热带地理 ›› 2017, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (3): 304-317.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002952

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

肇庆传统村落建筑文化景观特征及形成机制

张浩龙,金万富,周春山   

  1. (中山大学 地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275)
  • 出版日期:2017-05-05 发布日期:2017-05-05
  • 通讯作者: 周春山(1964―),男,河南信阳人,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为城市地理,(E-mail)Zhoucs@mail.sysu.edu.cn。
  • 作者简介:张浩龙(1981―),男,浙江衢州人,博士研究生,研究方向为聚落地理,(E-mail)561976097@qq.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目(40971097)

Characteristics and Forming Mechanisms of Architecture Cultural Landscape in Zhaoqing’s Traditional Villages

ZHANG Haolong,JIN Wanfu,ZHOU Chunshan   

  1. (School of Geography and Planning,Sun Yat-sen University,Guangzhou 510275,China)
  • Online:2017-05-05 Published:2017-05-05

摘要:

以具有岭南文化特色的肇庆传统村落为对象,利用GIS和空间句法等研究方法探究其建筑文化景观特征及形成机制。结果表明:1)受传统山水文化理念影响,村落与自然地理要素间的组合形成了临水而居型、依山而建型、平地展开型和依山傍水型4种类型;2)传统村落空间扩张则受到宗族和血缘关系的支配,形成了便于信息交流的村落空间组织;3)公共场所周边街巷整合度较高,地势平坦地区街巷结构可理解度较高;4)区域内建筑文化景观主要有广府和客家,其空间布局和内部结构存在显著差异;5)尽管区域内存在不同的文化分区,但其建筑文化景观具有显著的岭南文化基因;6)自然地理环境是肇庆传统村落建筑文化景观形成的基底,社会基础和文化传承则分别是其形成的内在动力和外在动力,经济基础和技术水平保障了肇庆传统村落建筑文化景观的形成。

关键词: 传统村落, 建筑文化景观, 形成机制, 肇庆

Abstract:

With the country’s increasing emphasis on the protection of traditional villages, domestic research on traditional villages has become more and more abundant since 2000. However, few studies discuss the characteristics and forming mechanisms of architecture cultural landscape of traditional villages in depth. This paper took the traditional villages in Zhaoqing as a case study to learn the characteristics and forming mechanisms of the architecture cultural landscape of traditional villages by GIS, spatial syntax, et al. The results show: 1) Influenced by the traditional landscape culture, the combinations between traditional villages and the natural geographical environment come in four types, i.e., living near waters, building around mountains, expanding on flat lands, and developing near hills and beside rivers. 2) The formation of spatial organization in some traditional villages is greatly influenced by the clan and kinship. And the spatial organization is conducive to the exchange of information among villagers and presents a multi-slice mode with the ancestral hall as the core node. 3) The streets around public places have a high degree of integration. Travelers can build up cognition for the spatial structure of the whole village on the flat terrain through the local spatial structure. 4) The architectural landscape in Zhaoqing’s traditional villages mainly includes Cantonese and Hakka, which display some significant differences in their spatial layout and internal structure. From the perspective of an architectural layout model, Cantonese and Hakka are mainly comb and enclosing houses, respectively. In terms of internal structure, Cantonese architecture emphasizes simplicity and practicality, while Hakka architecture shows the idea of “unification” and “harmony”. 5) Although there are different cultural zones in the region, their architectural culture is of a significant Lingnan cultural gene. 6) The formation of the architectural cultural landscape in Zhaoqing’s traditional villages is comprehensively affected by the natural geographical environment, social foundation, economic foundation and technical level. Among them, the geographical environment is the basement, social foundation and cultural heritage are the intrinsic power and the external power, respectively, and economic foundation and technical level are the guarantee.

Key words: traditional villages, architecture cultural landscape, mechanisms, Zhaoqing