热带地理 ›› 2019, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (2): 298-308.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003113

• 其他 • 上一篇    下一篇

国外环境公正研究综述

沈 静,周楚平   

  1. (中山大学 地理科学与规划学院城市与区域规划系,广州 510275)
  • 出版日期:2019-03-05 发布日期:2019-03-05
  • 作者简介:沈静(1976—),女,陕西安康人,副教授,博士,主要从事经济地理学、城市与区域研究与规划,(E-mail)shenjing@mail.sysu.edu.cn。
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41871111、41371138)

A Review of Foreign Research on Environmental Justice

Shen Jing and Zhou Chuping   

  1. (School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen Unviersity, Guangzhou 510275, China)
  • Online:2019-03-05 Published:2019-03-05

摘要: 环境公正已成为国外学术研究的热点问题,且地理学家研究贡献颇多。文章通过梳理国外环境公正的相关研究,特别是地理学家的相关文献,探讨了环境公正的概念建构,并应用Citespace软件分析20世纪90年代以来对环境公正研究的主题词变化态势,从研究内容、方法和尺度等方面总结了环境公正的研究特点,以期为中国环境公正的研究和相关政策的制定提供参考和借鉴。国外学者对环境公正概念主要从“分布公正”“认知公正”与“程序公正”3个方面建构。国外对环境公正的研究主题从关注社区的污染物质和污染设施向气候变化、绿色能源空间等全球性问题发展;研究内容涉及环境公正的分布、原因、影响以及实现方式的多元探讨;研究立场鲜明且在政策与规划方面具有极强的实践性;研究方法涵盖定性和定量两大领域的多种方法,并不断发展;研究尺度上从社区至全球都有覆盖。

关键词: 环境公正, 分布公正, 认知公正, 程序公正, 可持续发展

Abstract: Environmental justice, a focus of foreign human geography research, is defined as the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies. This paper presents the progress of normative and pragmatic research on environmental justice in foreign countries, in order to introduce the new concept into the environmental research in China. The paper uses Citespace software to examine and summarize the research tendency and hotpots of environmental justice. Moreover, adapting the method of documentary analysis, the paper also elaborates the concept construction, research aspects, and methods of environmental justice, which are the basis of the review of the whole course of development of the issue abroad. The findings are as follows. First, foreign scholars construct the concepts of environmental justice mainly from three aspects, distribution justice, recognition justice, and procedure justice, which clarify the issue from the perspective of objectivity, subjectivity, and practicality, respectively. Second, the environmental justice research content is expanding to various aspects and levels that involve the pluralistic discussion on the link between demographic structure and the spatial pattern of locally unwanted land use and public service facilities, the causes of environmental injustice, the negative impacts of injustice, and the implementations for the sake of realizing environmental justice. Third, research methods are also developed and innovated step by step from qualitative and quantitative levels. Questionnaire analysis, interview, focus group, and other qualitative methods are frequently used to explore environmental conflicts and environmental decision making. Quantitative models and other complex data analysis methods are mainly used for large-scale empirical studies on environmental justice, such as the regional and country scale. In addition, the study of environmental justice covers both macro and micro scales, and the research themes at different scales also have different emphases. Community-scale studies tend to focus on environmental conflicts of interest in the local social and cultural context; regional and national scales focus on the relationship between demographic characteristics and environmental conditions; global-scale studies focus on global environmental injustice caused by climate change, waste transfer, and other issues. Multi-scale research also shows that the realization of environmental justice requires joint efforts of all levels of society. This study expects that the concept of environmental justice can be put into effect in the Chinese context. In academic research, the analytical framework of environmental justice links the objective environmental situation with the subjective local social background and individual value judgment, providing a new perspective for environmental and social analysis. At the same time, the study of environmental justice considers the environmental demands of different interest groups and the cognitive process of environmental justice, providing new guidance for environmental decision making. In practice, fairness and justice are the important elements of the socialist core value system, and environmental justice is regarded as one of the important development goals. To explore the new path of urban and regional development, the concept of environmental justice should be also integrated into the process of regional coordination and the sustainable development planning.

Key words: environmental justice, distribution justice, recognition justice, procedure justice, sustainable development