热带地理 ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (2): 277-289.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003325

• 城市地理 • 上一篇    

多源数据融合的城市体检评估

向雨1(), 张鸿辉2,3(), 刘小平1   

  1. 1.中山大学 地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275
    2.湖南师范大学 资源与环境科学学院,长沙 410081
    3.广东国地规划科技股份有限公司,广州 510650
  • 收稿日期:2020-10-06 修回日期:2020-12-09 出版日期:2021-04-27 发布日期:2021-04-27
  • 通讯作者: 张鸿辉 E-mail:xiangy58@mail2.sysu.edu.cn;249536073@qq.com
  • 作者简介:向雨(1995—),男,湖北仙桃人,硕士研究生,主要研究城市体检评估和城市大数据挖掘与应用,(E-mail)xiangy58@mail2.sysu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41871318);广东省国土空间规划“一张图”建设关键技术研究项目(GDZRZYKJ2020007);羊城创新创业领军人才支持计划(2019016)

Urban Physical Examination Evaluation Based on Multisource Data: A Case Study of Changsha City

Yu Xiang1(), Honghui Zhang2,3(), Xiaoping Liu1   

  1. 1.School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2.College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China
    3.Guangdong Guodi Planning Science Technology Co. , Ltd. , Guangzhou 510650, China
  • Received:2020-10-06 Revised:2020-12-09 Online:2021-04-27 Published:2021-04-27
  • Contact: Honghui Zhang E-mail:xiangy58@mail2.sysu.edu.cn;249536073@qq.com

摘要:

融合遥感影像、社会开放大数据、统计资料等多源数据,以长沙市为例,围绕生态宜居、健康舒适、安全韧性、交通便捷、风貌特色、整洁有序、多元包容、创新活力等8个方面构建城市体检指标体系,运用归一法和层次分析法对城市自然本底和运行体征展开计算评估,结果发现:1)长沙市人居环境整体良好,城市生态宜居和整洁有序度较高,交通便捷和安全韧性建设亟需加强,风貌特色、健康舒适、创新活力、多元包容等仍有改善空间。2)各区县专题发展水平不均,在保留区域功能特色的基础上,应该着重解决发展的短板。3)城市中心城区人口密度、空气质量优良天数、万车死亡率等指标达到最高水平,但在便民服务设施完整覆盖度、住宅建筑更新和开发、群体包容等方面与城市发展需求还有一定差距。根据多源数据城市体检结果可知,长沙市未来需要以问题和需求为导向,精准治理“城市病”,努力提高城市居民生活满意度、幸福感和归属感。

关键词: 城市体检, 多源数据, 指标体系, 人居环境, 长沙市

Abstract:

With the continuous increase in the rate of urbanization, more attention is being paid to quality of life in cities. At present, China's major cities are facing multiple challenges, including resource shortages, environmental pollution, population congestion, traffic congestion, and inequality of public service facilities, all of which have become controversial issues affecting the development of high-quality human settlements. Taking Changsha City as an example, this study attempts to solve the problems of incomplete physical examination elements, slow data update, and previously inconsistent evaluation standards. Under the guidance of problems and objectives, a scientific, comprehensive, applicable, and operable urban physical examination index system was built to provide effective support for the comparative analysis and accurate evaluation of urban development positioning. Based on remote sensing images, social open big data, and statistical data, this study constructed an urban physical examination index system from eight aspects: ecological livability, health and comfort, safety and resilience, convenient transportation, style and features, tidiness and order, multiple inclusiveness, and innovation vitality. The evaluation standard value was determined from the perspective of vertical national standards and planning references, along with a horizontal comparison of cities at the same level. The normalization method and analytic hierarchy process were used to calculate and evaluate the urban natural background and operational signs. The findings were as follows: 1) The overall human settlement of Changsha is good, and the comprehensive score of each aspect above 0.7. The city has a high degree of ecological livability and cleanliness, but the aspects of traffic convenience and safety resilience need to be improved. There is still room for improvement in style and characteristics, health and comfort, innovation and vitality, and diversity and inclusiveness. 2) The level of thematic development in each district and county is uneven. Yuelu District has the highest average score, while Kaifu District and Tianxin District have the most balanced development levels in terms of different aspects. On the basis of retaining the regional functional characteristics, each district and county should focus on solving development and narrowing the gap with other districts and counties. 3) The indicators of population density in the central urban area, number of days with good air quality, and mortality rate of 10,000 vehicles are at the highest level, but there is still a certain gap with the urban development demand in terms of complete coverage of convenience service facilities, residential building renewal and development, and group inclusion, among other aspects. According to the results of urban physical examination based on multisource data, in the future Changsha City needs to be solutionoriented, accurately manage "urban disease," and strive to improve the life satisfaction, happiness, and sense of belonging of urban residents. This study could provide reference research ideas for the fusion of static statistical data and dynamic emerging data derived from urban physical examination, the construction of a scientific and comprehensive index system, and the establishment of horizontal and vertical evaluation standards. At the same time, it could provide decision support for the diagnosis of prominent urban disease problems in Changsha and the better management of the city.

Key words: urban physical examination, multisource data, index system, human settlements, Changsha City

中图分类号: 

  • TU984.113