热带地理 ›› 2018, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (3): 424-431.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003036

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

世界文化遗产时空分布及其与人类城市文明的关系

郑学思1,孙文睿2,黄 旭2,臧晓琳3   

  1. (1.华南师范大学附属中学,广州 510630;2.中山大学 地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275; 3.荷兰乌特勒支大学 人文地理与规划系,乌特勒支 3584CS)
  • 出版日期:2018-05-05 发布日期:2018-05-05
  • 通讯作者: 黄旭(1985―),男,江西人,副研究员,主要研究领域为城市地理学,(E-mail)huangx253@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:郑学思,男,广东人,(E-mail)1064670656@qq.com; 孙文睿(1994―),女,湖南人,硕士研究生,主要从事世界遗产研究,(E-mail)sunwr@mail2.sysu.edu.cn; 臧晓琳(1985―),女,山东人,博士研究生,文学硕士,主要从事文化遗产保护与研究、历史城区保护与更新,(E-mail)chandra-zang@hotmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金国际(地区)交流与合作研究项目(41320104001);国家自然科学基金青年项目(41701153);中山大学高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(17lgjc04)

Relationship between the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of World Cultural Heritage and Human Urban Civilization

ZHENG Xuesi1,SUN Wenrui2,HUANG Xu2,ZANG Xiaolin3   

  1. (1.The Affiliated high school of South China Normal University,Guangzhou 510630,China;2.School of geography and urban planning, Sun Yat-sen University,Guangzhou 510275,China;3.Faculty of Geosciences,Utrecht University,Utrecht 3584CS)
  • Online:2018-05-05 Published:2018-05-05

摘要: 将位于城市中的联合国教科文组织世界文化遗产名单在Google地图上完整体现,全样本统计、分析城市中的世界文化遗产的时空分布特征,试图揭示世界文化遗产与人类文明(尤其是城市文明)发展历程之间的相互关系。实证结果显示:1)被认定的世界文化遗产总数832项,其中417项与人类城市文明发展相关联,多数为城市的历史城区建筑景观;2)从空间上看,反映欧美地区城市文明的世界文化遗产最多,非洲地区最少,这与经济发展水平和城市文明发达程度相关;3)结合时间维度,古代(3500 B.C.―A.D.500)城市中的世界文化遗产主要分布在耕种农业发达的沿河地区以及宗教类遗址所在地;中世纪(A.D.500―A.D.1500)遗产数量的变化见证了中世纪城市文明由初期的式微走向后期复兴活跃的过程,亚洲等区域宫殿类、古典园林类、坛庙等多种类型遗产的出现说明了文明在欧洲之外地区的生长;16世纪至今遗产的数量最多,遗产类型更为丰富,出现殖民城市遗产、军事要塞类遗产、工业遗产以及线性文化遗产,展示了殖民扩张、工业发展过程,以及以线性的方式体现城市历史的动态发展和功能演变;4)从世界文化遗产与城市文明的关系来看,城市中的世界文化遗产反映了人类解决城市问题的智慧,展现了特殊城市深厚的人文艺术底蕴,同时宏观上世界文化遗产基本覆盖了全球人类城市文明的历史进程以及不同区域的人类文明,体现了不同地域的典型特色、文化多样性与发展的延续性。总的来说,在全球化以及我国“一带一路”发展战略的背景下,城市中的世界文化遗产是城市文明的重要载体,未来研究亟需利用更广阔、更多元的视角探讨跨地域、跨国界下的文化遗产保护和发展。

关键词: 世界文化遗产, 城市文明, 城市个性

Abstract: World Cultural Heritage tells the story how the human civilization develops. Most researchers focus on individual study rather than exploring the spatial-temporal distribution of whole World Cultural Heritage and how the distribution of heritage implies the development of human civilization. In this paper UNESCO’s World Heritage data and Google maps are combined to explore the time-spatial relations between the World Cultural Heritage and human civilization, esp. urban civilization. 417 World Cultural Heritage sites are considered to be associated with human civilization in cities, most of them are historical sites and architectural landscapes. 2) Most of World Cultural Heritage is located in European and American cities, while Africa has the least number. This is because of the degree of economic and urban development level. 3) World Cultural Heritage sites that emerged during the Ancient period (3500 B.C. -500A.D.) mainly are religious sites, and are located along the rivers where the condition was conducive to the development of agricultural economy. World Cultural Heritage that emerged during the Middle Ages (500A.D.-1500 A.D.) witnessed the flourishing time of the Renaissance. Those sites include Palaces, Classical Gardens and Temples. Since the 16th Century, there have been more kinds of heritage, such as colonial heritage, military heritage, industrial heritage and lineal cultural heritage, which show history of colonial expansion, industrial development, and the dynamic development of cities. 4) World Cultural Heritage expresses the human wisdom in dealing with problems that were encountered in the city’s development. They also show the profound art and humanity of special cities. In all, the World Cultural Heritage basically covers the different regions all over the world and the historical process of human civilization, reflecting the cultural diversity and continuity of development. Under the context of globalization and “The Belt and Road”, World Cultural Heritage plays the significant role as a carrier for human urban civilization. We need to adopt a broader perspective that is more trans-regional and trans-boundary to study cultural heritage in the future.

Key words: world cultural heritage, urban civilization, city feature