热带地理 ›› 2019, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (5): 701-710.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003187

• “粤港澳大湾区转型与创新发展”专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

粤港澳大湾区传统农业洪潮适应开发模式与生态文明经验

周晴, 赵玲玲(), 吴康敏, 李苑君   

  1. 广州地理研究所,广州 510070
  • 收稿日期:2019-08-23 修回日期:2019-10-09 出版日期:2019-09-10 发布日期:2019-11-08
  • 通讯作者: 赵玲玲 E-mail:linglingzhao@foxmail.com
  • 作者简介:周晴(1984—),女,湖南长沙人,博士,副研究员,主要研究方向为历史地理,(E-mail)19425325@qq.com;
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金面上项目(41771044);广东省社科规划项目(GD16CLS02);广东省科学院平台环境与能力建设专项资金项目(2016GDASPT-0210)

The Local and Traditional Development Model and Historical Experience of the Ecological Civilization Based on Flooding Adaption in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area

Zhou Qing, Zhao Lingling(), Wu Kangmin, Li Yuanjun   

  1. Guangzhou Institute of Geography, Guangzhoug 510070, China
  • Received:2019-08-23 Revised:2019-10-09 Online:2019-09-10 Published:2019-11-08
  • Contact: Zhao Lingling E-mail:linglingzhao@foxmail.com

摘要:

通过梳理17世纪以来至20世纪50年代粤港澳大湾区适应洪涝环境的地域开发典型模式,发现该地区根据洪水和潮水不同作用特点形成3种模式:1)北部肇庆、高要、清远、三水一带的低塱地区,以洪水影响为主,利用西江洪水期旺发的鱼苗资源进行涡塘养殖,发展种植耐涝的深水稻和经济水生植物;2)中部南海、顺德、高明洪潮叠加区普遍开发为连片桑基鱼塘,发展一套防洪抗涝与利用洪水期潮水排灌的技术体系;3)中山、番禺、东莞、新会一带的沿海口门区以潮水作用为主,当地通过沿岸浅滩大量投石修筑小型丁坝、种植水草等技术措施加速滩涂泥沙淤积,围、垦开发。滩涂开发过程中创造性地利用洪潮加速潮滩植物群落演替,以及排灌、改良培肥水稻土、选种适生作物。这3种开发模式是粤港澳大湾区在地域开发中变害为利的具体实践,总结其人水和谐的经验,可为粤港澳大湾区生态文明建设提供借鉴。

关键词: 粤港澳大湾区, 洪涝, 低塱, 桑基鱼塘, 滩涂, 生态文明

Abstract:

A survey of the typical regional development models in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area used to adapt to the flood environment between the 17th century and 1950s indicates that three main models are formed in this area in accordance with the different characteristics of floods and tides. 1) The low-water areas of Zhaoqing, Gaoyao, Qingyuan, and Sanshui in the north are primarily affected by floods, and the fish fry resources during the Xijiang flood periods are used for vortex pond cultures to develop the cultivation of waterlog-tolerant deep rice and economically valuable aquatic plants. 2) The central South China Sea, Shunde, and Gaoming flood tide superposition areas have been generally developed into continuous mulberry fish ponds to develop a set of technical systems for flood control and flood resistance as well as to utilize tidal drainage and irrigation during the flood periods. 3) The coastal entrance areas of the Zhongshan, Panyu, Dongguan, and Xinhui areas are dominated by tides, and the local technical measures, such as the addition of rocks to build small spur dikes and planting grasses, can accelerate sediment deposition as well as the enclosing, reclaiming, and developing of the tidal flat. During the tidal flat development process, the flood tides can be creatively used to accelerate the succession of the tidal flat plant community as well as to aid in drainage and irrigation, the improvement of paddy soil, and the selection of suitable crops. The three aforementioned development models illustrate the concrete practices in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area that transform potential harm into a methodology to benefit regional development. Furthermore, the harmony between humans and water in this region directly promotes the construction of an ecological civilization in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area.

Key words: the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, wetlands, deep water rice, Mulberry-dike pond system, tidal lands, ecological civilization

中图分类号: 

  • S181