热带地理 ›› 2020, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (1): 10-17.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003205

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

乌蒙山区岩溶景观特征及其旅游扶贫潜力分析和模式

韦跃龙, 陈伟海, 罗书文, 潘晓东, 李成展, 罗劬侃   

  1. 中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所//自然资源部、广西岩溶动力学重点实验室,广西 桂林 541004
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-11 修回日期:2019-10-29 出版日期:2020-01-10 发布日期:2020-02-24
  • 作者简介:韦跃龙(1973—),男,广西武宣人,博士/正高级工程师,主要从事地质遗迹资源的探测、研究、开发和保护,(E-mail)wylw2@126.com。
  • 基金资助:
    中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD20190022);中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD20190672);中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD20190326)

Karst Landscape Features of the Wumeng Mountains and Its Tourism Potential Analysis for Poverty Alleviation

Wei Yuelong, Chen Weihai, Luo Shuwen, Pan Xiaodong, Li Chengzhan, Luo Qukan   

  1. Institute of Karst Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences//Key Laboratory of Karst Dynamics,Ministry of Natural Resources & Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Guilin 541004, China
  • Received:2019-07-11 Revised:2019-10-29 Online:2020-01-10 Published:2020-02-24

摘要:

在对乌蒙山区社会经济、扶贫现状、自然环境及区域地质背景和岩溶地质特征进行分析和研究的基础上,首先系统探讨了其岩溶景观的类型、发育和分布特征,然后从资源潜力、开发适宜性、区位特性、开发条件、市场潜力等方面探讨和分析其岩溶景观旅游扶贫潜力的大小及其与岩溶特征间的关系,认为:1)乌蒙山区拥有118处不同级别优势(78处省级、32处国家级、8处世界级)的岩溶景观单体或景观区,是全球高原岩溶景观的典型集中发育区和杰出范例,形成并表现出明显的类型、区域优势和特色;2)总体上,随着岩溶景观分布密度的依次降低,以及可溶性特征的减弱和景观区级别的降低,贵州、云南、四川三大岩溶片区以及各县域岩溶区、各类岩溶景观单体或景观区资源的优势性、聚集性、规模性及知名性依次降低,旅游扶贫潜力依次下降;3)观光体验和休闲度假,是乌蒙山区各岩溶区最适宜,且最具优势和开发潜力的旅游产品;4)乌蒙山区的区位特性、开发条件和市场潜力等则明显逊色于其他相似的岩溶地区。最后,在上述分析的基础上提出了观光休闲旅游、生态旅游、科学旅游、文化旅游、探险科考等5种乌蒙山区岩溶旅游扶贫模式,并从政府、基础设施、区域旅游发展、区域协作、发展理念等方面探讨了岩溶旅游扶贫的保障机制。

关键词: 岩溶景观, 扶贫潜力分析, 扶贫模式, 扶贫保障机制, 乌蒙山区

Abstract:

Wumeng Mountains is a short term for the continuously and particularly impoverished area in the Wumeng Mountain region. More than 200 important and typical karst landscape resources, which are widely distributed in different karst areas, have been discovered to present in the Wumeng Mountains. There is a complete range of karst landscapes in their typical forms, including mountains (peak clusters, peak forests, cuestas, hills, pictographic mountains, dome mountains, etc.), gorges (including Difeng), mountain gorges, natural bridges, stone forests, pillar-like peaks, cliffs, platforms, denudation surfaces, depressions (valleys), dolines, plains, basins, poljes, caves and various speleothems, light-through caves, tiankeng, karst windows, shafts, underground rivers, waterfalls, lakes, springs, wetlands, forests, cultural landscapes, and more. This study analyzed and examined many factors of the Wumeng Mountains, including the social economy, poverty alleviation status, natural environment, and regional geological settings, as well as the karst features, to discuss the karst landscape types and distributions systematically, assess the karst tourism potential for poverty alleviation through an analysis of the resources potential, suitability for development, regional features, development conditions, and market potential, and finally define the correlation between karst tourism potential and karst features. The study reached the following conclusions: 1) The Wumeng Mountains region includes numerous karst landscapes, with typical forms, that cover all of the types of karst landscapes and comprise 118 individual karst landscapes or karst landscape areas with different levels of advantages (including 78 provincial-level and 32 national-level and international-level karst landscape areas and many county-level individual karst landscapes or karst landscape areas). These individual karst landscapes or karst landscape areas form a stable pyramidal resource structure and are distributed in county-karst areas with different characteristics of solubility (that is, strong, easy, and weak solution conditions) that are located in three karst districts of Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan Provinces and are classic concentration areas and outstanding representatives of plateau karst landscapes in the world. They present different types of landscapes and reflect obvious regional features and advantages. 2) In general, with gradual lowering of the karst landscape distribution density (from 39.13 to 19.58 and 4.91 items per ten thousand square kilometers), weakening of solubility (from strongly soluble to easily soluble and weakly soluble areas), and reduction of landscape area level (from international level to national level, provincial level, and county level), the three continuous karst areas in Guizhou, Yunnan, and Sichuan and each county-level karst region, as well as each individual karst landscape or landscape area, have progressively lower advantages, concentrations, scales, and popularities, which accordingly result in gradually diminishing tourism potential for poverty alleviation. 3) The most suitable and dominant tourism products with the greatest number of advantages and greatest development potential for the Wumeng Mountains are sightseeing and leisure, and the Wumeng Mountains could be established as a sightseeing and leisure tourist destination for caves, mountain gorges, Difeng, karst windows, natural bridges, tiankeng, waterfalls, and lakes, which has international-level advantages. 4) The regional features, development conditions, and market potential of the Wumeng Mountains are obviously inferior to those of other similar karst regions. Finally, the study proposed five karst tourism modes for poverty alleviation, i.e., sightseeing and leisure tourism, ecological tourism, scientific tourism, cultural tourism, and scientific exploration. Additionally, the study evaluated guaranteeing mechanisms of karst tourism for poverty alleviation through aspects such as government, infrastructure, regional tourism development, regional cooperation, and development concept.

Key words: Karst landscape, potential analysis for poverty alleviation, poverty alleviation mode, poverty alleviation guarantee mechanism, the Wumeng Mountains

中图分类号: 

  • P942