热带地理

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韩国济州岛柑橘园景观与空间分布演变(15262019年)

黄普基1(), 吴俊范2()   

  1. 1.湖南师范大学 外国语学院,长沙 410006
    2.上海师范大学 人文学院,上海 200234
  • 收稿日期:2021-10-11 修回日期:2021-12-26
  • 通讯作者: 吴俊范 E-mail:huangpuji@qq.com;wujunfan11@shnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:黄普基(1972—),男,韩国人,博士,教授,主要研究方向为历史地理、韩国历史,(E-mail)huangpuji@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    2020年度国家社科基金重大项目《7-20世纪长江三角洲海岸带环境变迁史料的搜集、整理与研究》(20&ZD231)

Evolution of the Landscape and Spatial Distribution of Citrus Orchards in Jeju Island, Korea (1526-2019)

Boki Hwang1(), Junfan Wu2()   

  1. 1.Foreign Studies College, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410006, China
    2.College of Humanities, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
  • Received:2021-10-11 Revised:2021-12-26
  • Contact: Junfan Wu E-mail:huangpuji@qq.com;wujunfan11@shnu.edu.cn

摘要:

韩国济州岛的柑橘园景观具有重要的文化遗产价值,是当地人利用济州岛特殊的气候、水文、植被环境塑造的独特农业景观。16世纪朝鲜王朝建立柑橘进贡制度,济州官府设置柑橘园,此后至今,济州岛柑橘园区域分布与地理景观都呈现较大变迁。文章结合气候、水资源等自然因素与韩国柑橘产业政策、市场、社会变化与技术进步等人文因素,研究15世纪以来济州岛柑橘园景观与空间分布变化,分析济州岛柑橘生产空间变迁原因与驱动力。结果显示:16世纪至2019年,济州岛柑橘生产经历了发展、没落、强力复兴的大起大落发展历史,呈现从北到南的生产空间大迁移,柑橘生产空间逐渐扩大。济州岛的柑橘园生产经历从朝鲜时期的官府果园到现代观光体验农场的转变。柑橘生产空间变迁与地理景观变化的原因与驱动力较复杂,水资源是影响朝鲜时期柑橘园分布的主要自然因素。社会制度、交通与市场是16世纪以来到现代影响柑橘园生产空间扩展的主要人文因素,在近500年的柑橘生产空间发展变迁的过程中,人文因素不断加强,影响柑橘空间与地理景观的优化调整。20世纪70年代以来水资源开发技术进步改变了现代柑橘园生产空间分布格局。对济州岛柑橘园长时段的生产空间与地理景观变化及其作用机制的研究,可以为中国传统柑橘栽培地区的打造具有地方特色柑橘园文化景观与民俗、文化产品,以及中国柑橘产业的升级发展提供参考。

关键词: 济州岛, 柑橘园, 朝鲜王朝, 农业生产空间, 景观变迁

Abstract:

The citrus orchard landscape in Jeju Island, South Korea has important cultural heritage value. It is a unique agricultural landscape shaped by local people, using the special climate, hydrology, and vegetation environment of Jeju Island. The Joseon Dynasty in the 16th century established a tribute system for citrus. The Jeju government also set up a citrus garden. Since then, the regional distribution and geographic landscape of citrus groves on Jeju Island have experienced great changes. This paper combines natural factors, such as climate and water resources, with human factors, such as Korean citrus industry policies, the market, social changes, and technological progress to study the changes in the landscape and spatial distribution of citrus orchards in Jeju Island since the 15th century, and analyzes the driving forces behind the spatial changes in citrus production on Jeju Island. The results show the following. From the 16th century to 2019, citrus production on Jeju Island experienced development-historically significant ups and downs of decline and strong revival. A large migration of production space from north to south was found. The space for citrus production has expanded gradually, and the production of citrus orchards on Jeju Island has undergone a transformation from government orchards in the Joseon period to a modern experiential farm for tourism. The driving forces for citrus production space changes and geographic landscape changes are complex. Water resources were the main natural factor affecting the distribution of citrus groves during the Joseon Dynasty. The social system, transportation, and market were the main factors influencing the expansion of citrus orchard production space from the 16th century to modern times. During the development of and changes in citrus production space over the past five hundred years, human factors have continuously strengthened and influenced the optimization and adjustment of citrus space and the geographical landscape. Since the 1970s, advances in water resource development technology have changed the spatial distribution pattern of modern citrus orchards. Research on the long-term production space and geographic landscape changes in Jeju Island, and their mechanism of citrus orchards, can create a cultural landscape of citrus orchards with local characteristics for traditional citrus cultivation areas in China. It can also provide references for folk customs, cultural products, and the upgrading and development of China's citrus industry.

Key words: Jeju Island, citrus Farms, Joseon Dynasty, agricultural production space, landscape changes

中图分类号: 

  • F33/37