热带地理 ›› 2017, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (4): 569-579.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002966

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于自然区域特征和生态代表性的 加拿大国家公园动态反馈遴选机制

李 鹏1,2,何琳思1,赵 敏1,2,起星艳1   

  1. (1.云南大学 工商管理与旅游管理学院,昆明 650091;2.北京大学 城市与环境学院,北京 100874)
  • 出版日期:2017-07-05 发布日期:2017-07-05
  • 作者简介:李鹏(1969―),男,湖南南县人,博士,副教授,主要从事生态旅游与保护地游憩研究,(E-mail)leap58@yahoo.com。
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41361107)

National Park Selection Mechanism in Canada Based on System Feedback

LI Peng1,2,HE Linsi1,ZHAO Min1,2,QI Xingyan1   

  1. (1.College of Business Administration and Tourism Management,Yunnan University,Kunming 650091,China; 2.College of Urban and Environmental Sciences,Peking University,Beijing 100874,China)
  • Online:2017-07-05 Published:2017-07-05

摘要: 国家公园遴选机制作为多种要素和多个环节有机结合的一套完整制度安排,核心是国家公园遴选标准和国家公园遴选流程。这是国家公园建设的基础,传递了国家公园建设的核心理念,也是中国国家公园体制建设需要优先解决的领域。国家公园遴选机制是加拿大国家公园建设的科学途径和政府治理的重要成果,具有较高的独特性和科学性,得到了世界自然保护联盟(IUCN)的高度认可和大力推崇。从系统论角度入手,综合运用文献、比较、叠图等方法分析加拿大国家公园遴选机制,结果表明:该机制基于自然区域特征建立国家公园体系,基于生态代表性选择国家公园单元,将遴选标准嵌入系统规划;遴选流程表现为联邦政府主导、上下参与,遴选进展通过土地利用状况变化动态表征;遴选标准、遴选流程和遴选进展共同构成一个动态反馈的遴选机制;该遴选机制有利于达成共识、形成合力、加快建设和扩展保护对象。针对保护地遴选机制中存在的问题,中国国家公园遴选机制应该:遴选标准“点面”结合,可以突破部门分治所造成的自然要素分割,实现不同类型保护地管理机构的整合;遴选流程“上下”互动,可以改变中央在遴选流程中处于被动地位的处境,更好地体现国家公园遴选的国家意志和科学性;遴选进展“动静”联系,可以动态反馈国家公园建设进展,同时反映相对恒定愿景和系统规划。

关键词: 加拿大, 国家公园, 遴选机制, 自然区域特征, 生态代表性, 系统规划

Abstract:

The national park selection criteria and national park selection process are the core of National Parks Selection System which is a complete institutional arrangements combining various elements and segments. As the foundation of National Park construction, it not only conveys the core philosophy of National Park, but also is the priority of the establishment of National Park. The Canadian National Park Selection Mechanism is an important achievement of the scientific approach and government governance toward the National Park in Canada. It t is very unique and scientific and has been highly recognized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Under the guidance of systematology, the Canadian national park selection mechanism was analyzed with various methods, such as documentary study, comparative method and map overlay technique. The results show that: 1) the national park system plan which was completed in 1971 was established based on the characteristics of natural regions. And the system plan divided Canada into 39 natural regions according to biota, special natural features, topography, and climate. Each natural region is then surveyed for potential national park sites. 2) The national park units were selected based on their ecological representations. This refers to the need for the potential National Park to represent, or sample, the full variety of biodiversity of different biological realms and biological scales. When selecting potential park areas, the following factors should be considered: significant cultural heritage features or landscape; ecological integrity of the area’s ecosystems; an area which is relatively undisturbed or unaffected, being in the natural state or could return to the state; feasibility of establishing a National Park; agreement of the new National Park could be reached. 3) The selection criteria were integrated into the system plan. This selection process was government-led with participation of all walks of life. Every year the evolving process was presented by the dynamic characterization based on change in land use. The selection criteria, the selection process and the evolving process all constitute the dynamic feedback mechanism. This selection mechanism is beneficial for reaching a consensus, forming resultant force and accelerating the construction of National Parks and extending the protection objects. Since China is going to establish a national park system, lots of planning and management practices first put into use in Canada could be borrowed and used to tackle the problems faced during the process of National Park selection. Overall system plan and specific criteria should be combined as the final selection standard, so as to end segmentation of natural elements caused by various governance. With the process of government-led and participation of all walks from our society, the passive situation faced by the central government could be improved and the national will and scientific feature could be better represented. The frequently update of the National Parks lists could contribute to the progress of National Park construction dynamically and reflect the relatively constant vision and system plan. The study is of great scientific significance for China and could be used for reference. It is conducive to guide the sustaining development of the national park system construction in China.

Key words: Canada, National Park, selection mechanism, characteristics of natural regions, ecological representation, system plan