热带地理 ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (2): 290-302.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003330

• 城市地理 • 上一篇    

巴基斯坦城镇体系特征及其影响因素

李奇1,4(), 董晔2, 刘云刚3()   

  1. 1.中山大学 地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275
    2.新疆师范大学 商学院,乌鲁木齐 830054
    3.华南师范大学 地理科学学院,广州 510631
    4.中交第四航务工程勘察设计院有限公司,广州 510290
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-23 修回日期:2021-01-11 出版日期:2021-04-27 发布日期:2021-04-27
  • 通讯作者: 刘云刚 E-mail:liqi@fhdigz.com;ygliujp@163.com
  • 作者简介:李奇(1986—),男,广东罗定人,硕士研究生,高级规划师,研究方向为城市与区域规划,(E-mail)liqi@fhdigz.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(42071157);新疆教育厅人文社科重点项目“中巴经济走廊建设中中国企业在巴基斯坦投资风险研究”(XJEDU2018SI008)

Characteristics of the Urban System and Its Influencing Factors in Pakistan

Qi Li1,4(), Ye Dong2, Yungang Liu3()   

  1. 1.School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2.Business School, Xinjiang Normal University, Urumqi 830054, China
    3.School of Geography, Southern China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
    4.CCCC-FHDI Engineering Co. , Ltd. , Guangzhou 510290, China
  • Received:2020-07-23 Revised:2021-01-11 Online:2021-04-27 Published:2021-04-27
  • Contact: Yungang Liu E-mail:liqi@fhdigz.com;ygliujp@163.com

摘要:

基于人口普查数据、自然环境、经济产业及交通路网等公开数据,运用城镇体系金字塔、城镇规模基尼系数以及核密度分析等方法,对巴基斯坦城镇体系特征及其影响因素进行分析,发现:1)规模结构方面,城镇规模分布较集中,表现为“大城市化”与“小城市化”并重的特征,中间级别城市发展滞后,城镇人口金字塔大致呈现沙漏形态;空间结构方面,整体呈现分异与整合共存的局面,一方面形成东密西疏的城镇密度格局以及各具特色的省级城镇体系,另一方面东南—西北地区城镇空间结构呈现整合趋势,沿东南—西北形成卡拉奇—拉合尔—伊斯兰堡及拉瓦尔品第都市区—白沙瓦“7”型城镇发展轴线;职能结构方面,形成3个全国性中心,2个地区性中心和多个重要工业、交通节点城市。2)城镇体系在内生因素和外生因素交织影响下形成。内生因素方面,自然环境的差异是形成东密西疏城镇空间格局的基础条件,经济产业因素决定城镇体系的基本格局;地形与交通的共同作用改变城镇间的时空距离,造成东西部城镇体系的差异;各省相对独立的社会因素和行政因素造成各省城镇体系的分异。这个过程受国际投资与贸易、地缘政治和中巴经济走廊等外生因素的间接影响。3)中巴经济走廊将促进“7”型城镇发展轴转变为“两纵三横”城镇发展轴体系。

关键词: 城镇体系, 中巴经济走廊, 一带一路, 巴基斯坦

Abstract:

Pakistan is a influential country in South Asia and an important fulcrum of "The Belt and Road Initiative." The study of its urban system can promote the understanding of Pakistan and provide references for related cooperation. This paper conducts a more comprehensive empirical analysis of the scale structure, spatial structure, and functional structure characteristics of the urban system, based on existing research and on the census data, natural environment, economic industry, and traffic network and other public data. It uses the analysis methods of the urban system pyramid, Gini coefficient of urban scale and nuclear density analysis, and analyzes the endogenous and exogenous factors of the urban system. The results were as follows: 1) First, regarding scale structure, the overall distribution of the urban scale is relatively concentrated, showing characteristics of both "large urbanization" and "small urbanization." The development of intermediate-level cities is delayed, and the urban population pyramid is roughly shaped as an hourglass. Regarding spatial structure, the urban system of Pakistan embodies the coexistence of differentiation and integration, forming different urban density patterns in the East and the West and a provincial urban system with its own characteristics. However, the spatial structure of towns in the southeast-northwest region shows an integration trend. The eastern region gradually formed the urban agglomeration core areas of Karachi and Lahore, and the urban agglomeration areas of the Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan area, Peshawar, Multan, Sukkur, and Hyderabad, with a "seven"-axis distribution in the southeast-northwest. Regarding the functional structure, there are three national centers, two regional centers, and some important industrial and transportation node cities. 2) The urban system is formed under the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors. Regarding endogenous factors, natural environment factors constitute the basis of urban system evolution; the intensity of the economic industry and spatial agglomeration determine the basic pattern of the urban system. The joint effect of terrain and traffic transforms the space-time distance, resulting in the difference of urban systems between the East and the West. The relatively independent social and administrative factors of each province cause the differentiation of the urban systems in each province. This process is indirectly affected by exogenous factors such as international investment and trade, geopolitics, and the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. 3) The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor will strengthen the motivational force of urbanization in Pakistan, promote the transformation of the "seven" urban development axis into the "two vertical and three horizontal" urban development axis system, and promote the development of western cities. Suggestions for the overall policy of Pakistan's urban system include: (1)promoting the industrialization process, strengthening the power of urbanization, and promoting the development of cities at all levels, especially the intermediate level cities. (2) Further, it proposes strengthening integration development with the world market, promoting the development of cities in the southern coastal areas and the transportation links with inland cities, as well as the development of cities along the line. (3) Finally, it suggests reducing the administrative and social system barriers between provinces, reducing the distance and division of factor flow, and accelerating the process of urban system integration.

Key words: urban system, China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, The Belt and Road, Pakistan

中图分类号: 

  • F299.3/.7