热带地理 ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (5): 1046-1059.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003382

• 教育地理 • 上一篇    

基础教育分异的时空间行为研究框架

刘天宝a(), 叶子聪a, 王天依b   

  1. a.辽宁师范大学,海洋可持续发展研究院,辽宁 大连 116029
    b.辽宁师范大学,地理科学学院,辽宁 大连 116029
  • 收稿日期:2020-09-24 修回日期:2021-04-20 出版日期:2021-09-22 发布日期:2021-09-22
  • 作者简介:刘天宝(1976―),男,河北保定人,副教授,博士,主要研究方向为城市地理,(E-mail)liutb5678@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41971203);大学生创新训练项目(S202010165015)

Research Framework of Basic Education's Differentiation Based on Space-Time Behavior

Tianbao Liua(), Zicong Yea, Tianyi Wangb   

  1. a.Institute of Marine Sustainable Development, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China
    b.School of Geography, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China
  • Received:2020-09-24 Revised:2021-04-20 Online:2021-09-22 Published:2021-09-22

摘要:

近期,在全球化、国家福利体系调整、社会文化变迁等多重背景中,教育、地理、社会等不同学科对教育现象展开了具有跨学科特点的研究,呈现出新的面貌。基础教育领域的分异是当前国内外重要的社会与学术关切。现有研究以在校学习为重点,以资源供给与消费者之间的互动为视角,对教育活动本身及其影响因素与社会空间响应展开了广泛、细致的研究。此外,课外补习、在家学习等非传统内容也吸引了研究者的关注。但目前还没有形成一个覆盖不同领域、解读多重分异的基础性框架。论文从基础教育的现状出发,面向多重分异的刻画,以社会空间辩证法、空间-行为互动理论和时间地理学等理论为基础,提出了基于教育消费者与其所处的时空间互动的,以在校学习、在家学习和在辅导机构学习为基本内容的研究框架。在校学习重点关注分异的总体格局、学校与社区的互动以及教育消费者的迁居与通学等内容;在家学习重点关注学习的方式与内容、条件与情境、影响与评价等内容;在辅导机构学习重点关注学习的内容与时空间特征、支撑条件、影响与评价等内容。

关键词: 基础教育, 教育地理, 多重分异, 时空行为

Abstract:

In recent years, with globalization, adjustment of the national welfare system, and social and cultural changes, studies on education has been receiving increased attention from disciplines such as education, geography and sociology, and different perspectives of society, showing obvious interdisciplinary characteristics. These studies have demonstrated a "new" look of education characteristics. Differentiation in the field of basic education is an important social and academic concern at home and abroad. This research focuses on learning in school, from the perspective of the interaction between resource supply and consumers, and provides details on education activities, their influencing factors and social spatial responses. In addition, non-traditional issues, such as supplementary tutoring and learning at home after school, have also attracted researchers' attention. However, a basic framework covering different fields and interpreting multiple differentiation has not yet been created. One reason is the different and dynamic topography, which leads to different factors and differentiation, requiring various frameworks. The complex integration of education resources and learning results for different social groups needs different framework, based on the researchers' perspectives. Moreover, the evolution of basic education's definition and its contents usually reduces the applicability of existing frameworks. Using the current situation of basic education and aimed at multiple differentiation, this paper proposes a research framework based on theories of socio-spatial dialectics, space-behavior interaction theory, and time geography. The framework is centered on students and their family—the consumer of education in different forms, emphasizing the interaction between students, space, and time. The main contents of the framework include learning at school, learning at home, and learning in tutoring agencies. The first focus of learning at school is the general differentiation pattern, including supply of education resources and its spatial distribution; students, family and their spatial representation; and finally, the classification of the differentiation types and its spatial depiction. The second focus is the interaction between school and community, including spatial structure of school districts and their evolution, schools' influences on communities (e.g., residents' formation and housing price), and community's influences on school (e.g., students' formation, school education, and governance). The third focus is education consumer's migration and commuting patterns, including social and economic features of moving people and the related projections, the commuting route, distance, mode, and related projections. For learning at home, the first focus is the mode, time, and contents relating to the type of self-learning: learning under tutoring or learning online, the consumption of time and money, the companion, and related projections. The second focus is the learning conditions and situations, concerning hardware facilities, environment conditions, companion, cost, and related projections. The third focus is the learning effects and related evaluation, concerning influences on academic performance, health, and family projections as well as the attitude toward learning. For learning in tutoring agencies, the first focus is the content and its space-time features, including social and economic features of the consumers, learning activities' spatial characteristics, time and money cost, and related projections. The second focus is the supporting conditions, especially travel and companion. The third focus is the effects and evaluation, including both daily and long-term influences on students and their family members, and consumers' attitude to and evaluation of the learning. The framework can work as the base for dialogue between disciplines as well as to promote the description and explanation of basic education's complex differentiation.

Key words: basic education, education geography, multiple differentiation, space-time behavior

中图分类号: 

  • K901.2