热带地理 ›› 2016, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (6): 1005-1018.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002890

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

快速城镇化背景下海岛农村居民点空间演变——以福建海坛岛为例

苏木兰,戴文远,黄华富,郭 强,黄剑彬   

  1. (福建师范大学 地理科学学院//湿润亚热带山地生态国家重点实验室培育基地,福州 350007)
  • 收稿日期:2015-06-26 出版日期:2016-11-05 发布日期:2016-11-05
  • 通讯作者: 戴文远(1972―),男,福建莆田人,副教授,从事土地资源利用管理、景观生态等方面的教学与研究,(E-mail)dwy_geo@163.com
  • 作者简介:苏木兰(1990―),女,福建永泰人,研究生,从事土地资源利用管理的研究,(E-mail)990273241@qq.com
  • 基金资助:

    福建省自然科学基金项目(2014J01152);福建省科技厅公益类项目(K3-300);福建省科学技术协会科技思想库研究项目(2015-7)

Spatial Evolution Characteristics of Island Rural Settlements under the Background of Rapid Urbanization: A Case Study of the Haitan Island of Fujian

SU Mulan,DAI Wenyuan,HUANG Huafu,GUO Qiang,HUANG Jianbin   

  1. (School of Geographical Sciences,Fujian Normal University//Cultivation Base of State Key Laboratory of Humid Subtropical Mountain Ecology,Fuzhou 350007,China)
  • Received:2015-06-26 Online:2016-11-05 Published:2016-11-05

摘要:

以平潭综合实验区主岛——海坛岛为研究区,基于 2000、2009 和 2013 年 3 期 SPOT 遥感数据,运用单一土地利用动态度、马尔科夫转移矩阵模型、最近邻点统计量、核密度估计、探索性数据分析和空间“热点”探测方法定量分析海坛岛农村居民点时空分布特征及其演变规律,并从景观生态学角度深入分析农村居民点空间分布特征的影响因素。结果表明:1)2000―2013 年间农村居民点扩张明显,面积共增加 399.69 hm2 ,主要转自耕地和林地,后期(2009―2013 年)的增量、增速均比前期(2000―2009 年)大,说明综合实验区的成立对海坛岛农村居民点扩张产生重要影响。2)海坛岛农村居民点扩展主要形式:一是块状扩展,即沿原有斑块向四周蔓延式向外扩展;二是带状扩展,即沿各乡镇的交通干线向两侧或某侧扩展。3)2000、2009 和 2013 年海坛岛农村居民点的空间分布均表现出显著的聚集特征,呈现高密度小规模集聚分布与低密度大规模集聚分布格局,且随时间变化,农村居民点集聚程度不断提高。4)坡度、地形起伏度、道路和河流等景观要素对海坛岛农村居民点的布局有显著影响,农村居民点主要分布在地势平坦、坡度平缓(0~10°)、近水源(距河流<1 500 m)以及交通便利(距离道路<500 m)的地方,且扩张趋势明显;反之,农村居民点分布明显较少。

关键词: 农村居民点, 快速城镇化, 空间格局, 影响因素, 海坛岛

Abstract:

Man-Land Relationship emerging in the process of rapid urbanization exerts an important influence on the distribution of the settlements, especially for Haitan Island having been the Hercynian construction comprehensive experimental area in 2009. Our study was based on a series of digitalized vector data, including the locations of settlements, land slopes, river networks and road networks obtained from remote sensing (RS) images of the county of Pingtan in Fujian Province for 2000, 2009 and 2013.Then we combined the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and RS spatial analysis techniques to quantitatively analyze the processes, patterns, and trends of spatial evolution in settlements. Finally, we explored landscape pattern indexes to examine in depth the factors influencing the distribution characteristics of settlements in the study area. Our results showed that: 1) In general, the rural residential areas were increased by 399.69 hm 2 from 2000 to 2013, most of which were originally farmland and woodland, and the last 4 years (2009-2013) had a higher increment and growth rate. 2) Haitan Island of rural residential expansion had two major forms: one was patch massive expansion, that was, along the original patches spreading to the surroundings outwardly; second was strip extension , namely along the highway to the two sides or one side extension of villages and towns. 3)And there was significant clustering in the spatial distribution of rural settlements in Haitan island during 2000, 2009 and 2013; This settlement pattern was even more significant in 2013. However, there was no obvious change in the concentrated locations of clusters. 4) The presence of land slopes, rivers, and roads significantly influenced the distribution of settlements in Haitan island as evidenced by the following findings. More than 80% of settlements were located in areas with slopes of less than 10 degrees; over 75% of settlements were located in the landforms of flatlands, platforms and low hills; almost 80% of settlements were located within 1 500 m from a river network and almost 95% of settlements were located within 500 m from a road network.

Key words: settlements, rapid urbanization, spatial patterns, factors of influence, Haitan Island