热带地理 ›› 2014, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (3): 283-292.

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市化过程中下垫面改变对大气环境的影响

陶 玮,刘峻峰,陶 澍   

  1. (北京大学 城市与环境学院,北京 100871)
  • 出版日期:2014-05-31 发布日期:2014-05-31
  • 通讯作者: 刘峻峰(1974―),男,福建福州人,研究员,研究方向为大气化学与气候变化,(E-mail)jfliu@pku.edu.cn。
  • 作者简介:陶玮(1989―),男,江西新建人,博士研究生,研究方向为区域大气环境模式模拟,(E-mail)1201111616@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家高技术研究发展计划(863计划)项目(2012AA063303);基金委优秀青年科学基金项目(41222011)和重点项目(41130754)

Effects of Urban Underlying Surface Change on Ambient Atmospheric Environment

TAO Wei,LIU Junfeng,TAO Shu   

  • Online:2014-05-31 Published:2014-05-31

摘要: 城市化发展,特别是下垫面特征的改变,对大气环境的外强迫是当前大气环境领域研究的热点问题。下垫面特征变化导致不同尺度气象场发生变化,而气象条件又决定着大气污染物的迁移转化。为了深入探讨这个问题,文章首先从3个方面总结了相关研究:1)城市气候的基本特征及其形成的内在机制;2)不同尺度下的城市污染气象学特征;3)定量描述城市下垫面地-气作用模式的相关进展。之后进一步综述了利用数值模式方法模拟城市化过程中下垫面变迁对大气环境(包括气象条件及空气质量)影响方面的研究进展。最后利用中尺度大气模式WRF/Chem和过程分析方法研究了中国东部地区城市下垫面扩张对臭氧(O3)和一氧化碳(CO)空间分布的影响。模拟结果显示:在人为源排放不变的情况下,城市下垫面扩张使得近地面和1~3 km高处的O3,以及距地面1~2 km高处的CO体积分数增大;但近地CO体积分数下降。

关键词: 城市下垫面, 城市气候, 污染气象, 空气质量, WRF/Chem

Abstract:

The process of urbanization, especially the modification of land surface’s properties, exerts a strong impact on the meteorological conditions thus the evolution of airborne contaminants. In this paper, three aspects of relevant studies are reviewed: 1) the general features and intrinsic mechanisms of urban climate; 2) the characteristics of urban “pollution meteorology” at different scales; 3) the development of numerical models which quantitatively describe urban land-atmosphere interactions. Then the studies of simulation of the effects of underlying surface change during urbenization on atmospheric environment (including meteorological conditions and air quality) are also reviewed. Finally, a WRF/Chem numerical simulation aimed at exploring how urban land surface’s expansion over Eastern China would influence the spatial distribution of CO and ozone is introduced. The result shows that when anthropogenic emissions hold constant, the expansion of urban land surface could increase concentration of ozone in atmosphere near the surface as well as 1-3 km above the ground, and also increase that of CO in atmosphere 1-2 km above the ground; but would decrease CO concentration near the surface.

Key words: urban land surface, urban climate, pollution meteorology, air quality, WRF/Chem