热带地理 ›› 2019, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (5): 759-769.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003131

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

旅游小企业成长特征及其影响因素——以宏村为例

郭强, 尹寿兵(), 刘云霞, 刘红婷   

  1. a. 安徽师范大学 地理与旅游学院,安徽 芜湖 241002;b. 安徽师范大学 旅游发展与规划研究中心,安徽 芜湖 241002
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-12 修回日期:2019-02-27 出版日期:2019-09-10 发布日期:2019-11-08
  • 通讯作者: 尹寿兵 E-mail:ysblyx@163.com
  • 作者简介:郭强(1992—),男,山西长治人,硕士研究生,研究方向为旅游地理与旅游规划,(E-mail)gq19920128@163.com;
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金青年项目“旅游小企业发展与目的地演化的交互影响及其作用机制——皖南旅游区多案例研究”(41501164);国家自然科学基金青年项目《风景名胜区治理模式演化及多尺度旅游影响研究——以黄山风景区为例》(41301159);教育部人文社会科学项目《旅游小企业演化的驱动机制及空间差异研究》(14YJCZH105)

Growth Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Small Tourism Enterprises: A Case Study of Hongcun Village

Guo Qiang, Yin Shoubing(), Liu Yunxia, Liu Hongting   

  1. a. College of Geography and Tourism, Wuhu 241002, China; b. Center for Tourism Planning and Research, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241002, China
  • Received:2018-12-12 Revised:2019-02-27 Online:2019-09-10 Published:2019-11-08
  • Contact: Yin Shoubing E-mail:ysblyx@163.com

摘要:

借鉴经济学和管理学中企业成长的概念,以宏村为案例地,采用深度访谈和非参与观察等质性研究方法,分析了旅游小企业成长的量和质特征及其影响因素。研究发现:1)宏村旅游小企业经过近40年的发展,总体上是量的增长和质的改善不断优化的过程,实现了其在旅游目的地的可持续成长。2)旅游市场环境、景区管理体制、企业家精神、地方传统文化、企业成长战略和企业竞合互动共同促进了宏村旅游小企业的创办和成长。宏村游客数量的快速增长和旅游需求的提升,旅游公司和地方政府对景区的管理和建设,本地企业主的始创和模仿创新精神,外地企业主的个人特质和改革创新精神,直接或间接地推动着旅游小企业成长;传统的徽商文化、宗族文化和邻里文化等是旅游小企业成长的社会文化支撑,并强化了旅游小企业在成长过程中的稳定性和抵御外界风险的能力;模仿创新、连锁扩张和抱团发展等企业成长战略,促进了旅游小企业的一体化、多元化和联合成长。同时,低层次的产品同质竞争促进了旅游小企业更高层次的质的成长,多群体旅游小企业主之间的合作交流,强化了企业间信息交换、资源共享,极大地推动着旅游小企业成长。

关键词: 旅游小企业, 企业成长, 旅游市场环境, 企业成长战略, 宏村

Abstract:

Drawing on the concept of enterprise growth in economics and management, taking Hongcun as a case study, the study used qualitative research methods such as in-depth interviews and non-participation observation to analyze the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the growth of small tourism enterprises and its influencing factors. The findings of the study are as follows: 1) After nearly 40 years of development, Hongcun small tourism enterprises have witnessed a sharp increase in the number of enterprises and employees, a gradual enrichment of enterprise types and products, an expansion of the overall business scale and business space, and a decline in the growth rate of business profits. At the same time, the management experience and innovative development ability of small tourism entrepreneurs have continuously improved, the hardware and software services of enterprises have become more standardized and humanized, the old brand of enterprises has continued, new brands have been produced, and the characteristics of enterprise agglomeration have been remarkable, all of which has produced a greater agglomeration economic effect. On the whole, Hongcun small tourism enterprises are in the process of continuous optimization of quantity growth and quality improvement, and are realizing their sustainable growth in tourism destinations. 2) Tourism market environment, scenic area management systems, entrepreneurship, local traditional culture, enterprise growth strategy, and enterprise competition and cooperation interaction have jointly promoted the establishment and growth of Hongcun small tourism enterprises. The rapid growth in the number of tourists and tourism demand in Hongcun, the management and construction of scenic spots by tourism companies and local governments, the initiation and imitation of innovative spirit by local entrepreneurs, the individual characteristics of endemic entrepreneurs, and the spirit of reform and innovation all directly or indirectly promote the growth of small tourism enterprises. Traditional Huizhou merchant culture, clan culture, and neighborhood culture are the social and cultural support for the growth of small tourism enterprises and they strengthen the stability of small tourism enterprises in the growth process as well as their ability to resist external risks. The growth strategies of enterprises, such as imitating innovation, chain expansion, and group development, have promoted the integration, diversification, and joint growth of small tourism enterprises. At the same time, the homogeneous competition of low-level products promotes the higher-level qualitative growth of small tourism enterprises. The cooperation and exchange among multi-group small tourism entrepreneurs strengthens information exchange and resource sharing among enterprises, and greatly promotes the growth of small tourism enterprises. Finally, further research directions are pointed out: A case study on the agglomeration of small tourism enterprises with different regional cultural traditions and different business entities could be conducted. This study probes into the characteristics and influencing factors of small tourism enterprises in different growth stages and encourages continuous follow-up study focusing on the growth quality, policy environment, and enterprise cooperation of small tourism enterprises.

Key words: small tourism enterprises, enterprise growth, tourism market environment, enterprise growth strategy, Hongcun Village

中图分类号: 

  • F592.6