home groups value residential experiences more than other groups, while smaller buyers value travel experiences more. This study provides new evidence for future studies on Chinese transnational second homes and responds to the current academic discussions on second-home buyers' motives in transnational contexts. Finally, this study has practical implications for domestic second-home destination construction and marketing.