热带地理 ›› 2017, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (5): 701-707.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002987

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

利用珊瑚生长率重建西沙海域 工业革命以来的海温变化

张会领1,2,3,余克服2,施 祺2,陶士臣2,严宏强2,刘国辉2   

  1. (1.广东海洋大学 工程学院海洋工程系,广东 湛江 524088;2.中国科学院南海海洋研究所 边缘海地质重点实验室,广州 510301; 3.中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所 岩溶动力学重点实验室,广西 桂林 541004)
  • 出版日期:2017-09-21 发布日期:2017-09-21
  • 作者简介:张会领(1979-),男,河南平顶山人,讲师,博士,主要从事全新世气候变化研究,(E-mail)zhanghuiling0375@126.com。
  • 基金资助:
    国家重大科学研究计划(2013CB956102);中国科学院边缘海地质重点实验室开放基金(MSGL15-09);中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所岩溶动力学重点实验室开放基金(KDL201501)

Sea Surface Temperature Variations since the Industrial Revolution as Reconstructed by Porites Coral Growth Rate in Xisha Waters

ZHANG Huiling1,2,3,YU Kefu2,SHI Qi2,TAO Shichen2,YAN Hongqiang2,LIU Guohui2   

  1. (1.Department of Ocean Engineering,Faculty of Engineering,Guangdong Ocean University,Zhanjiang 524088, China;2.Key Lab of Marginal Sea Geology,South China Sea Institute of Oceanology,CAS,Guangzhou 510301,China;3. Karst Dynamics Laboratory,Institute of Karst Geology,CAGS,Guilin 541004, China)
  • Online:2017-09-21 Published:2017-09-21

摘要:

以南海北部西沙群岛永兴岛发育的澄黄滨珊瑚(Porites lutea)为材料,构建了珊瑚骨骼生长率温度计,并以此为基础重建了工业革命以来(1880―2007年)西沙海域SST变化序列。结果发现:1880―2007年,西沙海域SST的波动范围26.1~28.5℃,平均值为27.27℃。1880―1892年为降温期,西沙海域SST波动下降,在1892年达到近百年来的最低值(26.1℃)。1893―1935年为西沙海域SST低温平台期,SST以波动为主;1936―1957年西沙海域SST先升后降,变化呈单峰模式。1957―2003年,SST呈现快速增温趋势。2003―2007年,西沙海域SST出现“增温停滞”现象。在年代际尺度上,西沙海域SST的整体变化模式可能受气候系统准60 a周期调控。在年际尺度上,冬季风强度、火山活动以及ENSO等共同对西沙海域SST产生影响。人类活动导致的全球增暖可能在1957年之后才成为西沙海域SST增温的主要驱动因素。2003―2007年西沙海域出现的降温趋势是对全球“增温停滞”的响应,是自然强迫和人为强迫相互作用的结果,西沙海域SST这种短暂的降温趋势很可能随着自然强迫作用的减弱而重新被增温模式所代替。

关键词: 珊瑚生长率, SST, 工业革命, 西沙海域

Abstract:

The skeletal growth rate of Porites coral is an important indicator to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST). This paper makes use of Porites lutea collected from Yongxing Island, Xisha Islands to construct a coral growth rate thermometer. Based on the thermometer, it reconstructed the SST time series of Xisha sea area since industrial revolution (1880-2007). The result shows that the mean SST was 27.27℃, ranging from 26.1 to 28.5℃ during the period from 1880 to 2007. From 1880 to 1892, SST declined with fluctuations to form a rapid cooling period and SST reached the lowest value of 26.1℃ in 1892. From 1893 to 1935, SST fluctuated all the time to form a platform of low SST. From 1936 to 1957, SST went up at first and then went down, which form a peak of wave. During the period from 1957 to 2003, SST increased rapidly in Xisha Waters. From 2003 to 2007, SST showed a decline trend in Xisha Waters. On the interdecadal time scale, quasi 60-years cycle of climate system might regulate SST change pattern in Xisha waters. At the interannual scale, the intensity of winter monsoon, volcanic activity and ENSO exerted influences on SST in Xisha waters together. In different period, the contribution of different drive factors was different, which lead to the complexity of SST change in Xisha Waters. After 1957 the global warming caused by human activities has become a major driving force of SST increase process in Xisha waters. The SST-fall period from 1880 to 1892 was driven by ENSO, volcanic activity and quasi 60-years cycle of climate system together. The lower winter monsoon velocity causing SST rise counteracted the SST decrease effect of volcanic activity and quasi 60-years cycle of climate system to form a platform of low SST from 1893 to 1935 finally. From 1936 to 1957, SST formed a peak of wave in Xisha Waters, which was driven by the natural variability of the climate system and lower winter monsoon velocity. During the period, the volcanic force resulted in the asymmetry of SST wave crest. During the period from 1957 to 2003, the human-induced greenhouse effects might become the main force to drive the SST increase rapidly in Xisha waters. The cooling process in Xisha waters from 2003 to 2007 might respond to the global warming trend slowdown, which was a result of the interactions between natural forcing and anthropogenic forcing. Anthropogenic forcing always drives SST increases in Xisha waters. Meanwhile, the natural variability of the climate system is in the turn period, the sunspot activity is relatively low, water vapor decreases in the stratosphere, the concentration of atmospheric aerosols increases in the troposphere and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation accelerates, which drive the temperature reduction. It is obviously that the state is delicate. Once any factor of natural forcing weakens, the declined trend of SST in Xisha waters may be replaced by increase trend of SST again.

Key words: coral-growth rate, SST, industrial revolution, Xisha waters