热带地理 ›› 2020, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (4): 575-588.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003240

• 综述 •    下一篇

发展转型视域下的乡村空间分化、重构与治理研究进展及展望

杨忍a,2(), 罗秀丽a   

  1. 1.,中山大学 地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275
    2.,中国区域协调发展与乡村建设研究院,广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-26 修回日期:2020-04-10 出版日期:2020-07-31 发布日期:2020-08-11
  • 作者简介:杨忍(1984-),男,贵州毕节人,博士,副教授,博导,主要从事乡村地理,城乡发展与土地利用研究,(E-mail)yangren0514@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41871177);广州市科技计划项目(20170701009)

Progress and Prospects in Rural Space Diversification, Reconstruction, and Governance from a Development Perspective

Ren Yanga,2(), Xiuli Luoa   

  1. a.School of Geogrphy nd Plnning,Sun Yt-sen University; b. Chin Regionl Coordinted Development nd Rurl Construction Institute, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2019-12-26 Revised:2020-04-10 Online:2020-07-31 Published:2020-08-11

摘要:

在工业化、城镇化、信息化和经济全球化的宏观背景下,乡村地域的经济结构、社会结构、景观结构、用地结构、城乡关系、消费结构和治理格局等出现了多元分化,同时不同地域类型乡村面临着传统村落空间消亡、地域认同感消失、村民自主性缺失等问题。乡村复兴和振兴成为新时期区域发展和农村发展的核心目标,理清乡村空间分化的内外动力的交互作用机制,深化归纳总结乡村多维空间重构的地域规律,发掘乡村综合治理的科学途径,有助于深化乡村建设和治理的理论框架。文章围绕乡村空间分化、重构与治理的国内外研究进展进行系统梳理,发现国际乡村地理学界在研究视角切入上更加多元,研究方法以质性为主,大量应用政治经济学和社会学的理论和方法,重点关注乡村空间认知、分化与重构的行动者网络建构和转译的学理解释,乡村社区治理主体和治理框架分析较为深入。国内的研究主要从乡村物质空间的分化和重组入手,研究方法偏向定量化,乡村空间分化、重构与治理的地理学研究内容框架和方法体系仍显不足。基于此,文章提出以人地关系地域系统理论为指导,在宏观尺度上系统研究多元外部性环境下的中国乡村发展转型的空间分化类型与动力机制;在中微观尺度上重点从乡村人地关系地域系统的要素结构、功能变化与要素重组及空间治理等方面展开全方位的研究,全面采用城乡连续谱空间梯度分析手法,剖析不同区位不同类型的乡村空间内部多维空间分化与重构治理的学理逻辑,综合集成地理学、社会学、政治学和管理学等学科理论和方法,搭建独具特色的中国乡村空间转型理论框架。乡村空间治理是国土空间管制和社会治理的重要组成部分,揭示其空间治理主体和参与共同体之间的协同机制,以及村庄建设管理与空间治理的途径与模式亟待归纳总结。

关键词: 乡村发展, 乡村分化, 乡村重构, 乡村治理, 乡村地理学

Abstract:

With industrialization, urbanization, informatization, and economic globalization, there is significant diversification in rural areas, including the social and economic devolopment and rural landscape, land-use structure, urban—rural relationship, consumption structure, and governance pattern. Development and evolution are types of spatial transformation, and their differentiation is significant in rural areas. With changes in the relationship between human beings and the environment in rural areas, problems such as the gradual disappearance of traditional villages, loss of regional identity, precariousness of villagers’ development prospects, and loss of autonomy tend to arise. The renaissance and revitalization of rural areas have become the core target of regional and rural development in this new era. Development, together with the theoretical construction of rural geography, now faces a critical period of opportunity. The mechanism of interaction between the internal and external motivations of rural spatial differentiation needs to be clarified, and geographic parameters concerning the reconstruction of rural multidimensional space need to be examined carefully, as they take a scientific approach in exploring comprehensive rural governance. These are beneficial in strengthening both rural construction and the framework of governance theory. This paper systematically reviews the progress of research on rural spatial differentiation, reconstruction, and governance both at home and abroad. We found that, internationally, research on rural geography is more diverse, and theories and methods from the field of political economics and sociology are widely used. These research methods are mainly qualitative, focusing on the theoretical interpretation of the construction and translation of the actor-network of cognition, differentiation, and reconstruction of rural space. Further, the main body and framework of rural community governance are analyzed deeply. Domestic research, in contrast, focuses on the differentiation and reorganization of rural material space, but the content framework and methodology of rural spatial differentiation, reconstruction, and governance remain insufficient. Accordingly, this paper—guided by the theory of territorial system of human—environment interaction on a macro scale—systematically examines the spatial differentiation types and dynamic mechanism of rural development and transformation under multiple external environments in China. On a medium-micro scale, the comprehensive study of the rural human—environment relationship in a regional system is implemented, focusing on element structure, function change, element reconstruction, and space governance. We performed a space gradient analysis using urban—rural continuous spectrum geographic transects, which analyzed internal multidimensional space differentiation and reconstructed the scientific logic of governance in different locations and with different types of rural space. By integrating geography, sociology, politics, management, and other subjects, we constructed a unique theory framework for the transformation of rural space in China. Rural space governance is an important part of territorial space control and social governance, and is of interest across multiple academic disciplines. The collaborative mechanism between the governance of space and the participating community, as well as the approaches and models of village construction management and spatial governance used, needs an urgent conclusion and summary.

Key words: rural development, rural differentiation, rural reconstruction, rural governance, rural geography

中图分类号: 

  • F323