热带地理 ›› 2018, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (1): 82-91.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003001

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

环境变化与城市化双重作用下近城乡村聚落演变 ——以武汉天兴乡为例

唐婉珍1,2,陈昆仑1,2,郑红阳1,李 韬3   

  1. (1.湖北大学 资源环境学院,武汉 430062;2.区域开发与环境响应湖北省重点实验室,武汉 430062;3.武汉中地大环境治理有限公司,武汉430074)
  • 出版日期:2018-01-05 发布日期:2018-01-05
  • 通讯作者: 陈昆仑(1982―),男,湖北荆门人,主要从事城市地理与城市规划的研究,(E-mail)ckl_2001@163.com
  • 作者简介:唐婉珍(1991―),女,广西桂林人,主要从事城市地理研究,(E-mail)twanzhen2012@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41401181);区域开发与环境响应湖北省重点实验室[2017(C)002];湖北省青年科技晨光计划(2015B25)

Evolution of Rural Settlement Located in Rural-Urban Continuum Under the Dual Influence of Environment Change and Urbanization: A Case Study of the Tianxing Township in Wuhan

TANG Wanzhen1,2,CHEN Kunlun1,2,ZHENG Hongyang1,LI Tao3   

  1. (1.Faculty of Resources and Environmental Science,Hubei University,Wuhan 430062,China;2.Regional Development and Environmental Response Key Laboratory of Hubei University,Wuhan 430062,China;3.Environmental Governance Co. Ltd.,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan
  • Online:2018-01-05 Published:2018-01-05

摘要: 结合实地调查和观察标图、GIS空间分析及文本分析等研究方法,探讨解放初期至今环境变化、城市化与天兴乡聚落的演化关系,分析了其乡村聚落重构的动因。结果发现:1)天兴乡的发展演变先后历经初级发展、变革发展、转型重构发展等3个不同时期。2)天兴乡空间形态从单一性趋向复合化,由传统的生活、生产、生态等三元孤立的空间转向生产―生活、生产―生态等多元复合空间。3)天兴乡的聚落演替为环境变化及城市化进程交互作用的结果。首先,自然资源和生态环境确定了天兴乡空间形态的基本格局;其次,为治理频繁发生的自然灾害,“移民建镇”等政策及相关防范灾害工程的实施,为天兴乡转型提供了有利条件;此外,城市化对天兴乡聚落演变的影响也是双重的:一方面天兴乡人口被虹吸、资源向城市集聚,加速天兴乡衰落;另一方面促进天兴乡乡村旅游业发展,为聚落发展提供机遇。

关键词: 乡村聚落, 城市化, 环境变化, 乡村重构, 天兴乡

Abstract: Rural transformation and development is an important topic for regional urbanization. In order to speed up the construction of rural ecological civilization and promote the process of new urbanization, it is important to understand the driving factors of multi-dimensional spatial transformation of the human-land system and pay attention to the interaction between human and environment in the villages. Based on this system, this study takes Tianxing township of Wuhan city as the object, combines the study with methods such as field research, mapping through observation, GIS spatial analysis and text analysis, and selects the period from early 1950s to 2016 as the study period. The paper deeply discusses the changes of the natural environment in the Yangtze River Basin and the relationship between Wuhan urbanization and evolution of rural settlements in Tianxing Township so as to reveal the characteristics of spatial changes in the rural settlements. The results show that: first, Tianxing Township has witnessed three stages including primary development, reform and development, and transformation and reconstruction, which is driven by the combination of the factors such as natural environment, social-economic conditions, policy and system. Second, the land-use pattern of Tianxing Township has transformed from single pattern to compound one, and the spatial structure of rural settlements transformed from that with three types of independent elements such as traditional life, production and ecology to that with multiple elements such as production-life and production-ecology. Therefore, the traditional rural functions are reconstructed. Third, the succession of the rural settlements in Tianxing Township is the result of the interaction between environmental change and urbanization. During the study period, the floods of the Yangtze River played a long-term stable role in the succession of the settlements space of Tianxing Township. In the process of rapid urbanization, the urban expansion and people’s demand for ecological environment have made a complex, multiple and far-reaching impact on the space of settlements in Tianxing township. Firstly, the basic pattern of spatial form of Tianxing Township is decided by its unique hydrological environment and ecological resources. Secondly, in order to control the frequent floods, related projects constructed have promoted the changes of the spatial pattern of the rural settlements in Tianxing Township. Thirdly, the gradually enhanced government regulation and power intervention are powerful driving factors for the evolution of the rural settlements of Tianxing Township. Forthly, the social and economic evolution of Tianxing township, accompanied by the progress of Wuhan urbanization, shows dual characteristics of “suppression and promotion”. According to the study, on the one hand, the syphonage effect on population and the continuously gathering of the resources in the city, have accelerated the decline of Tianxing township. On the other hand, they have promoted the tourism development of Tianxing Township. Tianxing Township has entered the stage of rural tourism-oriented transformation and upgradation, providing opportunity for the development of the rural settlements. This study holds the view that, at present, Tianxing Township is being in the early stage of the transition period. To promote the sustainable development of Tianxing Township, it is necessary to fully grasp the evolution rule of the rural spatial system and improve the internal and external mechanism of the reorganization, so as to explore the approaches which can promote sound transformation and development of the rural settlements in Tianxing township and establish a development model with regional characteristics for the township.

Key words: urbanization, rural settlements, environmental change, rural restructuring, the Tianxing Township