热带地理 ›› 2019, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (2): 206-217.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003115

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

产权变化视角下的珠江三角洲土地利用 时空变化及其机制——以佛山市南海区为例

刘毅华1,陈绮娴2,林华荣1   

  1. (1. 广州大学 地理科学学院,广州 510006;2. 广东华远国土工程有限公司,广州 510335)
  • 出版日期:2019-03-05 发布日期:2019-03-05
  • 作者简介:刘毅华(1964—),女,陕西丹凤人,教授,硕导,主要研究方向为土地利用与城乡规划,(E-mail)liuyihua96@163.com。
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41771096);教育部人文社会科学研究规划项目(13YJA790074);广东省高等学校国际暨港澳台科技合作创新平台项目(2014KGJHZ009)

Spatial-Temporal Changes and Mechanism of Land Use in the Pearl River Delta from the Perspective of Property Rights Alteration: A Case Study of Nanhai District in Foshan City

Liu Yihua1, Chen Qixian2 and Lin Huarong1   

  1. (1. School of Geographical Sciences, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China; 2. Guangdong Huayuan Engineering Co. Ltd., Guangzhou 510335, China )
  • Online:2019-03-05 Published:2019-03-05

摘要:

以佛山南海区为例,采用遥感、土地利用调查及土地利用现状图等多种数据,运用遥感影像人机交互解译、景观格局指数以及田野调查、案例分析等定量与定性相结合的方法,分析了1987年以来南海区土地利用时空变化及其对土地产权变革的响应。结果发现,南海区土地产权变化分为3个阶段:即土地有偿投包制阶段(1987—1992年)、土地股份合作制阶段(1993—2002年)和土地紧缩及“三旧”改造政策下的政府主导模式阶段(2003—2013年),这3个阶段土地产权的演化具有以土地的“所有”为中心向以“利用”为其中心转变的趋势,这是市场需求和资源利用高效化发展的结果,也是土地由资源转变为资产及资本的过程。南海区土地产权变化与土地利用时空变化具有较为显著的关联性及规律性。土地利用在不同时段变化的速度、强度和结构等对土地产权变化的响应明显,其空间格局也同样呈现“农用地集聚—乡村工业化破碎格局—集聚与破碎化共存”3个阶段性变化特征。南海区土地利用变化是众多内外部因素综合作用的结果,主要表现为诱致机制、引导机制、引擎机制及调节机制。宏观上,土地股份制改革和分散的管理体系导致了土地利用的粗放扩张和破碎化格局;微观上,不同土地利用主体间的利益博弈、土地收益分配方式及产权割裂是导致土地利用变化的根本原因。未来经济转型与土地再开发过程中,如何针对土地产权变化新趋势,兼顾各利益相关方的诉求,构建利益共享机制是实现土地高效利用和空间优化的关键。

关键词: 土地产权, 土地利用, 景观格局指数, 佛山南海区

Abstract: This article is a case study of Nanhai District, Foshan City, which examined the district’s spatiotemporal changes in land use and how it has been affected by the land property rights reform since 1987. It analyzed data from a variety of sources, including Remote Sensing, land use survey, and existing land use maps, and employed quantitative as well as qualitative methods, such as human-computer interactive interpretation of RS images, landscape index, field research, and case studies. This study found the following: 1) The changes in land property rights in Nanhai District occurred in three phases: the paid land contracting system (1987-1992), the land joint stock cooperative system (1993-2002), and the government-led system in the face of land scarcity and the “Three Old” re-development policies (2003-2013). These three phases showed a change in the trend of land property rights from “land ownership-oriented” to “land utilization-oriented,” which is the result of market demand and the development of efficient resource utilization, and indicates a process during which land is converted from resources to assets and capital. 2) In Nanhai District, changes in land property rights and the spatiotemporal changes in land use show significant correlation and regularity. The speed, intensity, and structure of change during different periods of land use evidently influenced by the changes in land property rights, and the spatial structure of land use has also featured changes over three phases, from “agricultural land agglomeration,” to “fragmented structure of rural industrialization,” and eventually to the “coexistence of agglomeration and fragmentation.” 3) The changes in land use in Nanhai District are caused by the cumulative effect of several internal and external factors, which are mainly inducement, guidance, engine, and regulation mechanisms. Development of the market economy, rapid urbanization, and the scarcity of land resources have triggered the commodity nature and the pursuit of the capital function of collective land; these goals have been achieved by reforming the land property rights system. The land property rights system is the underlying cause of changes in land use. The extensive expansion and spatial fragmentation of construction land that is common in Nanhai District is the direct consequence of the collective land shareholding system reform and decentralized land property rights management. This feature is common nationwide in other semi-urbanized areas, indicating a similar formation mechanism on the macro level. The behaviors and games among various micro-stakeholders led by changes in the land property rights structure is the internal driving force of land-use changes, and directly influence changes in land use through land income distribution. 4) The case study of LJ Village indicates that the changes in the subject of land use right from singular to plural, the diversification of land income sources, and the increasing complexity and optimization of the land property rights structure together form an integrated property right system and affect the changes in the land use structure. Currently, the source of many land use problems is the fragmentation of rural collective land property rights. In the processes of future economic transition and land redevelopment, the keys to achieving efficient land use and spatial optimization are balancing the demands of various shareholders and constructing a profit-sharing mechanism in the face of new trends in land property rights changes.

Key words: land property rights, land use, landscape index, Nanhai District, Foshan City