热带地理 ›› 2017, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (3): 293-303.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002944

• 论文 •    下一篇

旅游驱动下的传统村落城镇化研究 ——以世界文化遗产宏村为例

卢 松1,2,周小凤2,张小军2,邢丽红2   

  1. (1.上海师范大学 旅游学院 上海 200234;2.安徽师范大学 国土资源与旅游学院,安徽 芜湖 241003)
  • 出版日期:2017-05-05 发布日期:2017-05-05
  • 作者简介:卢松(1974―),男,安徽黄山人,教授,博士生导师,主要从事旅游管理和人文地理研究,(E-mail)ahlusong@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41371159)

Tourism-driven Urbanization in Ancient Rural Areas: A Case Study of the Hongcun Village

LU Song1,2,ZHOU Xiaofeng2,ZHANG Xiaojun2,XING Lihong2   

  1. (1.College of tourism,Shanghai Normal University,Shanghai 200234,China;2.College of Tourism,Anhui Normal University,Wuhu 241003,China)
  • Online:2017-05-05 Published:2017-05-05

摘要:

旅游开发已成为传统村落遗产保护和利用的有效途径,使得传统村落地域土地利用、就业方式、产业结构发生了重要变化,旅游发展成为传统村落城镇化的重要驱动力。文章以世界文化遗产地宏村为例,在实地调研的基础上,从土地、产业、人口等方面探讨了旅游驱动下地域城镇化的过程。结果表明:1)宏村的土地城镇化过程主要发生在景区外围,表现在土地利用结构和土地利用类型的转变2个方面,申遗前宏村的土地开发主要集中在景区内小规模的扩展,申遗后发展方向转移到与宏村隔河相对的际村,土地开发速度快且规模较大。2)经过近30年的旅游发展,宏村的产业结构发生深刻变化,逐渐以第三产业为主,2012年第三、二、一产业结构为68∶21∶11;同时旅游小企业快速发展,国际奢华度假品牌企业开始进入。3)宏村人口地域集中化趋势较为明显,主要是在旅游利益吸引下本地居民的返回以及外来投资者和劳工人口的流入,当地居民就业结构向非农化(旅游接待业)方向转变,生活方式日益现代化,社会行为方式及居民思想观念等方面日趋城市化。最后,简要讨论了影响宏村旅游城镇化的因素。

关键词: 乡村城镇化, 旅游驱动, 传统村落, 宏村

Abstract: Development of tourism has already become an effective way to the protection and usage of the ancient village heritages. It has brought significant changes to the land use, employment patterns and the industrial structure in traditional rural areas. And the development of tourism has also become an important driving force to the urbanization of those areas. This paper takes Hongcun, one of the World Cultural Heritages, as an example, to research the urbanization process of the ancient villages under the tourism drive in terms of the land, industry and population, etc. The research is done on the basis of the field survey by the whole team. Several methods such as GIS and in-depth interviews are used. The purpose of the paper is to provide reference for China village urbanization, traditional rural cultural heritage protection and sustainable development of tourism. The results indicate: 1) The land urbanization process of Hongcun mainly occurs in peripheral areas around the scenic spot, as Hongcun is a world cultural heritage and the national key culture relic protection site, where all kinds of construction and development activities are strictly prohibited. Hongcun tourism triggered by the process of urbanization occurred mainly in the villages around Hongcun proper. And the land urbanization is mainly manifested on the structure and the type of the land use. Before applying for world cultural heritage, the land exploitation of Hongcun mainly focused on a small scale development in the scenic area, while after that the development direction has transferred to Jicun where there has a river opposite to Hongcun, and the land has been exploited at a faster speed and larger scale. 2) Driven by the development of tourism for more than 30 years, Hongcun’s industrial structure has been continuously adjusted. The tertiary industry has been continuously increasing, and now the proportion of the three industries is 68:21:11, in the order of tertiary industry-secondary industry-primary industry. At the same time, with the rapid development of small tourism businesses, the international luxury resort brands of businesses have begun to enter the market. All those will give tremendous impact on Hongcun tourism and economic development. 3) The agglomeration trend of Hongcun population is more obvious, mainly because of the returning of local residents by the tourism interests attraction and the inflow of external investors and labor force. And the employment structure of local residents has transformed to non-agriculturization direction, the local residents’ life way is gradually modernized, and the social behavior as well as the ideology has trended to urbanization. Finally, in this paper some factors which affect the tourism urbanization of Hongcun are briefly discussed.

Key words: rural urbanization, tourism driven, traditional village, Hongcun