热带地理 ›› 2017, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (3): 318-327.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002950

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

广东传统村落空间分布格局及其民系特征

袁少雄1,2,3,唐光良2,张虹鸥2,宫清华2,尹小玲2,黄光庆1,2,3   

  1. (1.中国科学院 广州地球化学研究所,广州 510640;2.广州地理研究所//广东省地理空间信息技术与应用公共实验室,广州 510070; 3.中国科学院大学,北京 100049)
  • 出版日期:2017-05-05 发布日期:2017-05-05
  • 通讯作者: 黄光庆(1964―),男,江苏镇江人,研究员,博士,主要从事生态环境与地质学研究,(E-mail)649614124@qq.com。
  • 作者简介:袁少雄(1980―),男,广东龙川人,助研,博士研究生,主要从事区域规划与可持续发展、地理信息、环境科学研究,(E-mail)yuanshx1@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    “十二五”科技支撑计划课题“传统村落基础设施完善与使用功能拓展关键技术研究与示范”(2014BAL06B02)

Spatial Distribution Pattern of Traditional Villages and Brief Analysis of Han Chinese Subgroup Characteristics in Guangdong

YUAN Shaoxiong1,2,3,TANG Guangliang2,ZHANG Hong’ou2, GONG Qinghua2,YIN Xiaoling2,HUANG Guangqing1,2,3   

  1. (1.Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Guangzhou 510640,China;2.Guangzhou Institute of Geography// Guangdong Open Laboratory of Geospatial Information Technology and Application,Guangzhou 510070,China; 3.University of Chinese Academy of Science,Beijing 100049,China)
  • Online:2017-05-05 Published:2017-05-05

摘要:

为了解传统村落在广东的空间分布格局,其与国内其他省份空间分布情况差异以及其与民系特征的关系,以广东省126个传统村落为研究对象,利用GIS的空间分析法对其空间分布、空间自相关和民系分布特征进行分析。结果显示:广东省传统村落的空间分布类型为凝聚型,与国内其他省份传统村落的分布类型相似;从地市尺度来看,广东省传统村落的分布较为集中,主要集中在梅州、清远、广州、湛江和肇庆等地市;总体上呈不均衡分布,区域尺度上主要分布于粤北和珠江三角洲地区;其空间分布密度差异显著,全省分布密度为0.59个/千km2,梅州市最高,达到2.14个/千km2;全省传统村落空间分布存在梅州―潮汕区、广佛―东莞区、湛江雷州区以及清远连州区等4个比较明显的集聚区;在空间分布上具有显著的全局空间自相关性,表现出规模相似地区在空间上趋于集聚的特性,整体上呈现较为明显的热点―次热点―次冷点―冷点的分布格局;广东省传统村落主要分布在广府、客家民系中,分布密度最高的民系为少数民族区,达1.31个/千km2,其次为韶州土话民系区,为1.00个/千km2,尽管客家民系与广府民系区的传统村落数量最多,但由于这两大民系在广东省分布面较广,密度分别只有0.59和0.48个/千km2

关键词: 传统村落, 空间分布, 空间自相关, 民系分布, 广东省

Abstract:

In this paper, 126 traditional villages in Guangdong Province were taken as the research object. GIS spatial analysis was used in order to understand the spatial distribution pattern of traditional villages (TVs) in Guangdong, the differences in distribution pattern between in Guangdong and in other provinces, and the Han Chinese subgroup characteristics of TVs. The spatial distribution type was judged using the nearest neighbor index; the spatial distribution equilibrium was determined by the geographical concentration index and the unbalanced index; the spatial clustering region was measured by the nuclear density; the spatial autocorrelation analysis was carried out using the Moran index; and the spatial link function was used to determine the relationship between the TVs and Han Chinese subgroup characteristics. The results show that: 1) the spatial distribution of TVs in Guangdong Province is condensed. From the perspective of the city scale, TV distribution is concentrated in Meizhou, Qingyuan, Guangzhou, Zhanjiang, and Zhaoqing. There are 87 TVs in these cities, accounting for 69% of the total in Guangdong, and Meizhou City is home to 40 TVs, accounting for about 32% of the total in the province. The TVs are generally unevenly distributed, mainly in northern Guangdong and the Pearl River Delta region. 2) There are significant differences in the spatial distribution density of TVs in Guangdong Province. The average distribution density of TVs in the province is 0.59 per thousand km2; the highest density of 2.14 per thousand km2 is in Meizhou; in Heyuan and Maoming, TV density is less than 0.1 per thousand km2; and there is no TV distributed in Yunfu City. There are four noticeable agglomeration areas: the Meizhou-Chaoshan Area, the Guangfo-Dongguan Area, the Zhanjiang-Leizhou Area, and the Qingyuan-Lianzhou Area. The core-edge distribution pattern is noticeable. 3) The spatial distribution of TVs in Guangdong Province shows significant global spatial autocorrelation and clustering characteristics of similar areas. As the distribution of the TVs in the province is relatively decentralized, it is of a noticeable “few-moderate-many” pyramid-like distribution. From the Moran scatter plot, most of the TVs are located in the first and third quadrants, displaying serious polarization. The overall spatial distribution pattern is of “hot spots - sub-hot spots - sub-cold spots - cold spots” in the province, with “sub cold spots - cold spots” as the major pattern. 4) The TVs in Guangdong Province are mainly distributed in the Guangfu and Hakka areas. The TVs in these two subgroups account for about 72% of the total in the province. The TVs of the highest density, 1.31 per thousand km2, are in the ethnic minority areas, followed by those of about 1.00 per thousand km2 in the Shaozhou Tuhua civil area. Although the Hakka and the Guangfu areas have the largest number of TVs, the density of TVs is only 0.59 and 0.48 per thousand km2, respectively due to wide distribution of the two ethnic groups. The distribution type of the TVs in Guangdong Province is similar to that in Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hunan, Shanxi, and other provinces in the country, which is condensed with its core area and spatial autocorrelation having their own characteristics.

Key words: traditional villages, spatial distribution, spatial autocorrelation, Han Chinese subgroups distribution, Guangdong