热带地理 ›› 2019, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (6): 919-930.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003194

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

国际河流流域组织研究述评与展望

张亦弛1,2,3, 曹辉1,2,3(), 陈江龙1,2,3, 郑力源4, 安昭5, 黄丹奎1,2,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院流域地理学重点实验室,南京 210008
    2. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,南京 210008
    3. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    4. 河海大学 商学院,南京 211100
    5. 中国地震局地球物理研究所,北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-21 修回日期:2019-10-24 出版日期:2019-11-10 发布日期:2019-12-26
  • 通讯作者: 曹辉 E-mail:hcao@niglas.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:张亦弛(1995—),男,安徽绩溪人,硕士,研究方向为区域规划与空间管控,(E-mail)765857203@qq.com;

Review and Prospects of a Study on International River Basin Organizations

Zhang Yichi1,2,3, Cao Hui1,2,3(), Chen Jianglong1,2,3, Zheng Liyuan4, An Zhao5, Huang Dankui1,2,3   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
    2. Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    4. Business School of Hohai University, Nanjing 211100, China
    5. Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2019-05-21 Revised:2019-10-24 Online:2019-11-10 Published:2019-12-26
  • Contact: Cao Hui E-mail:hcao@niglas.ac.cn

摘要:

作为国际河流长期合作开发的重要保障,国际河流流域组织这一联合制度安排备受关注,但参差不齐的绩效表现致使其可行性与有效性引发学者质疑。我国拥有众多国际河流,与之相关的合作开发是中国周边外交的重要抓手,但针对上述问题的研究未能得到国内学者的足够重视。在此背景下,文章首先回顾、梳理了国际河流流域组织的定义与类型,然后重点研判其制度设计特征和有效性,并指明已有研究所面临的方法困境,最后为解开“流域组织如何促进国际河流有效合作”这一难题提出以下研究建议:1)整合国际河流流域组织有效性评价指标并进行全球范围的评价;2)探明国际河流流域组织制度类型所适用的范围与条件;3)厘清不同国际河流流域组织制度设计特征与治理有效性的关系;4)基于过程视角探求国际河流流域组织有效性达成路径;5)采用超越定性与定量研究的新方法;6)立足地缘文明激发国际河流流域组织成员国的文化认同。

关键词: 国际河流, 国际河流流域组织, 制度设计, 有效性

Abstract:

Conflict and cooperation are core issues in the study of international rivers. Increasingly more policy makers are in favor of an International River Basin Organization (IRBO) as a joint institutional arrangement, which is regarded as a guarantee of long-term cooperation over international rivers and can effectively reduce the occurrence of cooperative dilemma. However, the performance of IRBOs in different basins varies, leading to scholars' doubts regarding the feasibility and effectiveness of the institutional arrangement of IRBOs. Thus, increasingly more scholars have turned their attention to several questions including the following: “What characteristics does an IRBO show?” “How can feasible and effective river basin organization be established?” and “How can the performance of river basin organizations be evaluated?” China has a large number of international rivers, and the cooperation over these international rivers is an important starting point of China's neighborhood diplomacy. Nevertheless, research regarding the aforementioned problems has not received sufficient attention from domestic scholars. In this context, this study first reviews and determines the definitions and types of international river basin organizations and then focuses on the characteristics and effectiveness of their institutional design, noting the dilemmas of the existing research methods, and finally putting forward some suggestions on how IRBOs can promote international cooperation. First, one must integrate the evaluation indexes of the effectiveness of IRBOs and carry out an evaluation at a global scale. Traditional evaluation indicators may separate the natural process from the political process, or fail to organically unify the governance process and management results. Therefore, it is necessary to construct a set of popular evaluation index systems. Second, one must explore the scope and conditions applicable to the type of IRBO. Classifying IRBOs to determine the best matching conditions for each category has profound practical guidance for government management. Third, one must clarify the relationship between design features of an IRBO and their effectiveness. Before the role of policy guidance, whether the importance of institutional design features is consistent and the effectiveness of different institutional design features can be improved needs to be further researched. Fourth, one must explore a means to increase the effectiveness of IRBO from the perspective of process. The path of validity can be viewed from both micro and macro perspectives. The micro perspective attaches importance to the political process and institutional evolutionary process between the internal governance entities during emergence and development of IRBOs, while the macro perspective focuses on the interaction between IRBOs and other institutions. Next, one must adopt new methods beyond qualitative and quantitative research methods. A new method that requires only medium-scale samples beyond qualitative and quantitative research-the Qualitative Comparison Method (QCA)-may be able to solve the current difficulty in research methods. Finally, one must stimulate the cultural identity of member countries of IRBOs based on geo-civilization. An international river basin has a sense of cultural identity due to geopolitical civilization and its cultural power provides stability and durability.

Key words: international rivers, international river basin organization, institutional design, effectiveness

中图分类号: 

  • TV213.4