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非洲城市二元社会空间结构模式

宋美娜a,杨永春a,b,史坤博a,王舒馨a   

  1. (兰州大学 a.资源环境学院;b.西部环境教育部重点实验室,兰州 730000)
  • 出版日期:2015-11-05 发布日期:2015-11-05
  • 通讯作者: 杨永春(1969―),男,陕西人,教授,博导,主要研究方向为西部城市与区域发展及规划,(E-mail)yangych@lzu.edu.cn。
  • 作者简介:宋美娜(1990―),女,河北人,硕士研究生,主要研究方向为西部城市规划与城市转型,(E-mail)songmn14@lzu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金(41171143、40771064);教育部新世纪优秀人才支持计划(NCET-07-0398)

Dual Structure Model for the Urban Social Space of Africa

SONG Meinaa,YANG Yongchuna,b,SHI Kunboa,WANG Shuxina   

  1. (a. College of Earth and Environmental Science;b. Key Laboratory of Western China’s Environmental Systems,Lanzhou University,Lanzhou 730000,China)
  • Online:2015-11-05 Published:2015-11-05

摘要:

以城市中心变迁和阶层居住分化为研究视角,探究了非洲近代、现代2个时期的城市二元社会空间结构特征与模式。结果表明:不同时期,非洲城市内部的二元社会空间结构存在显著差异。随着欧洲殖民进程的结束,社会空间结构从旧二元向新二元转变。近代时期,非洲城市空间形态表现出典型的双城模式,殖民者与本地人的居住空间被严格区分;现代时期,非洲城市表现出新旧中心并存模式,中上阶层与贫民居住空间存在明显分异。政治、经济、人口与社会等因素是城市二元社会空间结构形成的重要驱动力。最后,为促进非洲城市社会空间的可持续发展提出了建议。

关键词: 城市社会空间, 二元结构, 驱动力机制, 非洲

Abstract:

This article provides an overview of research on evolution of the urban social space in Africa. As the colonial political intervention, the existing political system in Africa has changed and African original culture has had faults, the economy is in a position of marginalization in the world economy system. Because of its special political and historical background, there is a unique spatial structure forming in urban space. However, we should also see the fact that there were few studies in characteristics and mode of development of African cities presently. Case studies in changes of the city center and different sectors of residential areas. The purpose is to explore the dual structure model for the urban social space of the Africa in the recent period and contemporary age. Several conclusions are drawn as follows: 1) Among different historical periods, there are significant differences in the structure of the dual social space within cities in Africa. Differences exist mainly in the changes of the city center and sectors of residential areas. 2) With the end of the process of European colonization, African countries had a huge change in urban social space. In the perspective of changes of the city center and different sectors of residential areas, the dual structure of urban space achieves a transition to the new. The old dual structure mainly refers to the colonial city which was newly constructed and the native city. And the new dual structure presents in the inner city. 3) The urban social space of the Africa showed a typical pattern of Twin cities in the recent period. The living space for colonists and the native was strictly separated. The former lived in the city which was constructed newly and the latter usually lived in the old city or the surrounding industrial area. In contemporary age, African cities show the coexistence of old and new centers. There was significant difference in living space for the wealthy and the poor. With the deterioration of the environment in the city center, the rich gradually move to outside the center and establish a new city center, forming a two-center structure model. 4) Political, economic, demographic and social factors were important driving forces of urban dual social spatial structure formation. Political factors mainly refer the powerful colonial system in the recent period and liberal market system in contemporary age. Economic factors include lack of foreign investment and jobs shorting desperately. Africa’s urban population was growing rapidly and the cities behave “explosive” growth. With the succession of independent of African countries, the urban social stratification is accelerated. The rural migrants become the main constituents of the lower class. Based on the above, some of the recommendations are made in order to promote the sustainable development of African urban social space.

Key words: urban social space, dual structure, dynamic mechanism, Africa