热带地理 ›› 2020, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (3): 487-497.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003222

• ·论文· • 上一篇    下一篇

城市居民超重的居住分异

朱战强1,2(), 陶小芳1,2, 周素红1,2()   

  1. 1.中山大学 地理科学与规划学院//广东省城市化与地理环境空间模拟重点实验室,广州 510275
    2.广东省公共安全与灾害工程技术研究中心,广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-01 修回日期:2020-01-16 出版日期:2020-05-31 发布日期:2020-06-30
  • 通讯作者: 周素红 E-mail:zhuzhanq@mail.sysu.edu.cn;eeszsh@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:朱战强(1979—),男,博士,副教授,主要研究方向为城市地理学、城乡生态规划,(E-mail)zhuzhanq@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41401166)

The Residential Differentiation of Residents’ Overweight: A Case Study of Guangzhou

Zhu Zhanqiang1,2(), Tao Xiaofang1,2, Zhou Suhong1,2()   

  1. 1.School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University//Guangdong Key Laboratory for Urbanization and Geo-simulation, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2.Guangdong Provincial Engineering Research Center for Pulic Security and Disaster, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2019-07-01 Revised:2020-01-16 Online:2020-05-31 Published:2020-06-30
  • Contact: Zhou Suhong E-mail:zhuzhanq@mail.sysu.edu.cn;eeszsh@mail.sysu.edu.cn

摘要:

基于广州25个典型社区(4种居住类型)的962份调查问卷,采用卡方分析和二元逻辑回归模型探讨了居民的超重特征。结果发现,不同居住类型具有不同的超重水平和超重分层特征。1)居民超重率为历史街区>保障性住房>单位社区>商品房社区。商品房社区居民超重水平最低,与其较高的受教育程度与收入水平带来更好的健康知识和社区资源获取能力有关;单位社区和历史街区超重水平较高,与其长期的住房环境隔离聚集了大量受教育程度和收入水平都较低的居民有关;此外,历史街区较大比例的高龄人群也使超重率提高;保障性住房居民较高的超重率与其较差的社区环境,以及具有高比例资源获取能力差的低收入人群相关。2)对所有居住类型来说,老年人和已婚人口都是容易超重的人群。保障性住房和单位社区居民收入的提高可能增加额外的社区资源可获得性,而产生超重分层。历史街区居民整体教育水平偏低,相比之下,高教育水平居民可能因其具有更多的健康知识而降低超重水平。商品房社区产生超重分层与其高收入居民具有的不健康工作生活方式有关。

关键词: 超重, 居住分异, 社区, 健康地理, 广州

Abstract:

The rapid increase in the overweight rate among Chinese residents is accompanied by a complex overweight differentiation characteristic. However, little is known about the causes of the differentiation at a community level. Thirty years of housing system reform has led to China's housing pattern evolving into a variety of types. It will be of theoretical and practical value to study the mechanism of the influence of residential type on the rate of residents’ overweight under the specific policy and social background of China. Based on 962 questionnaires from 25 typical communities in Guangzhou (categorized into four residential types), we used chi-square analysis and a binary logistic regression model to analyze the residents’ overweight differentiation characteristic and its mechanism on a community level. The results showed that the overweight rate of residents and its differentiation characteristic varied between residential types. Demographic features and community environment were the core variables that explain the above-mentioned differentiation by residential type. 1) The incidence of overweight in the order of highest to lowest was as follows: historical district, indemnificatory housing, unit community, and commercial housing community. Commercial housing communities attract young people with high education, high income, a generally better health awareness and community resources availability leading to the lowest overweight rate. Due to long-term housing isolation, poor marketability and earlier construction, unit communities and historical districts drew residents with low education and income, in addition to which historical districts had a large proportion of the elderly. Consequently, both residential types had a higher overweight rate. Indemnificatory housing tended to support low-income groups, and usually had a poor community environment so although residents had a higher education level, there was less opportunity to use physical activity resources, therefore this residential type had a higher overweight rate. 2) Age and marital status were important influencing factors of overweight for all residential types which indicates that this is of concern for both the elderly and married population. With regard to other aspects of demographic and socioeconomic attributes, as well as leisure-time physical activity levels, overweight differentiation among the residential types had varied characteristics and mechanisms. An increase in income provided individuals with more access to social resources including physical activity facilities and food facilities, resulting in an overweight differentiation for both indemnificatory housing and unit communities. Moreover, in respect of indemnificatory housing, non-agricultural residents from other cities had higher income levels than other hukou types, so they tended toward higher physical activity and diet resource acquisition ability or a higher intensity physical activity (physical work) which reduced the overweight level. Education levels affected the leisure-time physical activities and other health behaviors of people in historical districts, leading to an overweight differentiation. Commercial housing communities consisted of higher income residents whose unhealthy work practices contributed to an overweight differentiation at the community level. This study revealed the characteristics and mechanism of overweight differentiation in Chinese residential patterns and proposes a number of community optimization measures to alleviate overweight, which may help improve the health of residents living in these communities and promote the implementation of the “healthy China” strategy. Further research might be needed to establish the mechanism of overweight differentiation in terms of gender and leisure-time physical activity.

Key words: overweight, residential differentiation, community, health geography, Guangzhou

中图分类号: 

  • C922