热带地理 ›› 2014, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (2): 248-258.

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

国内外碳排放核算方法研究进展

刘明达1,2,蒙吉军3,刘碧寒4   

  1. 1.北京师范大学 政府管理学院,北京 100875;2.中国电子信息产业发展研究院,北京 100048;3.北京大学 城市与环境学院,北京 100871;4.城市建设研究院,北京,100120)
  • 出版日期:2014-03-31 发布日期:2014-03-31
  • 作者简介:刘明达(1985―),男,辽宁人,助理研究员,博士研究生,研究方向为政府经济管理、战略性新兴产业等,(E-mail)fastta@163.com。
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41371097)

Progress in the Studies of Carbon Emission Estimation

LIU Mingda1,2,MENG Jijun3,LIU Bihan4   

  1. (1.School of GovernmentBeijing Normal UniversityBeijing 100875,China;2.China Center for Information DevelopmentBeijing 100048,China;3.College of Urban and Environmental SciensesPeking UniversityBeijing 100871,China;4.China Urban Construction Design and Research InstituteBeijing 100120,China
  • Online:2014-03-31 Published:2014-03-31

摘要:

近年来,碳排放研究已被世界广泛重视,其核算方法直接影响到碳排放数据的可靠性。文章针对近年来碳排放领域的核算研究,从理论上讨论了IPCC和中国关于碳排放项目清单,对比分析了排放因子法、质量平衡法和实测法3种主要碳排放核算方法的优缺点及适用对象;从实践上将核算清单项目与方法细化到国家/省区、城市、住区、单体建筑和家庭5个空间尺度单元。在总结现有研究成果的基础上,概括出了碳排放研究的范式与框架。综述发现:1)碳排放研究已形成以IPCC为主导、各方积极参与的局面,目前已发展成为一个范式清晰、方法成熟、使用范围广泛、与时代紧密结合的研究领域;2)IPCC提出的排放清单与核算方法在各空间单元尺度开展实践,并在解决城市问题过程中产生新的学科增长点;3)碳排放核算仍然存在尺度关注不均衡,中观尺度研究较少,以及核算方法的自身缺陷,数据获取的外部限制等问题;4)中国形成了适合本国的碳排放清单,在历史碳排放、碳排放区域差异以及自然系统碳排放等方面取得了一些进展,但存在理论创新少、方法探索不多、数据获取受限等问题。

关键词: IPCC, 碳排放, 清单, 核算

Abstract:

Much attention in the world has been paid to study of Carbon emission. The reliability of carbon emission data depends on the reasonability of estimating method. In recent years progress has been made in research of carbon emission estimating methods. This paper discussed different carbon emission inventories of IPCC and China in theory, analyzed the pros and cons of three main approaches of estimating carbon emission as well as their appropriate objects, which are emission-factor approach, mass-balance approach, and experiment approach. Then in practice, the paper set out the inventories of carbon emission and the estimating approaches based on five spatial scales of units, which are country/province, city, settlement, individual building and family. Summarizing the existing research results, the paper put up a frame and a paradigm of carbon emission research. The main conclusions can be drawn as follows: 1) such a situation has been formed that IPCC leads the examination of carbon emission with many other agencies taking part in. The research area has had now much clearer framework, better approaches and broader appropriate scope. 2) The inventory and estimating approaches given by IPCC have been used in studying different spatial scales of units. Some new branches of learning are generated when they are used in city unit. 3) The study of carbon emission estimation still has problems, such as the disequilibrium of the studies on different spatial scale units that leads to less attention to be paid to the study of meso-scale units, the defects of the estimation methods themselves, and the external limitation of data acquisition, etc. 4) China has produced the inventory which is suitable for her own situation. In addition, a lot of progress in China have been made in the examinations of historic carbon emissions, regional differences of carbon emissions, and carbon emissions from natural ecosystems. But the problems of lacking in innovation of theory, less improvement of research methods and limitation in data obtaining still exist.

Key words: IPCC, carbon emission, inventory, estimation