热带地理 ›› 2022, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (1): 16-28.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003428

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21世纪以来中国非物质文化遗产研究回顾:兼谈地理学可能的贡献

陶伟1,2(), 蔡浩辉1,3   

  1. 1.华南师范大学 地理科学学院,广州 510631
    2.华南师范大学 粤港澳大湾区村镇可持续发展研究中心,广州 510631
    3.埃克塞特大学 地理系,英国 埃克塞特 EX4 4QJ
  • 收稿日期:2021-08-02 修回日期:2021-11-29 出版日期:2022-01-05 发布日期:2021-12-30
  • 作者简介:陶伟(1971—),女,河南平顶山人,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为城市形态理论与方法、社会文化地理学、乡村地理学、城市旅游与遗产保护研究,(E-mail)muyang426@hotmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目:西南地区传统村落保护与利用研究(18ZDA161)

Review of Chinese Intangible Cultural Heritage Research since the 21st Century: With the Possible Contribution of Geography

Wei Tao1,2(), Haohui Cai1,3   

  1. 1.School of Geography, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
    2.Center for Sustainable Development of Rural and Town in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
    3.Department of Geography, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QJ, UK
  • Received:2021-08-02 Revised:2021-11-29 Online:2022-01-05 Published:2021-12-30

摘要:

“遗产时代”已经开启,经过数十年的实践探索,学界积累了丰富的非物质文化遗产保护经验。然而,富有综合性和批判性的地理学对该话题的关注和贡献仍有待提高,文章希望从实践回顾、话题梳理、国家战略推进等3个方面促进地理学者为建构非遗跨学科研究体系贡献力量。首先,从“非遗”概念的诞生以及民间文化的复苏入手,回顾了中国历年有关非遗的保护实践,总结出非遗研究的“特性与意义的构建”“传承与制度的反思”和“开发与社区能动性”3个重点议题,论述了中国学者在积极借鉴西方批判性遗产研究学术成果上所着力构建的具有中国本土特色的非遗研究体系。其后,将非遗放置在乡村振兴、城市发展和文化强国3个国家战略中给予考量,指出非遗作为独特的文化资源,已被纳入到国家政治和社会体系之中,成为助推国家重大战略实施的重要抓手。最后,在总结归纳非遗研究话题与进展的基础上,对地理学在非遗领域可以开展的工作进行讨论,以期启发和深化相关研究。

关键词: 非物质文化遗产, 保护传承, 中国经验, 国家战略, 地理学展望

Abstract:

It is an era of "heritage" that we live in. After nearly two decades of practice and exploration, the social and academic circles have accumulated rich experience in the protection of intangible cultural heritage, especially the scholars of ethnology and art, who have made outstanding contributions to the development of intangible cultural heritage (ICH) protection system with local characteristics. However, comprehensive and critical geographical studies have paid less attention to this topic with less contribution. Firstly, this paper reviews the practice of intangible cultural heritage protection since 2003, starting from the birth of the concept of "intangible cultural heritage" and the revival of Chinese traditional folklore culture. The research progress of China's intangible cultural heritage is analyzed through the database of CNKI. And it is found that the intangible cultural heritage research has experienced two periods-rapid prosperity and steady growth, but relatively few papers have been published in high-quality and geographical journals. Due to the large number of related papers, it is impossible or unnecessary to exhaust all research topics. Therefore, based on the research and practical experience, three key topics in the academic research of intangible cultural heritage are summarized: "characteristics and the construction of meaning", "transmission and the reflection on systems", and "development and community initiative". And Section 3.1 focuses on the basic characteristics of intangible cultural heritage, the importance of intangible cultural heritage as social construction, and the significance of "making" intangible cultural heritage. The current basic laws and regulations for the protection and transmission of China's intangible cultural heritage-representative projects and representative transmitters of intangible cultural heritage are re-examined. It is called for respect for the views and opinions of community group when turning to the "community" in intangible cultural heritage. And it is believed that Chinese scholars have formed a new method and new theoretical system of intangible cultural heritage research with local Chinese characteristics, by actively learning from the academic achievements of western critical heritage research. Secondly, intangible cultural heritage has been incorporated into the national political system as an important cultural resource to promote the implementation of major national strategies. Rethinking the significance and role of intangible cultural heritage under the three geographical national strategies of rural revitalization, urban development and cultural nation, it is found that as a unique cultural resource, intangible cultural heritage plays an important role in promoting the implementation of major national strategies and urban and rural development. And it is believed that the social significance and academic value of intangible cultural heritage should be further explored continuously. Finally, five possible topics for geographers to study intangible cultural heritage are proposed in this paper-transmitters' daily life, social justice, mobility, natural and cultural interaction and international communication, so as to encourage and inspire the geographical research of intangible cultural heritage in the future.

Key words: intangible cultural heritage, protection and transmission, Chinese experience, national strategy, geographical perspectives

中图分类号: 

  • K90