热带地理 ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (1): 67-81.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003304

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

广州城区晚全新世环境变迁与人类活动

李嘉欣1(), 郑卓1(), 谷俊杰2, 马婷1, 易西兵2, 汤永杰1   

  1. 1.中山大学 地球科学与工程学院,广州 510275
    2.广州市文物考古研究院,广州 510030
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-26 修回日期:2020-09-04 出版日期:2021-01-05 发布日期:2021-02-19
  • 通讯作者: 郑卓 E-mail:hiheremihihe@hotmail.com;eeszzhuo@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:李嘉欣(1990─),女,广东人,硕士研究生,研究方向为第四纪环境考古,(E-mail)hiheremihihe@hotmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(42072205);广州市文物考古研究院委托项目(71020425)

Late Holocene Environmental Changes and Human Activity in Guangzhou City Area, China

Ka Ian Lei1(), Zhuo Zheng1(), Junjie Gu2, Ting Ma1, Xibing Yi2, Yongjie Tang1   

  1. 1.School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2.Guangzhou Municipal Institute of Cultural Heritage and Archaeology, Guangzhou 510030, China
  • Received:2020-04-26 Revised:2020-09-04 Online:2021-01-05 Published:2021-02-19
  • Contact: Zhuo Zheng E-mail:hiheremihihe@hotmail.com;eeszzhuo@mail.sysu.edu.cn

摘要:

对广州市越秀区解放中路考古遗址剖面进行了年代学、岩性、硅藻和软体动物鉴定等研究,发现广州珠江北岸古城区南部在先秦时期为河道及河口湾湿地/洼地;因河流-河涌的淡水注入使河口盐度降低,故而沉积物中未见较高盐度的微体生物,仅发现了河口型咸水-半咸水硅藻;此时堆积的贝壳大多为淡水种,半咸水种少见,表明先秦(东周)时期,广州地区水域盐度与中全新世海湾环境完全不同。东周时期珠江两岸为河流淡水影响为主、与上溯潮水交汇的微咸水或淡水环境;地层中出土的大量淡水-微咸水贝壳,经AMS14C测年归于早于2500年前的渔猎文化盛行时食用废弃堆积,其后又被挖掘再堆填到后期的文化堆积中(如唐代城市扩张及清挖河涌)。秦至唐代该地逐渐成为人类频繁活动的地点,但仍为河流—潮汐相互影响下的洼地或河涌低地环境,与历史记录的唐代珠江岸线分布基本一致。宋代以后该区域已经暴露地表,并逐渐成为古代广州城区,期间可能受到多次洪水冲积。上述变化主要与全新世海平面变化、河流泥沙输入、土地利用与围垦等多方面影响有关,这些考古记录与广州古城演变吻合,与珠江三角洲地区晚全新世海退,以及平原淤积发展过程密切相关。

关键词: 广州城区, 古环境, 晚全新世, 唐宋时期, 硅藻, 软体动物

Abstract:

This study analyzed the radiocarbon chronology, lithology, and diatom and mollusk shell assemblages obtained from the profile of the Jiefang Middle Road archeological site in Yuexiu District, Guangzhou. It is determined that the Guangzhou Old Town, which lies on the northern bank of the Pearl River, was in a river bed and an estuarine wetland or lowland during the pre-Qin period. Microfossils of organisms with a high salinity tolerance were not observed in the sediment as the inflow of fresh water reduced the estuarine salinity; only estuarine-marine diatom taxa were found, with the mollusk shell fragments being mostly those of freshwater species and a few brackish water species. Therefore, we postulate that the salinity of the water bodies within the Guangzhou region was completely different during the pre-Qin period than during the mid-Holocene. In the former period, the area along the riverbanks of the Pearl River was mainly affected by riverine freshwater discharge and upward tidal convergence. In addition, radiocarbon dating results and the absence of enclosed bivalve mollusk shells in situ suggested that most of the freshwater and brackish water mollusk shells excavated at the site were food waste discarded by the ancient Nanyue people during the period in which their fishing tradition boomed in the pre-Qin (Eastern Zhou Dynasty) period. This also suggested that the shell deposits were relocated to the later strata via constant digs by the Nanyue successors, most probably due to the expansion of the town and restoration of the river, development of agricultural irrigation, or redeposition caused by the flooding that occurred throughout the Tang Dynasty. Since the establishment of the Nanyue Kingdom, signs of frequent human activity–particularly during the Tang Dynasty–can be recognized in the study area, which was then still a wetland or lowland area influenced mainly by fluvial and tidal dynamic forces, with its soil fertility serving as a foundation for the flourishing of agriculture. This is also consistent with the human-driven shoreline reorganization of the Pearl River noted in the Tang historical records. During the period from the late Tang Dynasty to the Five Dynasties, rulers expanded the wetland in the south due to a marked growth in population. Moreover, the region was exposed above water and gradually developed into the Guangzhou Old Town during the Northern Song Dynasty, despite having been affected-to some extent-by multiple flood events, as recorded in the history of the Kaibao reign (AD 968-976) and Zhidao reign (AD 995-997). The expansion and development of the Guangzhou Old Town continued during the Song Dynasty, with the expansion of agricultural and industrial practices, and the shoreline of the Pearl River was pushed farther south. In conclusion, the environmental and urban transformation of the Pearl River Delta region since ca. 2 ka BP were mainly related to the influence of Holocene sea level alterations, the quantity of river sediment being discharged, pressure from human use of the land, and the practice of river restoration. This study also suggests that the archeological records coincide with the historical records and the general course of the progressive transformation of the Pearl River Delta region, thereby providing new evidence for environmental archeological research.

Key words: Guangzhou, paleoenvironment, late Holocene, Tang-Song Era, diatom, mollusk

中图分类号: 

  • P534.632