热带地理 ›› 2020, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (4): 636-648.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003262

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

游客-环境互动视角下旅游者目的地环境恢复性效应

朱芳1,2(), 苏勤1, 陶云2, 沈惊宏2   

  1. 1.安徽师范大学 地理与旅游学院,安徽 芜湖 241000
    2.安庆师范大学 资源环境学院,安徽 安庆 246133
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-14 修回日期:2020-03-24 出版日期:2020-07-31 发布日期:2020-08-11
  • 作者简介:朱芳(1986—),女,安徽安庆人,讲师,博士研究生,主要研究方向为社会文化地理,(E-mail)zfang315@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41971189);安徽省人文社会科学重点项目(SK2016A0568);安徽省哲学社会科学规划项目(AHSKY2018D17)

Environmental Restorative Effects of Destination for Tourists from the Perspective of Tourist-Environment Interaction

Fang Zhu1,2(), Qin Su1, Yun Tao2, Jinghong Shen2   

  1. 1.School of Geography and Tourism, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, China
    2.School of Resources and Environment, Anqing Normal University, Anqing 246133, China
  • Received:2019-10-14 Revised:2020-03-24 Online:2020-07-31 Published:2020-08-11

摘要:

日常生活环境和旅游目的地环境都可以为个体提供恢复的机会,不同环境的属性特征导致不同程度的恢复。为了探究环境类型与恢复性效应之间的关系及停留时间的调节作用,文章采用问卷调查方式,利用配对样本t检验和混合设计方差分析相结合的方法,探讨游客在不同环境中的恢复性效应,并对这一现象提供心理上的解释。结果表明:1)恢复体验的4个维度(放松体验、心理脱离、掌握体验、控制体验)在旅游目的地环境中的得分均高于日常生活环境。2)掌握和控制体验维度在城市旅游目的地中的变化程度高于乡村旅游目的地,两种类型目的地的放松和心理脱离维度差异较小。3)随着在目的地停留时间的延长,乡村旅游目的地放松体验和心理脱离维度变化程度高于城市旅游目的地,两种类型目的地环境恢复性效应会相互靠近。因此,游客的环境恢复性效应不仅受到环境和目的地类型的影响,同时还与游客的适应程度有关,且受到其停留时间的调节作用。

关键词: 环境恢复性, 旅游体验, 旅游目的地, 养生旅游

Abstract:

With the fast pace of life in modern society, people are under pressure from work and life, so we should pay attention to the mental health problems of individuals. However, both daily living environments and tourist destinations can provide an opportunity for individuals to recover, and the attributes of different environments lead to different degrees of recovery. Are individual restorative effects in the tourism destination higher than those in the daily life environment? Further, are there significant differences in the restorative effects between urban and rural tourism destinations? Does the length of stay regulate the relationship between the environment and the restorative effects? All these questions are worth thinking about and discussing further. For these reasons, this study adopts a questionnaire survey method, using the paired sample t-test and mixed design analysis of variance, to explore the restorative effects of tourists in different environments and to provide a psychological explanation for this phenomenon. Firstly, the four dimensions of recovery experience, that is, relaxation experience, psychological disengagement, mastery experience, and control experience, scored higher in the tourism destination category than in the daily life environment category. On the basis of Goffman’s dramatic framework and organizational behavior theory, the macro-restorative effects brought about by the liminal experience function of tourism destinations are stronger than the meta-restorative effects of non-working leisure experience in daily life. Secondly, under the influence of traditional Chinese cultural values and Confucianism, the restorative effects of the urban environment as perceived by Chinese tourists are higher than those of the natural environment. This study differentiated between urban and rural tourism destinations from the perspective of tourists’ perception, and beginning with the two aspects of restoration experience, that is, effort-restoration and resource conservation, and taking into account the role of the environment, then found that the attributes of tourism destinations and the separation between daily life are perceived by tourists as a social situation with backstage functions,so the tourism destinations could promote individual recovery better than daily living environment. Additionally, the study found that the threshold function of the destination has a time limit, and tourists’ psychological response to the environment will change at different stages. The difference in threshold experience between urban and rural tourism destinations has an impact in the first few days. When the length of stay is extended, tourists are more familiar with rural tourism destinations, and the restorative effects brought about by destination attributes that are more inclined to natural environment characteristics are highlighted. Moreover, the intersection between urban tourism destinations and daily living environment is becoming more and more obvious. Under certain circumstances, the effects of effort-restoration of urban tourism destinations may be lower than those of rural tourism destinations. Therefore, the type of destination does not independently affect the restorative effects of tourists; it is regulated by the length of stay and related to the degree of tourists’ adaptation to the environment. This study enriches the research on environmental restorative effects from the perspective of experience and also helps to deepen the understanding of the strategies to improve restorative effects for academia and industry. At the same time, it provides a comprehensive research perspective for understanding the relationship between restorative effects, type of environment, and length of stay.

Key words: restorative environment, tourist experience, tourism destination, health tourism

中图分类号: 

  • K901