热带地理

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国家工业遗产时空分布特征及影响因素

曾灿1,2(), 刘沛林1,2(), 李伯华3, 黄晓杰3, 曹扬意3   

  1. 1.湖南师范大学 地理科学学院,长沙 410081
    2.长沙学院 经济与管理学院暨乡村振兴研究院,长沙 410022
    3.衡阳师范学院 地理与旅游学院,湖南 衡阳 421002
  • 收稿日期:2021-05-20 修回日期:2021-07-08
  • 通讯作者: 刘沛林 E-mail:286197762@qq.com;liu_peilin@126.com
  • 作者简介:曾灿(1987—),女,湖南沅江人,博士研究生,主要研究方向为传统村镇保护与规划,(E-mail)286197762@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(42071195);长沙市重大科技专项项目(kq2011002)

Temporal and Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Industrial Heritage in ChinaFour Batches of Industrial Heritage Lists as Examples

Can Zeng1,2(), Peilin Liu1,2(), Bohua Li3, Xiaojie Huang3, Yangyi Cao3   

  1. 1.College of Geographical Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China
    2.College of Economics and Management and Rural Revitalization Research Institute, Changsha University, Changsha 410022, China
    3.College of Geography & Tourism, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang 421002, China
  • Received:2021-05-20 Revised:2021-07-08
  • Contact: Peilin Liu E-mail:286197762@qq.com;liu_peilin@126.com

摘要:

以国家工信部公布的四批共164个国家工业遗产为对象,运用核密度、集中趋势演变等方法,探讨其时空分布特征与影响因素。结果表明:1)国家工业遗产在空间分布上具有显著的正空间自相关性,呈现东南多、西北少,并在空间上形成了“三核两副,片状分布”的格局;2)从遗产类型看,轻工业主要分布在长江流域及沿海区域,重工业较轻工业分布分散;3)工业遗产在省域范围内存在较为明显的三类区:Ⅰ类区在中国大陆东北及东南沿海等“一线地区”,Ⅱ类区为中国西北部的“三线地区”,其他为Ⅲ类区;4)从时间演化看,工业遗产空间分布中心有4次明显转折;5)中国古代工业大多受自然地理及社会经济环境的影响,近现代工业虽受上述因素影响,但更多受民族主义驱动、洋务运动、“三线建设”等历史及政治因素的影响。

关键词: 国家工业遗产, 社会经济环境, 历史文化环境, 政府政策, 中国

Abstract:

With China's entry into the era of industry and information, an increasing number of industrial enterprises have withdrawn from the historical stage owing to technical bottlenecks, environmental pollution, and lack of resources. The Party and Government attach great importance to the protection, utilization, and research of industrial heritage. This study takes 164 national industrial heritage groups since 2020 published by the Ministry of Industry and Information as the research object. This paper discusses the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of national industrial heritage and analyzes its influencing factors using the spatial analysis methods of nuclear density and concentration trend evolution of the geographic information system platform. The main results of this study are as follows: 1) The spatial distribution of national industrial heritage shows remarkable positive spatial autocorrelation, and this correlation increases over time; There are more industrial heritages in the southeast and less in the northwest, and the spatial pattern of "three cores, two pairs, sheet distribution" is formed. 2) From the perspective of heritage types, light industry is mainly distributed in the Yangtze River Basin and coastal areas, while heavy industry is more dispersed. 3) The distribution of industrial heritage in the province is unbalanced, with three types of areas. Type I is in the northeast and first-tier areas, such as the southeast coastal areas in China. Type II is in third-class areas like northwest China, while the others are type III. 4) From the perspective of time evolution, the spatial distribution center of industrial heritage has four obvious turns. Before the founding of New China, the span of the Heritage Center in different periods was small, and the span became larger after that. 5) Most industries in ancient China were influenced by natural geography and the socioeconomic environment. Although the industries in modern China were influenced by the above factors, they were more influenced by historical and political factors such as nationalism, the Westernization Movement, and major national strategies. National industrial heritage is concentrated in the southeast coastal and middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River plain areas with good natural environment, high population density, high economic level and smooth information flow, while the number of distributions in Guangdong and northwestern areas is less, and areas such as Guangxi and Ningxia are even blank. On the one hand, due to the backward industrial development of Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet, and other provinces in the western region, only a few meet the requirements for the selection of national industrial heritage. On the other hand, "Renewal" has become the theme of the development and planning of times in the process of rapid urbanization in Guangdong Province, one of the birthplaces of modern industry in southern China. A large number of industrial heritage sites have been abandoned and demolished, and the protection and development of these sites are far backward. Therefore, each province should fully understand the importance of protecting and selecting national industrial heritage and take this as an opportunity to accelerate this process within their respective jurisdictions. Each province ought to reasonably link development and protection to better promote the organic renewal and activation of cities.

Key words: national industrial heritage, socio-economic environment, historical and cultural environment, government policy, China

中图分类号: 

  • TU984.114