热带地理 ›› 2019, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (1): 1-10.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003104

• 专题:国内外城镇的增长与收缩 •    下一篇

产权视角下中国快速城镇化地区的增长与收缩 ——以珠江三角洲东莞市为例

李 郇1a,b,李先锋1a,2,邓嘉怡1a   

  1. (1.中山大学 a.地理科学与规划学院;b.城市化研究院,广州 510275;2.北方民族大学 管理学院,银川 750021)
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-15 修回日期:2018-12-20 出版日期:2019-01-05 发布日期:2019-01-05
  • 作者简介:李郇(1964—),江西南昌人,教授,博导,主要研究方向为经济地理、城市与区域规划等,(E-mail)lixun23@126.com。
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41571118)

The Growth and Shrinkage of China’s Rapidly Urbanizing Areas from the Perspective of Property Rights: A Case Study of Dongguan

Li Xun1a,b, Li Xianfeng1a,2 and Deng Jiayi1a   

  1. (1. a. School of Geography Science and Planning; b. Urbanization Institute, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China; 2. The North University for Ethnics, North Minzu University, Yinchuan 750021, China)
  • Received:2018-11-15 Revised:2018-12-20 Online:2019-01-05 Published:2019-01-05

摘要:

伴随全球化的蔓延,快速城镇化地区的增长与收缩已成为地区发展转型研究中的国际性话题。改革开放以来,珠江三角洲在外来资本和廉价劳动力的双重推动下实现了农村城镇化发展,随之出现了大量的“城乡一体化(Desakota)”混杂空间。然而,2008年的金融危机对城市发展造成了巨大冲击,地区产权结构的不同导致了更新政策的差异,城市中出现增长与收缩并存的新空间现象。基于此,文章从区域农村城镇化的特殊条件出发,结合城乡二元土地产权结构的制度背景,探索珠江三角洲“Desakota”形成的内在因素,并提出理解城镇增长与收缩的分析框架。后危机时代,城市国有土地和集体土地与国家产业政策的匹配程度存在巨大差异,为不同地区带来了截然不同的发展机会。实证分析部分以东莞市为例,通过夜间灯光数据探索城市增长与收缩的空间分布特征,同时结合典型地区的案例分析,从产权视角切入分析地区出现差异化发展的机制。土地是决定地区发展方向的本质性因素,城市中产权明确且结构单一的国有土地有利于更新置换并实现再增长,而产权零散、用地混杂的集体土地往往因改造成本高而难以推动更新发展,地区出现“穿孔式”收缩。

关键词: 城镇增长与收缩, 城乡一体化(Desakota), 产权结构, 珠江三角洲, 东莞市

Abstract:

With the spread of globalization, the phenomenon of growth and shrinkage in rapidly urbanizing areas has become an international topic in the study of regional development and transformation. Following the reform and opening up of China, rapid urbanization spread through the Pearl River Delta, promoted by external capital and cheap labor. At the same time, a large number of “Desakota” regions appeared, featuring different types of property rights. However, the financial crisis had a huge impact on urban development in 2008. The differences in the property rights of the regions meant that renewal policies followed different paths, so that a new spatial phenomenon occurred in which growth and shrinkage coexisted. In light of this, our research will start from the special conditions of regional urbanization, combined with the system of binary land property rights between city and rural areas, to explore the intrinsic features of Desakota regions in the Pearl River Delta and propose an analytical framework for understanding growth and shrinkage. The post–financial crisis era saw great differences between state-owned land and collective-owned land in their matched-degree with national industrial policies, leading to completely different development opportunities for different regions. In fact, the phenomenon of centralized and decentralized urban-rural integration (Desakota), which happened in the vast rural areas of the Pearl River Delta, was the result of the endogenous system of binary land property rights between city and rural areas. After the outbreak of the financial crisis in 2008, the Chinese government’s macro-control policies underwent major adjustments, and the country’s fiscal and industrial policies have begun to shift. State-owned land with a single property rights structure has become a key area for local renewal and transformation due to its low-cost advantage. It provides space for the entry of new industries through functional replacement and promotes regional economic transformation and development. At the same time, due to the dispersive land property and small scale, the long-term accumulation of small property collective land leads to higher transaction costs and difficulty in large-scale production activities. Consequently, transformation and renewal are difficult to achieve. The difference in regional property rights structure and difficulty of renewal has led to a new spatial pattern in which both growth and shrinkage coexist. This empirical analysis takes Dongguan as an example and tries to overcome the limitations of traditional social and economic indicators. Innovatively, it uses NPP-VIIRS nighttime lighting data to explore visually the spatial distribution characteristics of growth and shrinkage in Dongguan. Combining this case study with those of typical regions, we analyze the mechanism of different types of development inside the regions from the perspective of property rights. We find that land is the essential factor determining the direction of regional development. The growing areas of Dongguan are mainly concentrated in ports, cross-border areas, and key areas supported by national policies, which have clear property rights and a single structure. In addition, the shrinking areas often occur in mixed areas of industrial parks and urban villages, which have relatively dispersive property rights. This study provides a good sample for the development of rapidly urbanizing areas in the post-financial crisis era. Local governments should focus on the regional property rights structure in the process of decision making and should adapt to local conditions and adopt different policies to promote regional development.

Key words: growth and shrinkage, desakota, structure of property rights, the Pearl River Delta, Dongguan City