热带地理 ›› 2017, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (6): 835-843.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003009

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

共同演化视角下的产业集群发展路径 ——以汕头市澄海区玩具产业集群为例

许 琳,沈 静   

  1. (中山大学 地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275)
  • 出版日期:2017-11-05 发布日期:2017-11-05
  • 通讯作者: 沈静(1976―),女,陕西安康人,副教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向为经济地理学,(E-mail)shenjing@email.sysu.edu.cn。
  • 作者简介:许琳(1993―),女,广东汕头人,硕士研究生,主要研究方向为经济地理学,(E-mail)xuyixun1993@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41371138);国家社会科学基金项目(14BJY053)

Development Path of Industrial Cluster Based on the Perspective of Co-evolution: A Case Study of Toy Industrial Cluster in Chenghai,Shantou City

XU Lin,SHEN Jing   

  1. (School of Geography and Planning,Sun Yat-Sen University,Guangzhou 510275,China)
  • Online:2017-11-05 Published:2017-11-05

摘要: 文章分析了产业集群中企业、网络、制度之间的共同演化机制,揭示了共同演化对产业集群发展路径的影响,并通过深入访谈的方法探讨了澄海区玩具产业集群共同演化路径与实质。产业集群发展路径是以地方初始条件为基础,企业、网络、制度螺旋式互动反馈、更新、适应而形成循环累积效应的本地化过程,发展路径可分为路径创造、路径发展、路径锁定或新路径创造三阶段,每个阶段各要素作用机制各异,使得产业集群的共同演化过程具有复杂性。澄海玩具产业集群的案例研究表明,国家多重空间尺度制度变革与地方要素的耦合、地域文化与企业行为和网络关系的互动反馈、龙头企业的引领带动在产业集群的路径发展中发挥关键作用。

关键词: 产业集群, 发展路径, 共同演化, 企业-网络-制度, 澄海玩具

Abstract: Research on path evolution of industrial clusters contributes to industrial upgrade and improving competitiveness. The industrial cluster is a complex adaptive system, and its path evolution is interwoven with multiple populations, presenting multiple path dependence, thus the traditional research method is difficult to abstract its theoretical model. The co-evolution theory which provides a new perspective of dynamic interaction is an important concept applied in researching the economic landscape evolution while little research has focused on the cluster especially the differences and mechanism of each population in the various phases of industrial cluster. Since the industrial cluster is made up of firms that are bound together geographically, technologically and relationally, and is subject to changes in institutions, its path evolution is the aggregate outcomes of firms, network, institutions and their synergies. The triangle stakeholders play different roles on the different stages of path evolution. Thus our work proposes a triangle analytical framework of industrial cluster path evolution with “firm, network and institution”. Then the empirical study uses the framework to analyze Chenghai’s toy industrial cluster, located in Shantou city, Guangdong Province, which is a successful representative of typical industry cluster that has grown up since China’s reform and opening up and development. The results show that path evolution of the industrial cluster is strongly impacted by the synergistic action of firms, network and institution. Firms, network and institution interact like a spiral on path evolution of industrial cluster based on the local initial conditions firstly and then change their mechanism of industrial as to follow the changing of environment in the three stages of path evolution including path creation, path development, path locking or new path creation. In regard to the path evolution of Chenghai’s toy industrial cluster, the cumulative effect of local path dependence with the constantly updated and spiral interactive adaptation as well as the co-evolution of firms, network and institutions jointly promote the toy industrial cluster from the resource gathering, flexible production system to innovative system. Therefore, a competitive cluster seems to be a co-evolutionary hotspot. In addition, the study finds that in the context of societal transition and economic globalization, three important factors have a huge impact on the path evolution of industrial cluster in China, they are the coupling of multiple spatial scale institution transformation with the local factors in the context of marketization and globalization, the interaction feedback of regional culture, firm behavior and network, as well as key roles of leading firms. Consequently, our findings provide suggestions for promoting the path evolution of industrial cluster, such as making full use of local endemic assets, establishing a collaborative network driven by leading firms, creating a collaborative environment among firms, governments and institutions by local institutional innovation to set up a “global pipeline-local buzz” mechanism.

Key words: industrial cluster, path evolution, co-evolution, firm-network-institution, Chenghai’s toy