热带地理 ›› 2022, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (3): 385-395.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003458

• ·人文地理学理论与实践前沿·专题 • 上一篇    

青年知识移民就业城市选择及其影响因素

谢圆圆1(), 李锦昊1, 马凌1,2,3()   

  1. 1.广州大学 地理科学与遥感学院, 广州 510006
    2.华南人文地理与城市发展研究中心, 广州 510006
    3.广东省移民与城市研究中心, 广州 510006
  • 收稿日期:2021-02-28 修回日期:2021-06-23 出版日期:2022-03-05 发布日期:2022-03-21
  • 通讯作者: 马凌 E-mail:1439407872@qq.com;maria_ma1977@126.com
  • 作者简介:谢圆圆(1996-),女,广东湛江人,硕士研究生,研究方向为城市与知识移民,(E-mail)1439407872@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41971183);广东省自然科学基金面上项目(2020A1515010481);广州市哲学社会科学发展“十三五”规划2019年度课题(2019GZGJ241)

Determinants of Employment City Selection of Young Intellectual Migrants: A Case Study of Guangzhou University Graduates

Yuanyuan Xie1(), Jinhao Li1, Ling Ma1,2,3()   

  1. 1.School of Geography and Remote Sensing, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
    2.The Research Center for Human Geography and Urban Development in Southern China, Guangzhou 510006, China
    3.Guangdong Provincial Center for Urban and Migration Studies, Guangzhou 510006, China
  • Received:2021-02-28 Revised:2021-06-23 Online:2022-03-05 Published:2022-03-21
  • Contact: Ling Ma E-mail:1439407872@qq.com;maria_ma1977@126.com

摘要:

随着城市知识经济转型,各个城市越来越重视对知识人才包括青年知识人才的吸引。以广州市高校大学生为例,采用定性和定量相结合的方法,从城市与个人的双重视角探讨高校青年知识移民就业城市选择的特点及其影响因素。研究发现:1)青年知识移民总体上倾向于选择其本科或研究生就读地所在的城市和比其户籍地与就读地更高等级的城市(如一线、新一线城市)就业,这反映了他们向上空间流动和社会流动的意愿与动机;2)他们的就业流动是城市因素和个人因素共同作用的结果,其影响因素主要包括城市经济、城市环境、城市政策与城市文化,以及青年知识移民来源地的户籍类型与户籍地的城市等级等;3)城市经济发展(工作机会)是吸引高校青年知识移民的最重要因素,但与此同时,生存舒适度(生活机会)在青年知识移民的就业流动过程中所起的作用愈发重要,城市环境建设需要关注公共文化设施、社会舒适程度、交通便利程度、卫生服务设施以及城市自然环境和居住环境等方面的问题。个人因素方面,高校青年知识移民来源地的户籍类型与户籍地的城市等级对其就业流动决策具有显著的影响作用。细致探究青年知识移民就业流动规律及其影响因素是新时期理解和建构基于中国语境的知识型人才流动理论的需要,也是人才政策制定与知识人才实现自身价值的关键。

关键词: 青年知识移民, 就业城市选择, 工作机会, 生活机会, 广州

Abstract:

With the transformation of urban knowledge economy, cities pay more and more attention on efforts to attract knowledge talents, including young intellectuals. Taking college students in Guangzhou as an example, this research adopts a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to explore the mobility of young intellectual migrants, and the characteristics and influencing factors of their employment city selection. The research has found the following. First, young intellectual migrants generally tend to choose cities where their undergraduate or postgraduate studies are located and cities with higher grades than their household registration and place of study (i.e., first-tier and new first-tier cities), which reflects their willingness and motivation for upward spatial and social mobility. Second, their employment mobility is a process of the interaction between urban and individual factors. Its influencing factors mainly include urban environment, economy, policy and culture, as well as the type of household registration and the city level of household registration, among others. Third, urban economy development (job opportunities) is the most important factor for attracting young intellectual migrants, along with employment opportunities, wage levels, and others. At the same time, amenities such as cultural facilities and educational institutions, as well as physical features such as climate and natural environment and other living comforts (living opportunities) play an increasingly important role in the employment mobility of young intellectual migrants. Therefore, urban environmental construction needs to pay attention to public cultural facilities, social comfort, transportation convenience, health service facilities, and urban natural and living environment. The urban policies of high-level cities are more attractive to young intellectual migrants, including talent introduction, housing subsidies and urban development policies. Fourth, in terms of personal factors, the type of household registration and the city level of the source of youth intellectual migration have significant impact on their employment mobility decisions. There are differences in the mobility costs between the different types and city level of household registration, which further affects their employment mobility behavior. A detailed exploration of the employment mobility law of young intellectual migrants and its influencing factors is necessary to understand and construct a knowledge-based talent mobility theory based on Chinese context in the new era. It is also the key to talent policy formulation and the realization of the value of knowledge talents.

Key words: Young intellectual migrants, employment city selection, job opportunity, life opportunity, Guangzhou

中图分类号: 

  • C964.2