热带地理 ›› 2017, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (4): 562-568.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002963

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

全球化-地方性背景下的饮食文化生产: 潮菜原料时空特征

李坚诚   

  1. (韩山师范学院 地理系//潮学研究院,广东 潮州 541021)
  • 出版日期:2017-07-05 发布日期:2017-07-05
  • 作者简介:李坚诚(1962―),女,广东丰顺人,副教授,研究方向为人文地理、区域地理,(E-mail)754039144@qq.com。
  • 基金资助:

    2015广东省创新强校“地理科学专业综合改革”项目;“潮学”相关重点学科和平台子项目“潮汕人文地理研究”;2017年度汕头市社科规划课题(汕社科立[017]27号)

Catering Cultural Production under the Background of Globalization and Locality: Spatial-temporal Characteristics of Teochew Cuisine Ingredients

LI Jiancheng   

  1. (Department of Geography,Institute of Chaoshan Studies,Hanshan Normal University,Chaozhou 541021,China)
  • Online:2017-07-05 Published:2017-07-05

摘要:

在全球化与地方性的语境下,潮菜是饮食文化生产中“地方走向全球”的一个典型案例,其因潮汕人向海外移民而形成了本土潮菜、东南亚潮菜和港式潮菜“三足鼎立”的空间分布格局。文章以采集到的本土潮菜企业进货数据为依据,结合地方知识,从饮食地理视角探讨潮菜的人地关系表征。探讨了潮菜原料的时空特征:潮菜原料广博,以海鲜为主,地理集中性强,季节性显著,其特有的调味料最能体现潮汕的地方味。全球化与地方性背景下的潮菜饮食文化生产主要表现为本土潮菜受到全球化的影响与海外潮菜保持潮菜的风味内涵2个方面,即一方面本土潮菜由于全球范围内物流的日益发达而更加易于获得世界各地的食材,全球化影响下的文化交流在潮菜中融合了外来元素;另一方面在海外发展的潮菜则主要依靠烹饪方法和特色调味使其保持潮菜的风味。全球化增加了潮菜原料的多样性,由于善于运用广博的原料,潮菜在跨地方饮食文化生产中有很好的适应性。同时全球化带来的空间压缩突破时间限制,满足了潮菜追求原料时鲜的要求,因此全球化有利于潮菜的传播与发展。地方性则体现在传承潮菜精细的烹调技艺和运用其特有的调味料以保持潮菜风味的特质。虽然全球化为本土潮菜提供了更多可供选择的食材,但是本土潮菜始终以本地食材为主,相比海外潮菜更加注重食材的季节性。因此在全球化与地方性的背景下潮菜具有可持续发展前景。

关键词: 全球化, 地方性, 饮食文化, 潮菜, 食材

Abstract:

Under the background of globalization and locality, Teochew cuisine is a case study of catering cultural production “from locality to globalization”. Teochew cuisine sources from Chaoshan, Guangdong, China. As Chaoshan is a region feeding relatively larger population with limited farmland and the cultural feature is reflected on its fineness. Regarding the food culture, it is characterized by making the best use of various food materials as well as pursuing exquisite and fresh delicacies. Therefore, Teochew cuisine is also known as fine food. “Harmony between nature and men” is a chief notion in the culture of Teochew cuisine, and “delicacies in season” is the supreme pursuit for the flavor of Teochew cuisine. Teochew cuisine is spread with the immigration of its people. Nowadays, the population of overseas Teochew and their descendents is almost matched by that in the mainland. Thus, Teochew cuisine has been in the form of the distribution pattern of three pillars: locality, Southeast Asia and Hongkong. Such spatial distribution characteristic of Teochew cuisine is a reflection of the local cultural communication and transformation formed under the influence of immigration from Chaoshan together with the global integration. Based on the analysis of incoming data of local Teochew restaurants, combined with local knowledge, this study discusses the Man-land relationship of Teochew cuisine, the temporal and spatial characteristics of ingredients, the influence of globalization and the adaptation of overseas Teochew cuisine from the perspective of food geography. The geographical advantages of Chaoshan provide abundant food plants, hence the “cradle” of Teochew cuisine contains diverse ingredients, priority with seafood, featured by the conspicuous seasonal variations and geographic concentration. Teochew people form their unique cooking method and flavor of seasoning through accumulation of local food making experiences. The background of globalization and locality means, in one aspect, local Teochew cuisine is influenced by globalization, and food ingredients from all over the world tend to be obtained because of the increasingly developed logistics worldwide. Cultural communication affected by globalization also leads to the integration of external elements into Teochew cuisine. In the other aspect, the overseas Teochew cuisine has still kept the local flavor in translocal catering cultural production by using the unique methods of cooking and seasoning. Moreover, globalization makes the space compression and breaks through time limit, and, to some extent, food ingredients are relocated to satisfy the seasonal requirements of local Teochew cuisine. In other words, globalization expands the range of available food supplies. Overseas Teochew cuisine maintains some similarities with differences comparing with the local one. As a local branch of cooking styles, it manifests the cultural expansion of “making what is regional worldwide” in terms of foreign communication. Meanwhile, its constitution of ingredients shows the cultural infiltration of “making what is worldwide regional”. As a part of catering culture, Teochew cuisine exactly embodies the cultural blending in the background of globalization and locality. Therefore, globalization is conducive to the spread and development of Teochew cuisine. However, flavors of Teochew cuisine have not been homogenized in the globalization process, instead, richer flavors have been obtained. By integrating with external elements in the globalization background, local Teochew cuisine is also advancing with times. In cross-region diet culture, the temporal and spatial limitation to ingredients is offset by seasonings with Teochew cuisine flavors in the overseas production process of Teochew cuisine. So as discussed above, Teochew cuisine has a sustainable development prospect under the background of globalization and locality. Teochew cuisine has now been listed as a national intangible cultural heritage, which highlights its diversity and locality in the globalization process.

Key words: globalization, locality, restaurants, Teochew cuisine, food ingredients