热带地理 ›› 2019, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (6): 844-854.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003189

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国-老挝境外经贸合作区的发展模式与启示——以万象赛色塔综合开发区为例

陈艳华1, 张虹鸥1(), 黄耿志2, 叶玉瑶1, 吴旗韬1   

  1. 1. a. 广州地理研究所; b. 广东省地理空间信息技术与应用公共实验室; c. 广东省遥感与地理信息系统应用重点实验室,广州 510070
    2. 中山大学 地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-21 修回日期:2019-06-15 出版日期:2019-11-10 发布日期:2019-12-26
  • 通讯作者: 张虹鸥 E-mail:hozhang@gdas.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:陈艳华(1982—),女,山西大同人,博士后,研究方向为经济地理、城市总体规划等,(E-mail)csy@gdas.ac.cn;
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41671128);广东省科学院发展专项资金项目(2019GDASYL-0103005);广东省科学院实施创新驱动发展能力建设专项(2018GDASCX-0101)

Development Mode and Enlightenment of the Chinese Overseas Economic and Trade Cooperation Zone in Laos: A Case Study of the Vientiane Saysettha Development Zone

Chen Yanhua1, Zhang Hong’ou1(), Huang Gengzhi2, Ye Yuyao1, Wu Qitao1   

  1. 1. a. Guangzhou Institute of Geography; b. Guangdong Open Laboratory of Geospatial Information Technology and Application; c. Key Lab of Guangdong for Utilization of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System, Guangzhou 510070, China
    2. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2019-03-21 Revised:2019-06-15 Online:2019-11-10 Published:2019-12-26
  • Contact: Zhang Hong’ou E-mail:hozhang@gdas.ac.cn

摘要:

境外经贸合作区已经成为中国实施“走出去”战略和建设“一带一路”的重要平台和空间策略。文章在总结中国境外经贸合作区发展特点基础上,采用实地调研与深度访谈的方法分析了中国-老挝万象赛色塔综合开发区的开发模式,并基于企业视角分析了该开发区的优劣势。结果发现:1)园区是采取“项目建设+土地抵偿”的形式进行开发的典型项目,以符合东道国国情与需要为发展定位,主要通过土地增值、为跨国企业提供厂地的方式获取收益;2)园区发展优势表现在:受到双边政府的大力支持,税收优惠力度大,区位优势明显;园区发展劣势表现在:产业链体系不完整、企业境外融资难度大、企业在当地的根植性弱、企业间凝聚力不足、劳动力资源匮乏、劳动技能与效率尚待提高、投资汇回利润存在一定风险、市场开发尚且不足。在此基础上,提出未来研究应重点关注中国境外经贸合作区的区位选择与产业布局、本地嵌入机制、经济地理影响等方面,并探讨了本案例对中国境外经贸合作区建设的政策启示,即,加强政府间磋商、契合东道国发展需要,加强对本地劳动力的职业培训是保障中国境外经贸合作区顺利发展的关键。

关键词: 对外直接投资, 境外经贸合作区, 万象赛色塔综合开发区, 中国, 老挝

Abstract:

The overseas economic and trade cooperation zone of China has become an important platform and spatial strategy for the country to implement the “going out” strategy and “the Belt and Road Initiative.” On the basis of summarizing the characteristics of China’s overseas economic and trade cooperation zones, this study analyzes the development mode of the Vientiane Saysettha Development Zone in Laos and reveals the advantages and disadvantages of the zone from the perspective of enterprises through a field research and an in-depth interview. The research findings are as follows: 1) the Vientiane Saysettha Development Zone is a typical project developed in the form of “project construction + land compensation”, whose development orientation is in line with Laos’ conditions and needs; and 2) the advantages of this zone conclude superior political status, strong tax incentives, and obvious geographical advantages, while the disadvantages are an incomplete industrial chain system, difficulty in overseas financing, weak local grounding, insufficient cohesion between enterprises, lack of labor resources, and lower labor skills and efficiency. This study also discusses the enlightenment of this case on China's foreign investment research and overseas economic and trade cooperation zone construction. We specifically propose that research in relevant fields should focus on three aspects, with the first aspect being the location selection and industrial layout of China's overseas economic and trade cooperation zones. Aside from considering optimal profit, lower cost, rich resources, and market, the location preference of China’s overseas economic and trade cooperation zones sometimes shows other accidental factors, such as the case herein involving the Vientiane Saysettha Development Zone. A systematic investigation and an in-depth analysis on the location selection mechanism of China’s overseas economic and trade cooperation zone, a special outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) mode, must be conducted to enrich the theoretical and empirical research on the OFDI location selection. The second aspect is the local embedding mechanism of China's overseas economic and trade cooperation zones. Economic geography scholars should give full play to the geographical advantage of performing field research combined with a global production network analysis framework and methods of social network analysis, identify the different roles and interactive relations of government, enterprises, and non-governmental organizations in the implementation of foreign trade and economic cooperation zones, understand how specific overseas economic and trade cooperation zones under a specific political and economic structure are embedded in the host country's system and economic and social relationships, which is helpful in reducing enterprise overseas investment risks; and provide some guidance for promoting the smooth development of China’s foreign economic and trade cooperation zone. The third aspect is the economic and geographical impact of China’s overseas economic and trade cooperation zones. With regard to the exploration of the impact and mechanism of overseas economic and trade cooperation zones on China’s transfer of excess capacity, the investment environment, industrial development, labor market, and other aspects of the host country are urgent issues, which economic geography scholars should pay attention to. Understanding these issues will be helpful in understanding China’s ongoing economic transformation and regional spatial reconstruction to some extent. From a practical point of view, we believe that strengthening intergovernmental consultation and meeting the development needs of the host country are the keys to ensuring the smooth development of China’s overseas economic and trade cooperation zones. Moreover, promoting vocational training for local labor is a fundamental way of solving the host country’s labor problems faced by overseas economic and trade cooperation zones.

Key words: outward foreign direct investment, overseas economic and trade cooperation zones, Vientiane Saysettha Development Zone, China, Laos

中图分类号: 

  • F125